Are you Ready for Insta 75 Days Revision Plan (UPSC Prelims - 2020)?
Topic : Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life. Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
5) With increasing advancement in science, antimicrobial drugs are increasingly faltering across the world and therefore the microbial infections are coming full circle. Discuss the causes and consequences of such a conundrum and suggest a strategy to fight against antibiotic resistance.(250 words)
Why this question:
The article discusses in detail the present puzzle of growing antibiotic resistance amidst peaking research of anti-microbial drugs.
Key demand of the question:
The answer must trace the issues involved in the antimicrobial resistance, what are the causes of such a scenario, why is the research in science failing to address the issue, what are the ground causes and the consequences of such resistance on the health of human beings. One has to suggest a way forward as to what needs to be done to overcome the menace.
Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.
Structure of the answer:
Introduce by highlighting the current scenario of antimicrobial resistance across the world.
In brief discuss the following points :
- Phenomenon of antimicrobial resistance.
- Causes – misplaced priority on healthcare than on the public health system, high disease burden of infectious diseases due to rampant malnutrition, low immunity to microbial infections; sorry state of waste disposal facilities which results in mixing of antibiotic compounds with the water resources; drug companies manufacturing drugs containing substandard dosages; failure of medical education to impart precise diagnostic capabilities to medical practitioners etc.
- Consequences – severe health, medical and financial costs etc.
- Explain the above with necessary examples , preferably from India.
- Suggest what needs to be done to overcome this situation.
Conclude that the government should come up with multi-pronged strategy to fight against antibiotic resistance.