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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 19 MARCH 2019

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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 19 MARCH 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic-Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

1) The recently proposed establishment of the Bhartiya Shiksha Board in order to revitalize Vedic education seem to have more of negative consequences for the caste dynamics in our society than the positives it would bring. Comment (250 words)

EPW

Why this question:

The article from EPW provides for an exhaustive analysis of the negative implications of such an education system and studies what are the implications of Vedic education for the total destruction of caste.

Key demands of the question:

The question expects one to critically analyse the ill effects of such an education system that can impact the caste fabric of India. One has to bring out how it helps the old redundant Brahmanical supremacy back into the fora. However one must also highlight the positives associated if any and conclude with what changes are urgently required by such a system to actually fructify.

Directive word

Comment –  here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon

Keywords:

Vedas, Brahmanical practices, Hindu-run educational institutions etc

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

A good start can be with some fact highlighting the importance of a robust education system for India.

Body

The body of the answer address the following dimensions:

  1. What is it about the Vedic education system?
  2. Current dynamics associated with  Bhartiya Shiksha Board.
  3. Vedic education also followed Brahmanical practices, thus what will be its impact on caste dynamics of India. In such a case how will it fail to make education system better?
  4. Conclude with how Vedic system should not be made a tool for political agenda and rather valuable inputs from every system in the past that has contributed to the education system must be envisaged with modern and liberal outlook to it that accommodates the needs of the newer eras.

Conclusion

Education system has its own key place in deciding the growth and development of the country , and thus one should not tweak with such systems.

Introduction:

Paving the way for the country’s first national school board for Vedic education, the governing council of the Maharshi Sandipani Rashtriya Vedavidya Pratishthan (MSRVP) – a fully-funded autonomous body under the HRD Ministry working on promotion of ‘ved vidya’ – has given its in-principle approval to set up a Bhartiya Shiksha Board (BSB).

Body:

Functions:

  • The Bhartiya Shiksha Board will be established with the objective of standardising Vedic education.
  • Like any school board, it will draft syllabus, conduct examinations and issue certificates.
  • Apart from affiliating traditional pathshalas, BSB will also be assigned the responsibility of evolving new kinds of schools that offer a blend of Vedic and modern education.

Positives of such a board:

  • The teachers from any caste will be able to teach Vedas and the belief that only the twice-born and the males need to teach will be wiped out enhancing Gender Equality.
  • One reason for introducing this proposal seems to be based on the belief that our education system is somehow biased against Hinduism and that a course correction is needed.
  • Some of the supporters of this decision feel that this initiative is welcome because it would mitigate the “harm” that the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RtE) Act has done.
  • Students and parents are genuinely frustrated by Eurocentric structure of education and the suspicion that it has towards non-Western sources.

Critics fear the challenges posed by BSB:

  • The BSB symbolises an escalation of the Centre’s drive to infuse Indian scholarship with deference towards beliefs encoded in the Vedas and other Hindu religious texts.
  • This belief reinforces the suspicion that the introduction of Vedic education is another way of introducing Brahminical education.
  • Vedic education seems to be primarily targeted towards the non-Hindus of our society in order to show them the greatness of this culture, and, in doing this, “Vedic” is being equated with “Indian” rather surreptitiously.
  • The incumbent Government has shown that it is okay with changing history books to portray its discriminatory policies against religious minorities in brighter light.
  • It has meddled with school textbooks to this effect, funded questionable research projects not grounded in the scientific method and passively condoned pseudoscientific remarks by those in its ranks – including Prime Minister himself.
  • It is a worthwhile aspiration to further legitimise the study of Sanskrit texts, including Vedic ones, in schools, and regularise how those schools are run. But it shouldn’t expose students to bad scholarship.
  • It is in light of these actions that the BSB comes across as precarious instead of well-intentioned.
  • Students graduating from our already-subpar education system are being forced to buck up by the impending rigour of academic research or of professional standards.
  • Young girls in developing economies often take to science, technology, engineering and mathematics because it is a shortcut to individual freedom, an escape from poverty as much as from conservative households. The BSB doesn’t just divert important resources away from helping students fulfil these aspirations.
  • BSB extends the duration for which students can choose to insulate themselves from the need to “do better”. It has, after all, been empowered to conduct its own exams and issue its own certificates.

