Topic– Industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries,
colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.
2) Define nationalism. Giving reasons for rise of nationalism in 19th century Europe, assess its role in the outbreak world wars.(250 words)
World history by Norman Lowe, World history NCERT
Why this question:
The question is about what is nationalism? Causes and its consequences that led to outbreak of world wars.
demand of the question:
The answer must first define what is nationalism, its causes and then move on to evaluate how it led to world wars. Highlight how the new and aggressive nationalism was different from its predecessors that emerged in Europe at the end of the 19th century.
Structure of the answer:
Discuss the coming of idea of Nationalism, its backdrop and rise.
Discuss the following in detail :
- Nationalism as an intense form of patriotism. Those with nationalist tendencies celebrated the culture and achievements of their own country and placed its interests above those of other nations.
- Pre-war nationalism was fuelled by wars, imperial conquests and rivalry, political rhetoric, newspapers and popular culture etc.
- British nationalism was fuelled by a century of comparative peace and prosperity. The British Empire had flourished and expanded, its naval strength had grown and Britons had known only colonial wars.
- German nationalism was a new phenomenon, emerging from the unification of Germany in 1871. It became fascinated with German imperial expansion (securing Germany’s ‘place in the sun’) and resentful of the British and their empire.
- Rising nationalism was also a factor in the Balkans, where Slavic Serbs and others sought independence and autonomy from the political domination of Austria-Hungary.
conclude with the significance of Nationalism, its role in outbreak of Wars.