- March 23, 2019
- Posted by: InsightsIAS
- Category: INSIGHTS
- Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
What to study?
For Prelims and Mains: What is matter and antimatter?
Context: Physicists from the Large Hadron Collider beauty (LHCb) Collaboration at CERN have observed, for the first time, the matter-antimatter asymmetry known as charge-parity (CP) violation in the decays of a D0 meson, a subatomic particle made up of a charm quark and an up antiquark.
What is charge parity and cp violation?
The term CP refers to the transformation that swaps a particle with the mirror image of its antiparticle.
- The weak interactions of the Standard Model of particle physics are known to induce a difference in the behavior of some particles and of their CP counterparts, an asymmetry known as CP violation.
- This asymmetry is one of the key ingredients required to explain why today’s Universe is only composed of matter particles, with essentially no residual presence of antimatter.
What you need to know about matter and antimatter?
- The universe consists of a massive imbalance between matter and antimatter. Antimatter and matter are actually the same, but have opposite charges, but there’s hardly any antimatter in the observable universe, including the stars and other galaxies. In theory, there should be large amounts of antimatter, but the observable universe is mostly matter.
- This great imbalance between matter and antimatter is all tangible matter, including life forms, exists, but scientists don’t understand why.
What happens when matter and antimatter meet?
- When antimatter and matter meet, they annihilate, and the result is light and nothing else. Given equal amounts of matter and antimatter, nothing would remain once the reaction was completed. As long as we don’t know why more matter exists, we can’t know why the building blocks of anything else exist, either.
- This is one of the biggest unsolved problems in physics. Researchers call this the “baryon asymmetry” problem. Baryons are subatomic particles, including protons and neutrons. All baryons have a corresponding antibaryon, which is mysteriously rare. The standard model of physics explains several aspects of the forces of nature. It explains how atoms become molecules, and it explains the particles that make up atoms.