Way forward:

  • In this framework, the BSB and its affiliated institutions need to guarantee – more than anything else – that they will not cross-pollinate teaching goals with pseudo-nationalist ambitions or, more generally, unfalsifiable truths with beliefs.
  • This is what the students and their families deserve as much as their future employers will need.
  • In addition to the guarantee, ideally including periodic audits, the MHRD should also ensure that graduates of the BSB are always employable.
  • It means not meddling with textbooks in any educational board, setting up more vigorous ways to evaluate “ancient Indian knowledge”, funding more legitimate research and spending less time talking about doing so.
  • Celebrating our history in its appropriate context, chastising government officials who utter nonsense and ensuring those engaged in these tasks get the respect they deserve.
  • We need to produce a scholarly and critical approach to frame meaningful syllabuses in Vedic studies too; otherwise we will end up depending too much on the religious leaders themselves for interpreting these religions.
  • This initiative is a wake-up call to all of us worried about the content and methods of our education system, which will hopefully find ways to integrate multiple perspectives that are sensitive to the experiences and reason of the non-West.

Conclusion:

Setting up a new system of educational certification is not simply about signing off on paper, setting up rooms, fixing fees and employing teachers. It is about creating a wider economy in which our students reap continuous benefits.


Topic– Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

2) “The traditional cultural identities are at loss with the growth of global connectivity.” Explain.(250 words)

 

Why this question:

Globalization is a dynamic process which impacts differentially on various cultures around the world. It permeates cultural boundaries and in the process results in the spread of Western ideologies and values across the world. This paper investigates the relationship between globalization and cultural identity crisis underlying assumption that globalization is manifested in the intercultural penetration processes which have substantial effects on the cultural identities.

demand of the question:

This question seeks to examine the implications of Globalization that creates a global culture in which the identity is amalgamated that tends to bring a homogenous culture throughout the world that might assist the local beliefs and cultural values to be universalized rather than to be demolished. On the

contrary, such a cultural invasion is a threat that causes serious problems for some conservative states by virtue of the fact that the openness to foreign content can erode the traditional values and indigenous cultural identity.

Directive word:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the  particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Keywords:

Globalization, cultural identity, intercultural penetration, Westernization, polarized groups, cultural Pluralism etc.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Start by suggesting what you understand by globalization and in a wider level what are its impact on the societies of the world.

Body

Discuss the following – first discuss the positives that Globalization brought for the world. Then move on to discuss the important aspects of the question that is ; in what way globalization is leading to loss of cultural identities across the world. Discuss this with examples that through its integrated network of trade and commerce and transport and communication has linked all the corners of the world. Though the aim behind this is to connect and merge all the cultures of the world but unfortunately it is the reason behind the weakening of cultural bonds between communities and also leads to the loss of cultural identity. Though with the help of globalization people stay connected with each other 24×7 but it also makes one forget their own values and traditions.

Conclusion

Conclude that these aspects of globalization definitely need to be blacklisted at the earliest. It’s the need of hour; we need to realize this high time and start educating our children right from the childhood the art of deriving good virtues, thereby maintaining our own uniqueness.

Introduction:

The term ‘Globalization’ is itself self-explanatory. It is an international platform for maintaining evenness in the living mode of the people all over the world. Globalization is the resultant of the interchange of worldly views, opinions and the various aspects of the culture everywhere around the world. This is the means for providing the international arena for intermingling of people from different sectors, culture and dialects and learns to move and approach socially without hurting and affecting each others’ prestige.

Body:

Globalization has both positive and negative impacts throughout the globe. Right from the environmental challenges from the climatic influence, the air, water soil pollution etc., to the cyber crime; globalization has a huge contribution to all the ill-effects of scientific advancements. May it be business, trade, and work exposure or the economic and financial status of the country, no field is left behind the reach of globalization.

