SECURE SYNOPSIS: 01 MARCH 2019

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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 01 MARCH 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic-Indian Freedom Struggle- Phases

1) The Congress programme during the first phase (1885-1905) was very modest. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the moderate phase of the congress between 1885 and 1905. We have to write in detail about the first phase and its modest programme.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  moderate phase of Indian freedom struggle. E.g The early years (1885- 1905) saw the evolution of Indian National Congress. During this period the Congress was dominated by moderate leaders.

Body-

Discuss about the programme of the first phase of the congress and bring out how it was modest in nature. E.g

  • the organisation of the provincial councils,
  • simultaneous examination for the I.C.S. in India and England,
  • the abolition or reconstitution of the Indian Council,
  • the separation of the Judiciary from the executive,
  • the repeal of the Arms Act,
  • the appointment of Indians to the commissioned ranks in the Army,
  • the reduction of military expenditure, and
  • the introduction of Permanent Settlement to other parts of India.

This phase of the Congress is known as the Moderate phase. During this period the leaders

were cautious in their demands. They did not want to annoy the government and incur the

risk of suppression of their activities.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Introduction:

The setting up of Indian National Congress in 1885 by national leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji, Pherozshah Mehta, D.E. Wacha, W.C. Bonnerjea, and S.N. Banerjea heralded a new step in Indian National Movement. The early years (1885- 1905) saw the evolution of Indian National Congress. The moderates dominated the Congress policies during this period and were staunch believers in ‘liberalism’ and ‘moderate’ politics.

Body:

To achieve the ends, they worked on a two-pronged methodology one, create a strong public opinion to arouse consciousness and national spirit and then educate and unite people on common political questions; and two, persuade the British Government and British public opinion to introduce reforms in India on the lines laid out by the nationalists.

The major demands of the Moderates were:

  • Expansion and reform of legislative councils.
  • Greater opportunities for Indians in higher posts by holding the ICS examination simultaneously in England and in India.
  • Separation of the judiciary from the executive.
  • More powers for the local bodies.
  • Reduction of land revenue and protection of peasants from unjust landlords.
  • Abolition of salt tax and sugar duty
  • Freedom of speech and expression and freedom to form associations
  • The repeal of the Arms Act
  • Reduction of spending on army.
  • The introduction of Permanent Settlement to other parts of India

The Congress programme during the first phase was very modest due to the following

  • Moderates had total faith in the British sense of justice and fair-play and looked to England for inspiration and guidance.
  • Moderates used petitions, resolutions, meetings, leaflets and pamphlets, memorandum and delegations to present their demands.
  • Confined their political activities to the educated classes only.
  • Drew most of their ideas from western political thinking which further alienated them from the people.
  • Their main aim was to attain political rights and self-government stage by stage.
  • The leaders were cautious in their demands and did not want to annoy the government and incur the risk of suppression of their activities.
  • They demanded Indian control over the public purse and raised the slogan that had earlier been raised by the Americans during their War of Independence, ‘No taxation without representation’.
  • This phase of the national movement excluded the masses and only the educated elites participated in it.
  • They did not demand complete independence from foreign rule.
  • They did not understand the power of a mass movement of people unlike Gandhi who used this power.
  • The Moderates found themselves in a tight corner with the emergence of extremist leadership within the congress. The British authorities also doubted their bonafides.
  • They failed to realise that there existed conflicts of interest of the rulers and the ruled.
  • They failed to keep pace with the yearnings and aspirations of the people.

However, there were successes of Moderates too:

  • The British Government was forced to pass the Indian Councils Act of 1892, but the provisions of this Act failed to satisfy the Congress leaders.
  • This Act increased the size of the legislative councils and also increased the proportion of non-officials in them.
  • They were able to sow the seeds of nationalism in the people and popularised ideals like democracy, liberty and equality.
  • Exposure of Economic drain policies of British was one of the major successes.
  • They exposed the basically exploitative character of colonial rule, thus undermining its moral foundations.
  • They used press as an effective medium to put across their views, petitions and to reach the populace.
  • With changing times, the Moderates also began to alter their position. By 1905 Gokhale had started speaking of self-rule as the goal and in 1906 it was Dadabhai Naoroji who mentioned the word Swaraj as the goal of the Congress
  • Leaders like Gopal Krishna Gokhale and M G Ranade were social reformers too and opposed child marriage and imposed widowhood.

