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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 18 March 2019

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 18 March 2019

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic:  Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.


General Studies – 1


Topic:  Indian Culture will cover the salient aspects of Art forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times./ Social empowerment.

1) How can India put its second demographic dividend to use for its development? and also examine the Merits and challenges involved.(250 words)

Reference

why this question:

The question is about reaping the rewards of the second demographic dividend, in discussions on how population dynamics influence a country’s economy, demographic dividends merit significant attention. Thus such a topic becomes a potential UPSC question for GS paper I.

Key demands of the question:

The question must analyse first what is second demographic dividend, how is it different from the usual demographic dividend, more so specifically the Indian scenario, how can India reap and the advantages and disadvantages with issues and concerns involved.

Directive word

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Keywords:

rapid demographic transition, female labour-force participation,  lifecycle hypothesis, social security burden,  older generation etc.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

A good start can be with some fact highlighting the importance of Demographic dividend in India.

Body

The body of the answer address the following dimensions:

  1. What is 2nd DD – it is the result from an increase in adult longevity, which causes individuals to save more in preparation for old age. This increase in savings can thus contribute to capital accumulation and economic growth.
  2. Nature and potential of 2nd DD in India, Pattern in India
  3. Merits of the 2nd DD – savings, increased labour supply, human capital, economic growth etc. one should explain these with examples.
  4. What are the main concerns?
  5. What needs to be done to overcome these challenges and concerns and reap the benefits of the 2nd DD?

Conclusion

Conclude – unraveling the potential of youth must be substantiated sufficiently with the experience of the aged and old, so that they do not become a liability but assets in nation building.


Topic-Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

2) In the backdrop of recently released the National Annual Rural Sanitation Survey 2018-19, critically analyse India’s WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) policies for rural areas.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The article covers analysis of raw data from the National Annual Rural Sanitation Survey 2018-19, in this context it becomes necessary for us to analyse the WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) policies for rural areas of India.

demand of the question:

This question seeks to examine the implications of policies adopted by India for water , sanitation and management with a key focus on the recently released  National Annual Rural Sanitation Survey 2018-19.

Directive word:

Critically analyse – When asked to analyse, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Keywords:

flagship sanitation scheme Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, Wastewater and Faecal Sludge Management, cycle of sanitation, ABC of water etc.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Start by suggesting how WASH – Water, Sanitation and hygiene are intrinsically linked to health.

Body

Discuss the following in detail:

  • Trace the historical evolution of WASH policies in India , analyse the various WASH policies formulated by the Central and State governments.
  • Bring out the highlights of the report  with respect to rural India.
  • Compare the conditions from the past to the present.
  • key components of the policy.

Conclusion

Conclude as to how India must review the Wash policies and find the weaker areas to improve the condition.


Topic– urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

3) “just and livable cities for all” as an alternative to “smart cities”  is the need of hour for India’s urban areas. Discuss. (250 words)

The hindu

 

Why this question:

There are several challenges arising out of urbanization with basic necessities like water, housing, employment etc.. The problems associated with urbanization and associated solutions are very important discussions to be pondered over from mains point of view.

Key demand of the question:

The question expects us to examine the challenges arising out of urbanization are mainly  due to the muddled nature of urbanization itself, thus making urban areas to turn into smart cities doesn’t work out to be an efficient solution for the urban problems across the Indian cities.. We need to discuss the challenges as well and examine the steps taken by government in this regard and convey why it is more important to make cities livable and sustainable rather than aiming them to be smart cities..

Directive word:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain the status of urbanization in India.

Body:

Discuss at a broader level, the role smart cities play in a country, give examples of countries which are rapidly developing due to the concept of smart cities. Then move on to discussing some of the key challenges arising out of urbanization in India such as – water shortage, environmental pollution, lack of infrastructure, lack of housing for poor, employment etc.

Examine the causes behind it. Then Explain how it becomes important for the Government to rather focus more on making cities livable and sustainable(Take leads from the article).

Discuss some of the steps taken by government in this regard and the pros and cons of such steps.

Conclusion:

explain that urbanization is a big challenge for Indian state with linkages to economy, society etc. and needs to be addressed; give a way forward.


General Studies – 2


Topic : Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4) India does not have a jobs crisis but a wages crisis. Do you agree? Present your argument with suitable justification. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The article covers the theme of Job crisis facing India, it elaborates on how India’s jobs crisis is an economic issue, not a political one. It paints a clear picture of demand and supply with respect to Jobs available for youth in India.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss first the Indian scenario of Job crisis, why is it not merely job crisis but more of a wage crisis .One must first acknowledge the statement in the question and justify it with relevant facts and support the argument thereafter.

Keywords:

economic parlance, wage, the price of labour, formalizing the economy  etc.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:

Briefly bring out the current status of job scenario in India .