  • Access to education:
    • On one hand globalisation has aided in the explosion of information on the web that has helped in greater awareness among people. It has also led to greater need for specialisation and promotion of higher education in the country.
    • On the flip side the advent of private education, coaching classes and paid study material has created a gap between the haves and have-nots. It has become increasingly difficult for an individual to obtain higher education.
  • Urbanization:
    • It has been estimated that by 2050 more than 50% of India’s population will live in cities. The boom of services sector and city centric job creation has led to increasing rural to urban migration.
  • Cuisine
    • Indian cuisine is one of the most popular cuisines across the globe. Historically, Indian spices and herbs were one of the most sought after trade commodities. Pizzas, burgers, Chinese foods and other Western foods have become quite popular.
  • Clothing:
    • Traditional Indian clothes for women are the saris, suits, etc. and for men, traditional clothes are the dhoti, kurta. Hindu married women also adorned the red bindi and sindhur, but now, it is no more a compulsion.
    • Rather, Indo-western clothing, the fusion of Western and Sub continental fashion is in trend. Wearing jeans, t-shirts, mini skirts have become common among Indian girls.
  • Language:
    • Even the Indians are not very much in favour of promoting their mother tongue or our national language.
    • Instead the youth today consider it to be a shameful condition to speak in their national language Hindi.
  • Indian Performing Arts:
    • The music of India includes multiples varieties of religious, folk, popular, pop, and classical music. India’s classical music includes two distinct styles: Carnatic and Hindustani music. It remains instrumental to the religious inspiration, cultural expression and pure entertainment. Indian dance too has diverse folk and classical forms.
    • Bharatanatyam, Kathak, Kathakali, Mohiniattam, Kuchipudi, Odissi are popular dance forms in India. Kalarippayattu is considered one of the world’s oldest martial art. There have been many great practitioners of Indian Martial Arts including Bodhidharma who supposedly brought Indian martial arts to China.
    • The Indian Classical music has gained worldwide recognition but recently, western music is too becoming very popular in our country. Fusing Indian music along with western music is encouraged among musicians. More Indian dance shows are held globally. The number of foreigners who are eager to learn Bharatanatyam is rising. Western dance forms such as Jazz, Hip hop, Salsa, Ballet have become common among Indian youngsters.
  • Family Structure
    • The increasing migration coupled with financial independence has led to the breaking of joint families into nuclear ones.
    • The western influence of individualism has led to an aspirational generation of youth. Concepts of national identity, family, job and tradition are changing rapidly and significantly.
    • The rise of nuclear families has reduced the social security that the joint family provided. This has led to greater economic, health and emotional vulnerability of old age individuals.
    • Children have started treating grandparents like guests or visitors, and such an upbringing is one of the main reasons of increasing old age homes, as those children consider their own parents as burden in their state of adulthood.
  • Marriage Values
    • Similarly, marriages have also lost their values.
    • It is very much evident from the increasing number of divorce cases and the extra-marital affairs reported every now and then.
    • Marriage used to be considered as bonding of the souls which will be linked even after the death; but today marriage is like a professional bond or a so-called commitment to share life without compromising their self-interests.
  • Adultery
    • Both the genders were kept at a distance, with lot many restrictions and limitations to the approach for ages in our culture.
    • With the emergence of globalization and western culture, youth have start mixing up well with each other.
    • The friendly approach and the socializing feature is worth appreciable.
    • But the total breakout of restrictions have adulterated the Indian mindset, playing up with the physical relationship.
  • Pervasive Media:
    • There is greater access to news, music, movies, videos from around the world. Foreign media houses have increased their presence in India. India is part of the global launch of Hollywood movies which is very well received here. It has a psychological, social and cultural influence on our society.
  • McDonaldization:
    • A term denoting the increasing rationalization of the routine tasks of everyday life. It becomes manifested when a culture adopts the characteristics of a fast-food restaurant. McDonaldization is a reconceptualization of rationalization, or moving from traditional to rational modes of thought, and scientific management.
  • Walmartization:
    • A term referring to profound transformations in regional and global economies through the sheer size, influence, and power of the big-box department store WalMart. It can be seen with the rise of big businesses which have nearly killed the small traditional businesses in our society.

Conclusion:

It is difficult to say that the impact of globalization has been totally positive or totally negative. It has been both. Each impact mentioned above can be seen as both positive as well as negative. However, it becomes a point of concern when, an overwhelming impact of globalization can be observed on the Indian culture.


Topic: Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.

3) Discuss in brief the composition and objectives of United Nations Environment Assembly also bring out the recent initiatives taken by UNEA  to set global Green agenda.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The Fourth Environment Assembly of the United Nations was held in Nairobi recently, with special focus on the theme of “Innovative solutions for environmental challenges and sustainable consumption and production”. In this context it becomes  necessary for us to ponder on the topic from the point of GS paper III.

Key demand of the question:

The question is to be answered in three sections viz. the structure and composition of the UNEA, Its objectives and then the recent initiatives taken by it.

