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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 12 MARCH 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 12 MARCH 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic– Industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries,

colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.

1) Outline the role of Simon Bolivar in the liberation of Latin America. What accounts for the collapse of Simon Bolívar’s project for “greater Colombia”? (250 words)

World history by Norman Lowe, World history NCERT

 

Why this question:

The question is from the category of decolonization, It is in the context of contributions made by Simon Bolivar in the liberation of Latin America.

Directive word:

Outline- here we have to trace the series of events with respect to the topic in question and conclude with its significance.

Key demands of the question:

The answer should provide for a close examination of the role played by Simon Bolivar in the liberation of Latin America and later quote the reasons that led to the failure of Simon Bolivar’s project for “greater Colombia”.

One must trace the events from Spanish colonies in North, Central and South America declaring independence from Spanish rule in the early nineteenth century.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Start with the significance of liberation of Latin America.

Body

Discuss the following aspects in the answer:

  • The causes or inspiration to the revolt.
  • The injustice of Spanish rule.
  • Fight for all rights by Simon Bolivar.
  • Gran Colombia (Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama) from 1819 to 1830.
  • Discuss the issues and challenges faced by him due to constant quarrels and rivalries among the leaders of the states.
  • Failure of Greater Columbia goal – causes and consequences.

Conclusion

Conclude with significance of Simon Bolivar.

Introduction:

Simon Bolivar lived a short but comprehensive life. History records his extraordinary versatility. He was a revolutionary who freed six countries, an intellectual who argued the problems of national liberation, a general who fought a war of unremitting violence. He inspired extremes of devotion and detestation. Bolívar was a product of the Enlightenment.

To liberal historians he was a fighter against tyranny. Marxists interpret him as the leader of a bourgeois revolution. Modern revolutionaries see him as a reformist who secured political change but left the colonial heritage of his continent virtually intact.

Body:

His role in the liberation of Latin America:

  • Spanish America’s independence movement started around 1810, when the first official declarations were asserted and battles were fought, the seeds for independence were planted about 20 years prior.
  • He envisioned independent countries brought together under a pan-American entity.
  • Young Bolívar moved to Spain in 1799 after the deaths of his parents.
  • Bólivar returned to Europe in 1803 from Venezuela and kept company with Napoleon.
  • Bolívar returned to Venezuela in 1807.
  • When Napoleon named Joseph Bonaparte King of Spain and its colonies, which included Venezuela, Bolívar joined the resistance movement.
  • The resistance group based in Caracas gained independence in 1810, and Bolívar travelled to Britain on a diplomatic mission.
  • The fight for control of Caracas, Venezuela and most of South American continued on back home.
  • Finally, Bolívar returned to Venezuela and began a campaign to wrest control of that country from the Spanish.
  • He and his followers invaded Venezuela on May 14, 1813; this marked the beginning of his “Campaña Admirable” (Admirable Campaign), which resulted in the formation of the Venezuelan Second Republic later that year.
  • Bolívar was hailed as El Libertador (The Liberator), though civil war soon erupted in the republic, forcing him to flee to Jamaica and seek foreign aid.
  • There he wrote his famous “Letter from Jamaica,” detailing his vision of a South American republic with a parliamentary setup modelled after England and a life-long president.
  • His idea of being a nation’s chief who could not be removed from power would be heavily critiqued by other leaders and intellectuals.
  • Gaining support from Haiti, Bolívar returned to his home continent and became involved in a number of military battles, eventually able to claim several territories.
  • 1821 saw the creation of the Gran Colombia, under Bolívar’s leadership. This federation included much of what is now Venezuela, Colombia, Panama and Ecuador.
  • Further manoeuvres saw him named Dictator of Peru in 1824, followed by the creation of Bolivia in 1825.

The reasons for collapse of “greater Columbia” idea:

  • In the final years of the region’s independence movement, Bolívar sought to set up regimes in countries that mixed republican principals and authoritarian rule.
  • While Bolívar wanted to unite all the freed viceroyalties under a common ruler, he strayed away from the U.S. federal model and embraced a system with a strong central leader.
  • Bolívar outright rejected the implementation of a pure federal model in the newly freed lands of Spanish America.
  • He did not believe that a federal system could withstand the turbulent environment and political factions present in Spanish America.
  • He feared that introducing too much liberty to uneducated masses would result in anarchy, thus necessitating a strong central authority.
  • This idea of what a government should look like is reflected in the 1826 Constitution of Bolivia.
  • This document created four separate branches of government: the executive, the legislative, the judicial and the Electoral College.
  • However, the executive office was heavily weighted with power.
  • The president would serve for life and be succeeded by the vice president, who would be chosen by the president.
  • Furthermore, the president had the power to appoint and remove officials, as well as full control of the armed forces.
  • Bolívar’s inability to simultaneously govern all the land he helped become independent can largely be attributed to geography.
  • Not only is this an immense surface area, but it is extremely impossible terrain of mountains and rainforest.
  • Even with the support of hand-picked vice presidents and other local leaders to rule in his absence, its sheer size and the physical barriers between major metropolitan areas discouraged large-scale governance or even an umbrella alliance.

Conclusion:

Bolívar left his mark on history by leading independence movements in five countries in South America, despite the fact that he did not manage to create a well-established government or any type of pan-American entity. Geography, not Bolívar, ultimately dictated the degree of cohesion between nations.


Topic– Industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries,

colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.

2) Propaganda can lead to cult leadership, and propaganda along with cult leadership could be dangerous for peace and stability within the country and for the world. Comment with reference to Nazism in Germany.(250 words)

World history by Norman Lowe, World history NCERT

 

Why this question:

The question is about the tools of Propaganda and cult leadership as traits that can damage the peace and stability of a nation or the world in a bigger picture. The question is in the context of Nazi rule of Germany that used these tools.

demand of the question:

The answer must address how Nazi propaganda facilitated the rapid rise of the Nazi Party to a position of political prominence and, ultimately, the control of a nation by the Nazi leadership, the focus of the answer should mainly be in explaining clearly the meaning of Propaganda and cult leadership.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Briefly define the concept of Propaganda and Cult leadership.

Body

Discuss the following in detail:

  • Narrate the backdrop of the rise of Nazi culture.
  • Use of techniques of propaganda—that include strong images and simple messages, discuss how Nazi propaganda idolized Hitler as a gifted statesman who brought stability, created jobs, and restored German greatness. 
  • Discuss the role of Personality cults of political leaders.
  • Relevance in today’s context.

Conclusion

conclude with what needs to be done with respect to propaganda and cult leadership; how to keep the two in check so as to have a world with peace and harmony.

Introduction:

The propaganda used by the German Nazi Party in the years leading up to and during Adolf Hitler‘s leadership of Germany (1933–1945) was a crucial instrument for acquiring and maintaining power, and for the implementation of Nazi policies. The pervasive use of propaganda by the Nazis is largely responsible for the word “propaganda” itself acquiring its present negative connotations.

Body:

Backdrop of rise of Nazi culture:

  • National Socialism was perceived by its originators as a Weltanschauung [world view] and revolutionary movement.
  • It claimed that German, “Aryan” people are bonded by their innermost disposition as a organic community, and thus at one with a political party which recognizes the intrinsic value of blood, personality, and soil which identifies them as a race.
  • Hitler asserted that the National Socialist world view would stand in opposition to pacifistic international democracy in its effects and consequences.
  • Culture, art, technology, productivity in general, and superior talent is race determined and based on racial attributes.
  • That endeavour is race determined was claimed by the Nazis, a belief rapidly accepted by a majority of educated as well as formally uneducated Germans.
  • In their propagated ideology, Hitler and his cohorts were successful in taking advantage of the people’s frustrated expectations by persuading them to believe that the Great War was lost because they had been stabbed in the back by Jewish exploiters and that now Germany’s existence was threatened by communists and social democrats.
  • Further, it was claimed that the people were being ruined economically by war reparations imposed on them by the victorious Allies in the form of the Versailles Treaty, as well as other external, unfair, exploitative demands.

Use of techniques of propaganda:

  • The Nazis turned to völkisch thought (a product of nineteenth-century German romanticism) and the notion of Führerprinzip (‘the leadership principle’), to embody their ideas, and Hitler was shown in posters as a mystical figure, guiding the nation’s destiny.
  • A veritable industry of paintings and posters showed Hitler in familiar ‘renaissance pose’, alongside the propaganda slogan: Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer (‘One People, One Nation, One Leader’).
  • The slogan was used to great effect in 1938, with the Anschluss (‘union’), when Germany joined in union with Austria.
  • His fame grew via speeches at rallies, parades, and on the radio.
  • Hitler’s publications, Folk and Race and Bolschevismus from Moses to Lenin (by Dietrich Eckart).
  • Postal stamps of various denominations bearing Hitler’s image from1941-44.
  • Hitler and leading Nazi cohorts after a war time concert in Berlin, conducted by Maestro Furtwängler.
  • Hitler Away from the Work DayPhotographs of Hitler taken by his “court photographer,” Heinrich Hoffmann.

