1) How can India put its second demographic dividend to use for its development? and also examine the Merits and challenges involved.(250 words)

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Topic:  Indian Culture will cover the salient aspects of Art forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times./ Social empowerment.

1) How can India put its second demographic dividend to use for its development? and also examine the Merits and challenges involved.(250 words)

Reference

why this question:

The question is about reaping the rewards of the second demographic dividend, in discussions on how population dynamics influence a country’s economy, demographic dividends merit significant attention. Thus such a topic becomes a potential UPSC question for GS paper I.

Key demands of the question:

The question must analyse first what is second demographic dividend, how is it different from the usual demographic dividend, more so specifically the Indian scenario, how can India reap and the advantages and disadvantages with issues and concerns involved.

Directive word

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Keywords:

rapid demographic transition, female labour-force participation,  lifecycle hypothesis, social security burden,  older generation etc.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

A good start can be with some fact highlighting the importance of Demographic dividend in India.

Body

The body of the answer address the following dimensions:

  1. What is 2nd DD – it is the result from an increase in adult longevity, which causes individuals to save more in preparation for old age. This increase in savings can thus contribute to capital accumulation and economic growth.
  2. Nature and potential of 2nd DD in India, Pattern in India
  3. Merits of the 2nd DD – savings, increased labour supply, human capital, economic growth etc. one should explain these with examples.
  4. What are the main concerns?
  5. What needs to be done to overcome these challenges and concerns and reap the benefits of the 2nd DD?

Conclusion

Conclude – unraveling the potential of youth must be substantiated sufficiently with the experience of the aged and old, so that they do not become a liability but assets in nation building.