Directive word:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain Briefly the significance of such institutions.

Body:

Discuss the composition of the UNEA; world’s highest-level decision-making body on the environment. How it addresses the critical environmental challenges facing the world today. Its salient features, mode of working etc.

Then move on to explain the importance of the “Blueprint for change” adopted by the Environment ministers of more than 170 countries under United Nations Environment Assembly recently. The agenda of the meet included – Innovative solutions and sustainable consumption and production patterns to get high priorities to combat increasing pollution, rapid global warming and depletion of resources. improved national resource management strategies with integrated full lifecycle approaches and analysis to achieve resource-efficient and low-carbon economies etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of the institution and its significance in managing the global environment.

Introduction:

The United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA) is the world’s highest-level decision-making body on the environment. It addresses the critical environmental challenges facing the world today. Understanding these challenges and preserving and rehabilitating our environment is at the heart of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

Body:

Composition of UNEA:

  • The Environment Assembly sets the global environmental agenda in cooperation with UN institutions and Multilateral Environmental Agreements.
  • The meetings of the Assembly are governed by its Rules of Procedure.
  • The Assembly is led by a Bureau and its President. The UN Environment Assembly Bureau assists the President in the general conduct of business of the UN Environment Assembly. The Bureau is composed of ten Ministers of the Environment for a term of two years, and follows geographical rotations.
  • The Assembly is the governing body of the UN Environment Programme (UN Environment) and the successor of its Governing Council, which was composed of 58 member States. The UN Environment Assembly, with a universal membership, is now composed of 193 Member States.
  • It gathers ministers of environment in Nairobi, Kenya every 2 years.
  • The Committee of Permanent Representatives is the inter-sessional intergovernmental body of the Assembly.
  • The Committee is led by accredited Permanent Representatives to the UN Environment Programme, which account for 118 members.
  • The Committee of Permanent Representatives was formally established as a subsidiary organ of the Governing Council (now the UN Environment Assembly) in May 1985. The Committee meets on a quarterly basis led by a five-member Bureau elected for a period of two years.

Objectives of UNEA:

Under the overall theme Innovative solutions for environmental challenges and sustainable consumption and production, the 2019 UN Environment Assembly will address the following three focus areas:

  • Environmental challenges related to poverty and natural resources management, including sustainable food systems, food security and halting biodiversity loss;
  • Life-cycle approaches to resource efficiency, energy, chemicals and waste management;
  • Innovative sustainable business development at a time of rapid technological change.
  • Improve national resource management strategies with integrated full lifecycle approaches and analysis to achieve resource-efficient and low-carbon economies
  • Address the damage to our ecosystems caused by the unsustainable use and disposal of plastic products, including by significantly reducing single-use plastic products by 2030
  • Work with the private sector to find affordable and environmentally friendly products

The above objectives would be done by:

  • Encouraging resilient farming practices
  • Managing natural resources sustainably to tackle poverty
  • Promote the use and sharing of environmental data
  • Significantly reduce single-use plastic

Conclusion:

The 2019 UN Environment Assembly will contribute towards a holistic, inclusive, and participatory approach to development that is underpinned by human rights and recognizes the inter-linkages and integrated nature of the 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development.


Topic: Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth. Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life

4) Technological advances in the global value chain are often complemented with  decline in Jobs , in the context of the statement applying to developing Asia. Evaluate the impact of such technological advances on India.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The article covers the theme of growing use of technology in the global value chain of the industries, the article analyses that these jobs are now under threat from technology. It is justified by a study published by the Asian Development Bank.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must capture the growing role of technological advances in the Asian continent among its industries, and how labor-intensive countries  are now being replaced by robots in advanced countries. One has to analyse the such a negative employment impact of technological change on India.

Keywords:

The employment effects of technological innovation, consumption and participation in global value chains,  effect of AI, robotics in industries etc.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:

Briefly bring out the current status of technology in Industries of India .

Body:

Answers to such questions are again best justified through use of statistics and facts that reveal the increasing trend of use of technology – robotics, Artificial intelligence etc. in the Industries of today. One has to closely analyse the studies that show increased use of technology have a direct impact on jobs, discuss the Indian industry scenario in depth, associated issues, what needs to be done to overcome such an issue etc.

Conclusion –

Conclude with significance of Job creation for driving the economy in the right direction in context of growing technological advancements.