Role of Personality cult of leaders:

  • Hitler possessed charismatic appeal and was experienced by multitudes as a captivating orator who gave them hope and they willing submitted to his wishes and dictates.
  • The essentially negative anti-parliamentarianism of Nazi propaganda led to the projection of the ‘Führer-myth’, which depicted Hitler as both charismatic superman and man of the people.
  • From 1936 until the Munich agreement of 1938, which gave the Sudetenland to Germany, Hitler carried out a series of audacious foreign policy coups, and these won him support from all sections of the community.
  • He was now widely acclaimed throughout Germany, enjoying unparalleled popularity and prestige.
  • In practical terms, the leadership principle meant that decisions came down from above, instead of being worked out by discussion and choice from below.
  • Hitler promised the people employment and the return to socio-economic well-being.
  • He presented himself as a prophet and was so portrayed by his paladins and followers.
  • He possessed charismatic appeal and was experienced by multitudes as a captivating orator who gave them hope and they willing submitted to his wishes and dictates.
  • Joseph Goebbels and other Nazi leaders availed themselves of modern technology to spread Nazi ideological propaganda to reinforce Hitler’s personal power and appeal.
  • A personality cult was developed which made the people stand in awe of Hitler.
  • Hitler was accepted as supreme leader who could not fail and do no wrong.

Current trends:

Recent bids to endear Xi Jinping to the masses differ from the top-down deification of Mao in the 1960s. Heartfelt ballads, emotive photos, action figurines – these are among an array of tools used by China’s propaganda machinery to promote Chinese President Xi Jinping’s image as a popular leader, a visionary thinker, a people’s man and a loving family man.

A propaganda app that puts China’s powerful President Xi Jinping in anyone’s pockets has become a hit in the country — with a helpful nudge from Communist Party officials.

North Korea has a propaganda department in the government which makes tall claims about the leader Kim Jong-Un.

Conclusion:

The cult of Adolf Hitler was a deliberately cultivated mass phenomenon. Such cult building due to propaganda leads to despotism which backfires on the citizens itself. There needs to be a check on such rhetorics to maintain peace and harmony in the nation as well as across globe.


Topic: Role of women and women’s organizationpopulation and associated issuespoverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

3)“Strong male patrons are required at every single level to drive the gender inclusivity agenda.” Elucidate in the context of India.  (250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The article talks about gender equity; its importance and more importantly the role of Men in bringing gender equity in the societies.

Key demand of the question:

The question wants us to write in detail about the existing scenario of gender inequality in India and discuss the role of Men in establishing gender equity, with women as catalyst of change, role of men is as well a game changer in bringing out the relevance of gender equity.

Directive word:

Elucidate – means to explain and clarify the topic, make it clear with examples.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with the importance of the culture of inclusivity that can be institutionalized when it is driven from the top.

Body:

The answer should capture the following aspects:

  • Facts indicating the present condition of Women in India, the demographics etc.
  • Need for gender friendly policies.
  • importance of male sponsors in shaping the careers of women.
  • Indian scenario aspects of the question.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of gender inclusive organization with Male catalysts for gender equity.

Introduction:

Decades of activism and research on prevention of gender-based violence (GBV) have made clear the imperative to go beyond the symptoms of GBV to address its root cause: gender inequality. When we address the systematic subordination of women within patriarchal power structures, it is critical to acknowledge the role men can—and must—play in creating inclusive environments. The culture of inclusivity can be institutionalized only when it is driven from the top.

Body:

Status of women in India:

  • According to a 2018 World Bank report, the labour force participation rate (LFPR) among females in India was 26.97 LFPR female in 2018 in India. The world average stood at 48.47 percent in 2018.
  • In India, the female demographic not just in the corner office but in the whole C-suite is only 5 to 10% (numbers vary depending on the survey).
  • A whopping 30% of respondents in the Grant Thornton’s Women in Business 2018 survey reported that they had no women in leadership roles.
  • India has been ranked 108th in World Economic Forum (WEF) gender gap index. Gender gap was measured across four key pillars — economic opportunity, political empowerment, educational attainment, and health and survival.
  • As per Census 2011, the ratio of female youth literacy rate to male youth literacy rate is 0.91 at all India level.
  • According to data released by Inter Parliamentary Union (IPU), India ranks 115 in the World for proportion of National Parliament seats held by Women.