Conclusion:

The Moderate leaders believed that political connections with Britain were in India’s interest at that stage of history and that the time was not ripe for a direct challenge to the British rule. In the opinion of M.N. Roy, “It was the golden period of modern Indian history.” Though the immediate gains of the Moderates were insignificant, their contribution towards political and national awakening was of permanent value to India.


Topic-Indian Freedom Struggle- Phases

2) The development  of the Moderate thought was the culmination of a tradition which can be traced back to Raja Rammohan Roy. Examine. (250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Examine- here we have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to development and rise of the nationalist moderate thought and discuss at length as to how it can be traced back to Raja Rammohan Roy.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  development of moderate thought in India. E.g he Moderates had played an important role at a critical period in the history of Indian nationalism.

Body-

Discuss how development of modern thought can be traced back to the Raja Rammohan Roy. E.g

  • The flowering of the Moderate thought was the culmination of a tradition which can be traced back to Raja Rammohun Roy, who stood for the rational, liberal tradition of contemporary Europe.
  • His ideas of reforms ultimately provided the basis for the demands put forward by the early Congress.
  • As with Rammohun, so with the early Congress leaders, the presence of the British administration was important for continued political progress.
  • Quite understandably, their language was cautious and their expectation moderate.
  • But with changing times, the Moderates also began to alter their position.
  • By 1905 Gokhale had started speaking of self-rule as the goal and in 1906 it was Dadabhai Naoroji who mentioned the word Swaraj as the goal of the Congress etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Introduction:

                The early years (1885- 1905) saw the evolution of Indian National Congress. During this period the Congress was dominated by moderate leaders. The Early Nationalists had full faith in the British sense of justice, fair play, honesty, and integrity while they believed that British rule was a boon for India. The Early Nationalists were staunch believers in open-minded and moderate politics.

Body:

Raja Rammohun Roy views on reforming Hindu religion and society earned him many enemies, but he remained true to his conviction that these would be to the benefit of India. The development of modern thought can be traced back to the Raja Rammohun Roy.

Roy in his initial years fought to reform India’s superstition and its religious divisions, both within Hinduism and between Hinduism and other religions by providing evidences from the Hindu texts and treatises.

Paradigm shift:

  • In 1823, when the British imposed censorship upon the Calcutta press, Roy, as founder and editor of two of India’s earliest weekly newspapers, organized a protest, arguing in favour of freedom of speech and religion as natural rights.
  • That protest marked a turning point in Roy’s life, away from preoccupation with religious polemic and toward social and political action.
  • In his newspapers, treatises, and books, Roy tirelessly criticized what he saw as the idolatry and superstition of traditional Hinduism. He denounced the caste system and attacked the custom of Sati. His writings emboldened the British East India Governing Council to act decisively on the matter, leading to the prohibition of Sati in 1829.
  • When the Bengal government proposed a more traditional Sanskrit college, in 1823, Roy protested that classical Indian literature would not prepare the youth of Bengal for the demands of modern life. He proposed instead a modern Western curriculum of study.
  • Roy also led a protest against the outmoded British legal and revenue administration in India.
  • Roy’s importance in modern Indian history rests partly upon the broad scope of his social vision and the striking modernity of his thought.
  • Roy wanted the state intervention to protect the property of the individual. His article ‘Essay over the Rights of the Hindus over Ancestral Property was a pointer in this direction. One’s claim over the ancestral property was to be maintained.
  • He advocated that the peasants should be protected by the government from the tyranny of the landlords. He was well aware of the dangerous consequences of the permanent settlement of 1793 introduced by Lord Cornwallis.
  • Liberty and constitutionalism were the two important aspects upon which Raja Ram Mohan emphasized. He preferred a constitutional form of Government for every nation. Despotism or autocracy, he hated from the core of his heart.