 

Introduction:

As per new research, technologies such as digital manufacturing and robots could result in job losses in the region. Tech advances along these value chains are associated with decrease in employment in both routine, non-routine occupations. The present industrial revolution (IR 4.0) seeks to disrupt the existing processes and enhance them with programmable logic.

Body:

Robots and automated systems have made inroads into organizations where tasks may have been dangerous, impossible or just plain mundane for humans. Market sentiments suggest that the job market does not stay static but changes constantly with innovation in technologies.

Impact of technological advances in India:

  • Automation threatens 69 per cent of the jobs in India, while 77 per cent in China, according to a World Bank research which has said that technology could fundamentally disrupt the pattern of traditional economic path in developing countries.
  • There is no clearly stated policy document or vision statement for AI development.
  • The negative effects of technological change exceed the favourable effects of task relocation, thus hurting overall employment.
  • New technologies like AI and Robotics improve the functional efficiency drastically than manual methods. Thus large industries will increasingly shift towards the automation in the quest of higher productivity
  • Textile workers in developing countries, who are an important example of how labour-intensive countries contribute to the global value chain, are now being replaced by robots in advanced countries.
  • Asian Development Bank study also shows that in eight of the 12 developing Asian economies studied, there has been a change in the nature of jobs because of technology.
  • In countries such as India, Indonesia, and China, non-routine jobs, which require more skill, have grown faster in comparison to routine jobs.
  • Many tasks undertaken (manually) by humans about 20-30 years ago are no longer relevant.
  • Manual tasks would become increasingly automated for business efficiencies and scale.
  • Information technology (IT), IT-enabled services (ITeS) and security services, followed by banking, will be the first sectors to feel the heat, wherein manual transactions and processing jobs will become obsolete. Huge numbers of services jobs in these sectors will be made redundant as a few lines of code will be able to perform the same tasks efficiently and effectively.

Way forward

  • Skill upgradation and training to cater the need of the industries.
  • Incentivizing and encouraging automation in sectors where it is critically necessary.
  • Focusing on increasing the efficacy and efficiency of Micro, Small and Medium scale industries.
  • New regulations must be put in place to clearly predict and address legal issues that will surround AI in the near future. The use and availability of the technology must also be revised and regulated in a way to prevent or minimize ill use.
  • Government needs to be inept in creating new employment-generating sectors and reform existing ones at a time when machines are systematically cutting down the workforce requirements in the principal labour-generating triumvirate of manufacturing and services sectors.
  • Policymakers should make AI a critical component of the prime minister’s flagship Make in India, Skill India, and Digital India programs
  • Need to bring structural changes in employment-stagnated areas like Textile, cotton industries to increase employment opportunities in these areas.
  • Government needs to bring more and more workers under formal economy so that they enjoy benefits of social security provided by government and companies.

 

Topic :  Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life. Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

5) With  increasing advancement in science, antimicrobial drugs are increasingly faltering across the world and therefore the  microbial infections are coming full circle. Discuss the causes and consequences of such a conundrum and suggest a strategy to fight against antibiotic resistance.(250 words) 

Hindustantimes

Why this question:

The article discusses in detail the present puzzle of growing antibiotic resistance amidst peaking research of anti-microbial drugs.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must trace the issues involved in the antimicrobial resistance, what are the causes of such a scenario, why is the research in science failing to address the issue, what are the ground causes and the consequences of such resistance on the health of human beings. One has to suggest a way forward as to what needs to be done to overcome the menace.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduce by highlighting the current scenario of antimicrobial resistance across the world.

Body:

In brief discuss the following points :

  • Phenomenon of antimicrobial resistance.
  • Causes – misplaced priority on healthcare than on the public health system, high disease burden of infectious diseases due to rampant malnutrition, low immunity to microbial infections; sorry state of waste disposal facilities which results in mixing of antibiotic compounds with the water resources; drug companies manufacturing drugs containing substandard dosages; failure of medical education to impart precise diagnostic capabilities to medical practitioners etc.
  • Consequences – severe health, medical and financial costs etc.
  • Explain the above with necessary examples , preferably from India.
  • Suggest what needs to be done to overcome this situation.

Conclusion:

Conclude that  the government should come up with multi-pronged strategy to fight against antibiotic resistance.  