Need for gender friendly policies:

  • To Rule out under-employment and unemployment
    • Around 50 per cent of the world population consists of the women population.
    • Unemployment of women and unequal opportunities in the places of work cause great problems around the world, because true potential is left from being harnessed.
  • To realise the advantageous prospect of women over men
    • Certain jobs in fact can’t reach up to their best capacities without the participation of women.
    • It is the very sentiment of nurturing, softness and warmth in some women that is necessary in fields like Non Governmental Organizations, Nursing, teaching and other similar sorts of jobs.
    • Along with the participation of men, female involvement is vital for the smooth functioning of the system in order to achieve the ideals they seek to achieve.
  • A sustainable move:
    • Empowered women make invaluable contribution to the improvement of health conditions and educational status and productivity of whole families and communities, which in turn improve prospects for the next generation.
    • It has been found in various studies conducted by the World Bank, ADB and other renowned research organisations that, educated female-headed households do much better in the provision of health and education of the children at home.
  • Having a diverse, inclusive culture means creating an environment where people can feel free to be their authentic selves at work
  • A storehouse of immense talent
    • Women empowerment is essential today because earlier, women were not allowed to receive higher education, the society was backward and the times were different.
    • But now the times have changed. Women take up the same responsibilities as men and do a wonderful job in showcasing their talents when given an opportunity to.
    • It is necessary that they are given a chance to compete on the same level as men only to be able to benefit the employment and job spheres of our country.

Importance of male sponsors in shaping the careers of women:

  • Strong male sponsors are required at each level to drive the gender inclusivity agenda.
  • At every fork in student life and early career, whenever the choice is between the status quo, or a tougher less trodden path, father or brother can urge a female on.
  • Leadership positions, strategic selection of academic institutions, career choices, and even the life partner. The baton can be passed on to husband, who can sponsored career and partner all the tough choices one needs to make in the next phase of life.
  • A woman can choose someone as a husband, who is both a partner and a sponsor, and champions their career unabashedly.
  • Usually the top management layers are packed with men, it is no wonder that smart ambitious women see the impact successful male leaders as sponsors bring.
  • In a patriarchal society like India, the resources are mostly with male, thus they become vital sponsors.

Conclusion:

There is inherent strength in a vibrant, diverse and inclusive workforce that challenges traditional structures and embraces new opportunities. There is a need for number of initiatives, programs and educational resources to build the leadership capability of our female leaders. These include mentoring and coaching, leadership development and networking opportunities.


TopicUrbanization, their problems and their remedies.

4) What do you understand by Urban Observatories?  Discuss the key features of recently launched India Urban Observatory and also explicate how will it augment the data smart cities policy of India?(250 words)

Pib

Why this question:

The question is in the context of recently launched state-of-the-art India Urban Observatory and Video Wall by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.

Key demand of the question

The answer must discuss in detail the concept of Urban observatories; significance and also the importance of the recently launched India Urban Observatory, its role in Smart cities policy of India.

Directive word

Discuss- This is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:

Briefly define and discuss the concept of urban observatory.

Body:

The answer should cover the following:

  • Concept of Urban observatory – initiated at the UN Habitat-II Conference in 1997.
  • Indian urban observatory – whereabouts, salient features.
  • Importance of smart cities.
  • Role of smart cities in development and growth.
  • Significance of Data Smart Cities strategy 

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of such initiatives in urbanization.

 

Introduction:

Urban Observatory is a platform that uses data from different sources to enable analysis and visualization over a geospatial platform. Such platforms churn out interesting analyses and visualizations by collating massive datasets. The concept of Urban Observatories was formally initiated at the UN Habitat-II Conference in 1997 in Istanbul.

Body:

The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) has inaugurated India Urban Observatory in New Delhi. The initiative, launched in partnership with Cisco, Quantela Inc, ESRI and AWS. The India Urban Observatory is an important component of the recently launched DataSmart Cities strategy that envisions to create a ‘Culture of Data’ in cities, for intelligent use of data in addressing complex urban challenges.