The Moderates:

  • Roy’s ideas of reforms ultimately provided the basis for the demands put forward by the early Congress.
  • There were a lot of commonalities between the moderates and Roy – Both were England educated, believed in liberalism, use of Newspapers as a medium to reach people and spread their views, Advocation of western education.
  • National leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji, Pherozshah Mehta, D.E. Wacha, W.C. Bonnerjea, and S.N. Banerjea, who dominated the Congress policies during this period were also staunch believers in ‘liberalism’ and ‘moderate’ politics, which was a continuation of Roy’s efforts.
  • Their political activity involved constitutional agitation within the confines of the law, and showed a slow but orderly political progress. Roy also led protests to make his points heard.
  • As with Roy, so with the early Congress leaders, the presence of the British administration was important for continued political progress.
  • The flowering of the Moderate thought was the culmination of a tradition which can be traced back to Roy, who stood for the rational, liberal tradition of contemporary Europe.
  • As a liberal economic thinker, Roy was deeply concerned with the economic strangulation of the poor in the century. This idea was further carried over by Moderates through their Economic Drain theory.

However,

  • With changing times, the Moderates also began to alter their position.
  • By 1905 Gokhale had started speaking of self-rule as the goal and in 1906 it was Dadabhai Naoroji who mentioned the word Swaraj as the goal of the Congress

Conclusion:

                In true sense of the term, Raja RamMohan Roy acted as a bridge between the East and West. He was the ‘Father of Indian Renaissance’. He was an intellectual of a superb order and still simple and bold. His ideas and ideals inspired nationalism in India which acted as a strong foundation for the Moderates to take up the cudgels.


Topic– Indian Freedom Struggle- Important personalities

3) South Africa was “the making of the Mahatma”. Discuss.(250 words)

Ncert

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about Gandhi’s work, role in South Africa and how his stay there shaped his ideology and style of work.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about MK Gandhi. E.g In January 1915, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi returned to his homeland after two decades of residence abroad.

Body-

Discuss how South Africa shaped Gandhi ji. E.g

  • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (his birth name) arrived in South Africa in 1893 at the relatively tender age of 24 as a newly qualified lawyer on a temporary assignment to act on behalf of a local Indian trader in a commercial dispute.
  • It was in South Africa that Mahatma Gandhi first forged the distinctive techniques of nonviolent protest known as satyagraha, first promoted harmony between religions, and first alerted upper -caste Indians to their discriminatory treatment of low castes and women.
  • Discuss about some of the famous protests and satyagrahas launched by Gandhi in S. Africa. E.g Gandhi formed the Natal Indian Congress in 1894. This organisation led non-violent protests against the oppressive treatment of the white people towards the native Africans and Indians.
  • In September 1906, Gandhi organised the first Satyagraha campaign to protest against the Transvaal Asiatic ordinance that was constituted against the local Indians. Again in June 1907, he held Satyagraha against the Black Act.
  • Discuss about the issues for which Gandhiji fought against the white government in S. Africa etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Introduction:

Gandhiji was the most influential and revered of all the leaders who participated in the freedom struggle, that characterisation is not misplaced. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi returned to his homeland after two decades of residence abroad in January 1915. These  years  had  been  spent  for the  most  part  in  South  Africa,  where  he  went  as  a lawyer,  and  in  time  became  a  leader  of  the  Indian community  in  that  territory.

Body:

South Africa was the crucible that forged Gandhi’s identity as a political activist and was an important prelude to his return to India.