Introduction:

The WHO defines antibiotic resistance (AMR) as a condition wherein microbes survive when exposed to the drug which would have normally caused them to die. Antibiotics that once cured ailments across the spectrum are now turning into a potential source of prolonged illness, disability and death.

It is not a country specific issue but a global concern that is jeopardizing global health security. Antimicrobial resistance is one of the major public health problems. In India the infectious disease burden is among the highest in the world.

Body:

Other causes:

  • WHO survey shows that three quarters (75%) of respondents think, incorrectly, that colds and flu can be treated with antibiotics.
  • Discharge of antimicrobial waste into the environment from pharmaceutical industry.
  • Growing antibiotic use in the animal sector and increased demand for meat and poultry.
  • Nexus between doctors and pharmaceutical companies where doctors routinely receive compensation in exchange for antibiotic prescriptions.
  • Lack of new antibiotics being developed.
  • Poor infection control in hospitals and clinics.

Concerns due to increase AMR:

  • Inadequacy of public finance which will result in the conditions favourable for development of drug resistance.
  • Antimicrobial resistance will result in difficulty in controlling the diseases in the community and ineffective delivery of the health care services.
  • Neonates and the elderly both are more prone to infections and are vulnerable.
  • A very significant part of out-of-pocket expenditure on health care is on medicines. The ineffective drugs and/or second line expensive antibiotics is pushing the treatment costs higher.
  • WHO has published its first ever list of antibiotic-resistant ‘priority pathogens’ —a catalogue of 12 families of bacteria that pose the greatest threat to human health and most of these 12 superbugs have presence in India.

Steps taken to deal with the menace:

  • Indian Association of Paediatrics, the Global Antibiotic Resistance Partnership, and the Chennai Declaration have helped build awareness about the problem.
  • To prevent over-the-counter (OTC) sales of antibiotics, the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) order prohibits medical stores from selling 24 key antibiotics without a doctor’s
  • ICMR has set up National Anti-Microbial Surveillance Network for understanding of mechanisms of resistance.
  • National Policy for Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance (2011), to address the problem of multi-drug resistance.
  • India developed National Action Plan to combat Antimicrobial Resistance as part of India’s commitment to the WHO’s Global Action Plan.

Way forward:

  • Rationalizing antibiotic use to limit antibiotic resistance in India.
  • Improving regulation of drug production and sales
  • Better managing physician compensation
  • Encouraging behavior change among doctors and patients are of immediate priority.
  • Regulation of the e-Pharmacies which gives an easy access to drugs.
  • Improved management of the health care delivery systems, both public and private, will minimize conditions favourable for the development of drug resistance.
  • Improved awareness of antimicrobial resistance through effective communication. WHO’s World Antibiotic Awareness Week is one such event.
  • Reducing the incidence of infection through effective infection prevention and control. As stated by WHO, making infection prevention and hand hygiene a national policy priority.
  • Discourage non-therapeutic use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary, agriculture and fishery practices as growth-promoting agents.
  • Promoting investments for antimicrobial resistance activities, research and innovations
  • Strengthening India’s commitment and collaborations on antimicrobial resistance at international, national and sub-national levels.
  • Regulate the release of antibiotic waste from pharmaceutical production facilities and monitoring antibiotic residues in wastewater.

Topic:  Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance.

6) Discuss  seven essential principle tenets of public services that serve as an ethical guide for civil servants.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question is in the context of Nolan Principles established by the Committee on Standards in Public Life by the UK government. The recommendations of this committee are of prime importance from the point of view of the GS paper IV.

Key demand of the question:

The question wants us to elaborate upon the seven principles of standards in public life as enunciated by the Nolan Committee report.

Directive word:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with Importance of ethics in public services, brief upon how service without ethics is no service at all.

Body:

Discuss in detail the Nolan principles of public life viz.

Selflessness

Integrity

Objectivity

Accountability

Openness

Honesty

Leadership

Discuss each of these principles in detail, possibly with short examples

Then highlight the need of such principles and direct how these are quintessential in the working of public services.

Conclusion:

Conclude that along with these key principles there are many others that complement the ethical functioning of public servants .

Introduction:

Citizens expect public servants to serve the public interest with fairness and to manage public resources properly. Following cases of corruption and misuse of office all over the world, most advanced countries have prescribed a Code of Ethics for public servants.

Nolan, in his famous report of Committee of standards of Public life in Britain gave seven principles of standards in public life and it is universally applicable to everyone in public life, public officials can and should be punished for transgressing them without needing detailed explanations about the principles.