The key features of India Urban Observatory:

  • The India Urban Observatory will collect data from various IoT devices and sensors, the Integrated Command & Control Center (ICCC) and other urban indicators and analyze them to generate insights for all stakeholders and city planners.
  • It will leverage data analytics to optimise city operations, improve governance and enhance economic performance of cities across the country.
  • It will showcase the insights gained from the Observatory and the various Missions/ offices with the idea to proactively engage with citizens/ visitors in spreading awareness about the various initiatives of the Ministry.
  • It would progressively become the chief data analysis and Management Hub of the Ministry.
  • It would enable evidence-based policy formulation, capacity building of ecosystem partners on data-driven governance, foster innovation through development of newer and better use cases thereby enabling solutions at scale and speed.
  • Observatory recognizes the value of enhancing engagement among all four stakeholders of the ‘quadruple-helix’ modelGovernment, citizens, academia, and industry, along with improvements in the internal workflow and decision-making processes of city Governments.

Significance of IUO for DataSmart Cities:

  • Making cities ‘DataSmart’ is key to realizing the full potential of technology interventions and innovation ecosystems in cities.
  • The Data Smart Cities Policy allows cities to open their data to public view, such as number of hospitals, gardens, people, public toilets and other city management.
  • It is imperative for the empowerment of communities that cities work on using information available through various sources to improve their functioning, public services, governance systems, achievements and failures in the public domain, thereby, empowering their citizens through the access to information.
  • The future of Governance is data-driven and Indian cities are beginning to adopt this change in their functioning.
  • Some examples of well-established Urban Observatories are the Global Urban Observatory network, the Dublin Dashboard and the City Dashboard of London.
  • Such platforms churn out interesting analyses and visualizations by collating massive datasets.

Conclusion:

The ‘Smart Cities’ programme has been one of the biggest digitisation initiatives launched by any government across the world.  About 60% of India’s population is expected to live in cities by 2050.  Hence, to achieve sustainable urbanization, cities need to become smarter and more efficient. Cities can be ‘truly smart’ if they can leverage data for intelligent decision-making and the establishment of India Urban Observatory will go a long way in realizing this vision.


Topic:  Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

5) A battle around data is the new obverse in the US-China trade war. Critically analyse the statement in the background of recent US-China trade wars.(250 words)

Livemint

 

Why this question:

The articles provide for a coverage of the recent US-China trade wars and the use of data as a new paradigm shift in it. It examines the role of Data in the context of Trade wars of today’s world.

Key demand of the question:

The answer should discuss primarily the role of data in a different role in analyzing the trends and aiding the Trade war strategies and approaches.

Directive word

Critically analyse – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:

Briefly narrate the background of the recent China- US trade wars, discuss the importance of the data being analyzed by both the countries in the same context.

Body:

Discussion of the answer should cover:

  • What is the issue ? why is there a changing trend in the approaches to the Trade wars.
  • Importance of Data analysis; changing trends.
  • Facts proving the use of data – like Ghidra by NSA of USA etc.

Conclusion –

Conclude with what needs to be done, how countries should first set limits from overdoing it.

Introduction:

Trade war is a situation where countries restrict each other’s trade by imposing tariff or quota on imports. Trade tensions are a manifestation of the strategic competition between the two countries China and USA. US had imposed tariffs on as much as 25 percent on $34 billion in Chinese imports. China responded with retaliatory tariffs of 25% on US goods worth an equivalent $34 billion, including soybean, automobiles, and marine products such as lobsters.

Body:

There is now a changing trend in the approaches to the Trade wars:

It appears that the background battle between American and Chinese intelligence agencies for hegemony over sensitive data is yet another frontier in the ongoing US-China trade war.

  • Big Tech Companies and Data:
    • NSA realizes that it has other tools at its command, including access to detailed location data for the billions of people worldwide who use Big Tech platforms.
    • Big Tech companies are all US based and that is where their data resides.
    • Despite Apple Inc’s capitulation last year to the Chinese government, where it promised to keep data from Chinese iCloud users in China, other firms have exited the Chinese market.
    • Besides, being a US company, it is entirely possible that Apple keeps a mirror of its China users’ data in a database that resides in the US.
    • The fact that these data are available to US intelligence agencies on their own native soil allows them the comfort that they can always access such data should they want or need to.
  • Ghidra and Data:
    • The NSA has released a powerful open-source reverse-engineering hacking tool called Ghidra into the public domain.
    • Ghidra reduces programming code down to the level of “Assembler” language, which is an expression of programming code down to the level of machine level instructions into the binary 1s and 0s that are understood by computer chips.
    • Ghidra’s release levels the playing field and has been welcomed by many.
    • However, not all experts are convinced that this is a selfless gesture, because they believe that the Ghidra code may well have “back doors” into computer systems and telecommunications networks.
  • Hegemony of USA:
    • the NSA and its sister agencies are making sure that non-US governments will not have an easy time if they seek to access similar back doors to user data.
    • NSA told that China’s Huawei and ZTE were not to be trusted because they could allow China’s government a back door into communications infrastructure, thereby giving Chinese intelligence agencies broad access into personal data and other sensitive information.
    • Huawei now faces a ban on its equipment in the US as legislation passed last year restricted its equipment in the US.
    • Huawei’s chief financial officer Meng Wanzhou, the daughter of founder Ren Zhengfei, faces potential extradition from Canada to the US over charges of Iran sanction violations.