Body:

  • First discuss the what is the Job crisis in India about.
  • Then discuss how and why the Job crisis is more of a wage crisis.
  • What should the govt. do to create jobs that best fit as a solution to the crisis?
  • Quote policies that are in place to address these issues and what needs to be done in future.

Conclusion –

Conclude with significance of Job creation for driving the economy in the right direction.


Topic:  Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

5) Critically examine the issues involved in the functioning of Lokpal. Does it dispute with the mandate of elected representatives? Suggest methods to make Lokpal effective with least  interference it in the government affairs.(250 words)

Hindistantimes

Why this question:

Retired Supreme Court judge Pinaki Chandra Ghose is likely to be appointed the country’s first Lokpal, the anti-corruption ombudsman, after a Prime Minister Narendra Modi-led selection committee decided on his name. Thus the question becomes important from the perspective of GS II paper.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must trace the issues involved in the functioning of Lokpal. Bring out in what way it disputes the functioning of the mandate of elected representatives. You must also suggest solutions to overcome such an issue pertaining to functioning of Lokpal.

Directive word:

Critically examine – When asked to critically examine, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduce with importance of Lokpal in the Indian political system.

Body:

In brief discuss the following points :

  • Importance of The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013.
  • What are the issues associated – parallel system; It can dismiss serving all India civil servants, a power only president has. It has authority over CBI officers on deputation. With no additional resources, the power to dismiss a case as frivolous or false and fine the complainant. The lokpal bill attempts to alter the balance between three branches of government attained through years. Any alteration of it could lead to accumulation of power either with one of these or with lokpal itself. The threat is further increased by the lack of accountability in presence of sweeping powers.
  • Provide for a comparison with other countries.
  • Now suggest what can be done to overcome the above stated challenges.

Conclusion:

Conclude with the significance, end with optimism that though it has its own associated issues, but the merits outweigh it all.


Topic :  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

6) pretty far from reaching the 175 GW renewable energy target by 2022, Will Reclassifying ‘hydro’ take the renewable energy capacity of India to higher levels? Examine.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The article throws light upon the recent decision taken by the government in

re-classifying large hydroelectric projects in the  new hydroelectricity policy.

It discusses in detail how this reclassification will catalyze the ambition of 175 GW renewable energy target by 2022.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the  new hydroelectricity policy, the impact of recent decision of the government to re-classifying large hydroelectric projects. One is expected to elaborate in total and draw a big picture upon the future success and achievements of the policy, what needs to be done etc.

Directive word:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with the highlights of the New policy.

Body:

Discuss at a broader level, the importance of renewable energy, the targets set by the government, the new dimension of re-classification, its impact on the target. One should not alone discuss the merits but also discuss any challenges associated with it. How should the government overcome issues and concerns involved in the process of re-classification and how should it overcome them. Quote examples wherein such a reclassification can show benefits to the program.

Conclusion:

Conclude with optimism, India is at a turning point of energy management and renewable energy is one such dimension that India can hope with .


General Studies – 4


Topic: Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service , integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections.

7) The Joy of Giving is often said to lead to Generosity and generate “instant karma”  elucidate with examples.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The article talks about Philanthrocapitalism. It quotes the recent example of Azim Premji and his actions of trusteeship and philanthropy. In this context one can analyse the relevance of Joy of giving, generosity that can generate instant Karma.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must analyze the importance of trusteeship that is primarily accentuated through the process of “Giving”, the practice of giving, or dana in Pali, has a preeminent place in the teachings of the Buddha too.

Directive word:

Elucidate – When you are asked to elucidate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question using examples.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Such answers can have a good start through a relevant quote or a definition justifying “Joy of giving”.

Body:

Discuss briefly the interlinkages of giving, generosity and instant karma. Relate the instance of Azim premji’s foundation to the act of trusteeship.

Explain the virtues, their necessity for the common good. Explain how wealth is not an end in itself. A person who righteously earns wealth and gives it to the needy to a person with two eyes is a true virtuous person, such joy cant be done away with and is eternal.

Conclusion:

Signify the importance of the giving, instant karma – acts that you do have direct consequences on the state of your mind and heart, even as you do them .


Topic:  Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

8) How do the virtues of honesty and courage get demonstrated in public service? Explain with examples.(250 words)

Why this question:

The question is about the virtues of Honesty, truthfulness and courage, fortitude that are essential in public services.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must define the virtues of Honesty and courage clearly and bring out their significance in public services.

Directive word:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the  particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain briefly the importance of virtues.

Body:

Discuss what you understand by Honesty, truthfulness, courage , fortitude. Why they are important. Quote examples of public servants who have demonstrated exemplary evidences of following honesty and  courage as key virtues. Such questions are best explained only through examples. One can quote personalities from history or even the contemporary ones who have demonstrated such virtues.

Conclusion:

Signify the importance of the virtues in public services .



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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