Body:

Seven Principles of Public Life are:

  • Selflessness
    • Holders of public office should take decisions solely in terms of the public interest. They should not do so in order to gain financial or other material benefits for themselves, their family, or their friends.
  • Integrity
    • Holders of public office should not place themselves under any financial or other obligation to outside individuals or organisations that might influence them in the performance of their official duties.
  • Objectivity
    • In carrying out public business, including making public appointments, awarding contracts, or recommending individuals for rewards and benefits, holders of public office should make choices on merit.
  • Accountability
    • Holders of public office are accountable for their decisions and actions to the public and must submit themselves to whatever scrutiny is appropriate to their office.
  • Openness
    • Holders of public office should be as open as possible about all the decisions and actions that they take. They should give reasons for their decisions and restrict information only when the wider public interest clearly demands.
  • Honesty
    • Holders of public office have a duty to declare any private interests relating to their public duties and to take steps to resolve any conflicts arising in a way that protects the public interest.
  • Leadership
    • Holders of public office should promote and support these principles by leadership and example.

Conclusion:

These principles apply to all aspects of public life. The Committee has set them out here for the benefit of all who serve the public in any way. If you are selfless and honest, you will be making decisions which are in the interests of the organisation, putting aside any personal interest and acting objectively and independently. Organisations which are open have been shown to have more stakeholder involvement in the planning process, leading to enhanced public service.


Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7) Distinguish between Deontological ethics and Teleological ethics. Can Utilitarianism be considered as a flawless philosophy? Explain with an example. (250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications.

Why this question:

The question is pertaining to the basic types of ethics, it is about comparing and contrasting the differences between Deontological ethics and Teleological ethics. And later the concept of Utilitarianism as a universal philosophy in Ethics.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must bring out briefly the classified types of ethics and then distinguish between Deontological ethics and Teleological ethics. One has to then clearly explain how Utilitarianism is a universal principle or philosophy that stands above all.

Directive word:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the  particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with importance of ethics in life.

Body:

Discuss briefly what you understand by Deontological ethics and Teleological ethics, how are they different in their approaches, what are the commonalities if any between the two, which one weighs over the other.

Then move on to discuss the significance of Utilitarianism as a concept in ethics that universally applies to every aspect in life. Discuss its philosophical aspects ,provide for examples of each.

Conclusion:

Signify the importance of the all the different types of philosophies in ethics.

Introduction:

Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves questions about morality and the perception of good and evil, of right and wrong, of justice, virtue, and vice.

Body:

Deontology is also referred to as duty-based ethics. It is an approach to ethics that addresses whether the motives behind certain actions are right or wrong instead of focusing on whether the results of the action are right or wrong. It is based on each individual’s duty or obligation towards each other, all living things, and the environment based on moral beliefs and values. It teaches about always acting in good faith and adheres to the Golden Rule to treat others the way you want to be treated by them.

The Ten Commandments are examples of deontology. They are moral duties that we have been taught since we were children, and we are moulded by them in the way that we should treat others, to be fair and not using them to serve selfish intentions.

Teleology or consequentialism is referred to as results-oriented ethics. It focuses on the purpose of each action and whether there is an intention or meaning for the action. It deals with the consequences of an action. It involves examining past experiences in order to figure out the results of present actions.

An example of which is utilitarianism which is also referred to as the greatest happiness principle. It measures how much overall pleasure can be derived from a certain action and how much pain is averted.

Utilitarianism as an ethical philosophy can simply be defined as a system in which ‘the theory that the rightness or wrongness of an action is determined by its usefulness in bringing about the most happiness of all those affected by it.’

Utilitarianism is allegedly the foundations of our legal system, so it is important to ask ourselves whether it is actually fair or whether some are denied the simple right to have their own interests respected.

For instance, Utilitarianism cannot be applied to entities that do not have the capacity to feel pleasure and pain or at least to have recognisable goals that they are aware of fulfilling. This debateably does not include some animals, advanced AI, the planet as a whole, a deity or the victory conditions of an overall storyline, game or narrative. Many people will argue that they should be ascribed certain rights or their interests recognised.

Conclusion:

While deontology is based on man’s absolute duty towards mankind and how it is given priority over results, teleology is based on the results of an action and on whether an action produces greater happiness and less pain.