Conclusion:

 As the experts proclaim, Data is the new oil and the future trade wars will be fought over the data. The ease of crippling another nation without any collateral damage makes Cyber-war a lucrative option for many countries. With the US-China trade war currently reducing on a direct front is changing its form into a data war.


Topic  Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

 6) Do you think India will soon have to deal with the issue of delimitation of constituencies and increase the number of Member of Parliament seats to retain the representativeness of parliament essential to democracy? Discuss. (250 words)

Livemint

 

Why this question:

The article is in the background of upcoming Lok Sabha elections, it provides for a detailed analysis of the need for the delimitation in Indian Parliamentary system to ensure true democracy.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the significance of Delimitation, its purpose, why was it paused, what is the current position, should India opt for another delimitation? Way forward.

Directive word:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with what do you understand by Delimitation and its purpose .

Body:

Discuss the following:

  • What is delimitation of constituency?
  • Importance of Richer regions contributing to the well-being of poorer regions, and the concept of redistribution modern democracies.
  • Indian scenario – what is the issue with delimitation? Population conflict.
  • What needs to be done?

Conclusion:

Conclude with the importance of the use of Delimitation in a democracy.

Introduction:

Delimitation literally means the act or process of fixing limits or boundaries of territorial constituencies in a country or a province having a legislative body. Under Article 82 of the Constitution, the Parliament by law enacts a Delimitation Act after every census. After coming into force commencement of the Act, the Central Government constitutes a Delimitation Commission. This Delimitation Commission demarcates the boundaries of the Parliamentary Constituencies as per provisions of the Delimitation Act.

Body:

Current Scenario:

  • The present delimitation of constituencies has been done on the basis of 2001 census figures under the provisions of Delimitation Act, 2002.
  • Notwithstanding the above, the Constitution of India was specifically amended in 2002 not to have delimitation of constituencies till the first census after 2026.
  • Thus, the present Constituencies carved out on the basis of 2001 census shall continue to be in operation till the first census after 2026.
  • Population is the basis of allocation of seats of the Lok Sabha. As far as possible, every State gets representation in the Lok Sabha in proportion to its population as per census figures.

India will soon have to deal with the issue of delimitation of constituencies:

Until the early 1970s, it was the general practice to redraw constituencies based on the most recent population available, but the total number of members was constant.

The idea of redrawing was to have each member of Parliament (MP) represent roughly an equal number of voters, hence the redrawing of constituencies.

We may desire “equality” of constituencies, but economic development and demographic patterns do not develop uniformly across the country. Some states have achieved zero population growth while others still have very high fertility rates.

  • Increase in Population:
    • In 1971, India’s population was 548 million, and by 2031, the first census after 2026, it may well be close to 1.4 billion. The great apprehension is that redrawing boundaries and distributing the existing 550 MPs might mean that the south will lose a lot of seats to the north.
    • Even if more members are added to the Lok Sabha, that incremental gain will mostly go to the northern states.
  • Anomaly in Size of constituency:
    • One of the distortions and anomalies created by the 1971 freeze, which applies to national elections, is that we have constituencies as small as 50,000 and as large as three million residents.
    • Thus, there is a skew in the number of voters each MP represents in Parliament.
  • Age of the representatives:
    • The average age of the 13th Lok Sabha was 55.5 years, which went down to 52.7 in the 14th, but then went up again to 53 in the 15th, and 56 in the outgoing one.
    • It was only 46.5 years in 1952. India’s median age, however, is just 26. Two-thirds of the population is below 35.
    • Yet our MPs are getting older. In contrast, the so-called ageing countries like the UK, Italy, France and Canada are electing much younger leaders.
  • Non-Inclusive:
    • Women account for only 12% of the Lok Sabha. At least three states have zero female MPs. Less than 10% of candidates are women.
    • The Women’s Reservation Bill, meanwhile, has been pending in Parliament for over four decades.
  • Wealth:
    • 82% of all Lok Sabha members have declared wealth of more than ₹1 crore.
    • Their numbers have gone up from 156 to 315 to 449 in the last three Lok Sabhas.
    • Their average wealth (declared via self-sworn affidavits) is around ₹14 crore. (In the Rajya Sabha, the average is ₹55 crore).
    • The average income is around ₹31 lakh, which is 20 times India’s present per capita income.
  • Criminality:
    • The proportion of MPs with criminal cases has been going up steadily, from 12% to 15% to 21%, since 2004.
    • These are cases for which if they were convicted, they would not have been allowed to contest.
    • Many cases are for heinous crimes like rape, murder, kidnapping and extortion. But the law does not bar them from contesting elections, even from prison.
  • Dynasty politics:
    • It is well known (and documented by Patrick French) that an increasing number of elected representatives have a close relative (parent, spouse, sibling or cousin) who was an incumbent or a senior politician.

Conclusion:

While 2026 is still a few years away, if we do not start a debate now on how to deal with the problems that are likely to arise, we will be forced to postpone the lifting of the freeze to a future date as was done in 2001. This will only postpone the problem for which we must find a solution sooner or later. Even the various proposals for electoral reforms which have been recommended by various Commissions over the past decade do not address these issues. These are challenges which our political leaders have to address in the immediate future.


Topic: Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security. /Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges.

7) Discuss the need for a renewed attention on socio-economic re-integration of the Militants in the context of newly drafted Return Policy for militants in Jammu and Kashmir. What are the issues and concerns associated to it? Suggest some solutions to tackle the same.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

The question is in the context of the new policy by Jammu and Kashmir government to encourage militants from the state to give up arms.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must provide for a detailed analysis of the proposed scheme as to how it is a revised version of earlier initiatives, but with a fresh focus on socio-economic re-integration.

Directive word:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain briefly the importance of encouraging militants to join the mainstream, emphasis on need for rehabilitation.

Body:

Discuss first the previous approaches to this problem, then move on to discuss the need for rehabilitation through a two-pronged approach including reformative measures and opportunities of livelihood. Explain why it is essential for the government to show its determination to reach out to alienated youth. Explain why successful implementation of a surrender policy is of utmost importance in Jammu and Kashmir.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir began in 1989 and has ebbed and flowed in the intervening years. In 2018, the death toll for militants and security forces in Kashmir touched the highest point in a decade, according to official figures, with more than 400 killed. The state of J&K is now under President’s rule owing to the failure of the coalition government, thereby wiping out of the people’s mandate. The absence of any meaningful political process to address Kashmiri grievances points to a more violent situation in the coming years.

Body:

Previous approaches to this problem:

  • In 2004, a fresh “rehabilitation policy” was implemented by the then PDP government under Mufti Mohammad Sayeed.
  • It sought to provide “facility to those terrorists who undergo a change of heart and eschew the path of violence and who also accept the integrity of India and Indian Constitution to encourage them to join the mainstream and lead a normal life”.
  • This policy had made provisions to provide vocational training for militants who surrender if they wished to pursue a trade, and a monthly stipend of Rs 2,000 for the first three years.
  • One of the key decisions in the 2004 policy was the establishment of counselling centres “where all the returnees along with their wives and children would be lodged for a period of three months or for such longer time as would be necessary”.
  • In 2010, the focus was on facilitating the return of ex-militants from J&K who had crossed over between January 1989 and December 2009 for training but later gave up insurgent activities “due to a change of heart and are willing, to return to the state”.

Challenges of the previous policies:

  • Those who intend to return saw surrender as an insulting process and there was a sense of defeat attributed to the word ‘surrender’ or even ‘rehabilitation’.
  • Senior police officers acknowledged that these counselling centres never came up and no one returning to the mainstream was committed to counselling.
  • Social stigma attached is very difficult to be erased.
  • The money given and the rehabilitation measures were paltry.

The newly drafted Return Policy for militants in Jammu and Kashmir:

  • The proposed policy is essentially a revised version of earlier initiatives but with a renewed focus on socio-economic re-integration.
  • The policy draft “is presently at the pre-SAC stage” and is subject to clearance by the state Home Department and the chief secretary.
  • Jobs, reformative measures, and a monthly stipend of Rs 6,000 are the key points of a new “reintegration policy” draft that is under the consideration of the J&K government under Governor’s rule currently, to encourage militants hailing from the state to give up arms.
  • According to the draft, the new initiative addresses the need for rehabilitation at a policy level through a two-pronged approach: reformative measures and opportunities of livelihood.
  • The idea of developing this policy is to initiate reconciliation and institutional-level integration of people who left or joined armed groups.
  • The initiative, however, will not cover militants found to have been involved in “heinous crimes”.

Rationale behind the new draft policy:

  • The Army after the deadly Pulwama attack has made it very that anyone who picks up the gun, will be executed unless he surrenders.
  • There is a very good surrender policy being initiated by the government so that they can join the mainstream.
  • It is essential for the government to demonstrate its will to reach out to alienated youth.
  • The successful implementation of a surrender policy is of utmost importance in J&K as there are a large number of surrendered or released militants (around 25,000).
  • The successful rehabilitation of one hardcore surrendered or released militant will motivate others to follow suit.

Conclusion:

The policy is a step in the right direction. Although time consuming, it will bear the necessary fruits of peace and harmony in J&K. It will take a lot of effort on the part of everyone to implement it successfully, especially the civil society and political establishment have a major role in motivating and bringing them back into the mainstream.


TOPIC: Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.

8) Code of conduct is a forcible, quick-fix strategy. It reduces ethics to legality by directing on both the “lowest common values” and “consequences of deviations”. Discuss.(250 words)

Why this question:

The question is about code of conduct and its method of operation.

Key demand of the question:

The answer should elaborate on the importance of code of conduct, its method of functioning and its necessity in governance.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:

Briefly discuss what you understand by code of conduct.

Body:

Body of the answer should discuss:

  • why code of conduct is a forced, coercive fixed strategy, and how it makes ethics more of a legality than mere morals or values.
  • the lacunae related to Code of Conduct.
  • One must weigh the pros and cons of having code of conduct that help and aid the governance processes.
  • Provide some suggestions to improve the effectiveness of Code of Conduct.
  • Substantiate your points with examples to justify better.

Conclusion –

Conclude with how the code of conduct though comes with inherent flaws of forcibility , its significance makes it inevitable in the process of governance.

Introduction:

Code of conduct represents the set of enforceable rules that should be followed by a person in an organisation. A Code of Conduct applies the Code of Ethics to a host of relevant situations. A particular rule in the Code of Ethics might state that all employees will obey the law, a Code of Conduct might list several specific laws relevant to different areas of organizational operations, or industry, that employees need to obey.

Codes, along with other measures, have helped some companies dig themselves out of scandals, and have helped many companies build a healthier work climate and reputation.

Body:

Code of conduct is necessary because:

  • The Code of Conduct outlines specific behaviours that are required or prohibited as a condition of ongoing employment. Example: It might forbid sexual harassment, racial intimidation or viewing inappropriate or unauthorized content on company computers.
  • It is used in an attempt to regulate behavior in very different ways.
  • Code of conduct is a set of guidelines that influence employee’s actions.
  • Code of Conduct originated from the code of ethics, and it converts the rules into specific guidelines, that must be followed by the members of the organisation.
  • Code of Conduct is addressed to employees only.
  • Code of Conduct is focused on compliance and rules. Example: It would have avoided and punished instances like recent Nirav Modi scam where ethics of the bank employees was under question.
  • The organization’s desire is to obtain a narrow range of acceptable behaviors from employees
  • Conduct regulations assert that some specific actions are appropriate, others inappropriate.
  • Code of conduct consists of provisions general to all employees so some acts which are not mentioned might be considered ethical despite their unethical nature.It becomes a legal impediment in governance due to its rigidity which can affect the public servant leading to policy paralysis.

Lacunaes in the code of conduct, in many cases they:

  • Do not address the range of a company’s business activities, especially its principal ones.
  • Are not clearly linked with the company’s principal business objectives and culture.
  • Are not effectively linked to concepts of business integrity.
  • Set the wrong tone, perhaps one that is too legalistic or too vague.
  • Contain the wrong degree of detail regarding expectations.
  • Do not address the realities of conducting business.
  • Do not provide employees with effective ways to address business challenges.

Conclusion:

Preventing corruption and improving the public service management are the main goals of the promotion of ethical standards for the civil servants. Therefore there is need to imbibe ethical nature in children from school level itself .Along with that there is a need for top down compliance in the organisations for effective enforcement of code of conduct.