  • Gandhiji arrived in South Africa in 1893 at the relatively tender age of 24 as a newly qualified lawyer on a temporary assignment to act on behalf of a local Indian trader in a commercial dispute.
  • Victimized by incidents of racial discrimination, Gandhi embarked on a crusade against injustice in South Africa that he continued the rest of his life.
  • Gandhi formed the Natal Indian Congress in 1894. This organisation led non-violent protests against the oppressive treatment of the white people towards the native Africans and Indians.
  • During the outbreak of the Boer War in 1899, Gandhi gathered around 1,100 Indians and organised the Indian Ambulance Corps for the British but the ethnic discrimination and torture continued on Indians.
  • During his time here, he developed the strategy known as satyagraha (truth-force), in which campaigners went on peaceful marches and presented themselves for arrest in protest against unjust laws.
  • English writer John Ruskin’s book Unto This Last inspired Gandhi and he set up Phoenix Farm near Durban. Gandhi trained his cadres on non-violent Satyagraha or peaceful restraint. Phoenix Farm is considered as the birthplace of Satyagraha.
  • However, it was at the Tolstoy Farm, Gandhi’s second camp in South Africa, where Satyagraha was moulded into a weapon of protest.
  • In September 1906, Gandhi organised the first Satyagraha campaign to protest against the Transvaal Asiatic ordinance that was constituted against the local Indians. Again in June 1907, he held Satyagraha against the Black Act.
  • In 1908, he was sentenced to jail for organising the non-violent movements. But, after his meeting with General Smuts, a British Commonwealth statesman, he was released. However, he was later attacked for this and was again sentenced to jail against which he organised Satyagraha again
  • In 1909, he was sentenced to a three-month jail term in Volkshurst and Pretoria. After his release, Gandhi went to England to seek the assistance of the Indian community there.
  • He also fought against the nullification of non-Christian marriages in 1913.
  • Gandhi organised another peaceful resistance campaign in Transvaal against the oppression that Indian minors were suffering from. He led around 2,000 Indians across the Transvaal border.

Major learning in South Africa:

  • He promoted harmony between religions, and first alerted upper -caste Indians to their discriminatory treatment of low castes and women.
  • His greatest learning in South Africa was perhaps the unification of the heterogeneous Indian community that comprised of disgruntled merchants and the bonded labourers.
  • The notion of Non-Co-Operation Movement, as a civilian weapon to fight governmental tyranny was discussed by Henry David Thoreau, Leo Tolstoy, John Ruskin Bond etc., but it was Gandhi who gave practical shape to the concept.
  • His second weapon, non violence or ahimsa also evolved in South Africa. This cardinal principle of Gandhian philosophy was imbibed from Jainism and Vaishnavism. Gandhi showed to the world how non violence could be used as an effective political tool to fight the injustices hurled by an oppressive government.
  • Gandhi embraced a philosophy that disapproved of the norms of Western civilization and conceived of moral reformation of the Indians.

India was also under the similar yoke of colonialism and Gandhiji’s prior experience of freedom struggle in Africa helped him quickly adapt to the Indian conditions and take forward the shaky national movement that was in 1916.

Conclusion:

As the historian Chandran Devanesan has remarked, South Africa was “the making of the Mahatma”. The twenty- one long years that Gandhi lived in South Africa, had a considerable influence on the formation of his political ideologies and the philosophies of his life.


Topic –  Indian freedom struggle- Phases

4) The growth of “Gandhian nationalism” also depended to a very substantial extent on Mahatma Gandhi’s followers. Comment.(250 words)

Ncert

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding of the Gandhian phase of nationalism and express our opinion as to what extent was the phase contributed by leaders and freedom fighters other than Gandhi.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about Mahatma  Gandhi and his role. E.g While Mahatma Gandhi’s mass appeal was undoubtedly genuine – and in the context of Indian politics, without precedent – it must also be stressed that his success in broadening the basis of nationalism was based on careful organisation.

Body-

Discuss the contribution of leaders and freedom fighters, including Gandhi, in Gandhian nationalism. E.g

  • Between 1917 and 1922, a group of highly talented Indians attached themselves to Gandhiji.
  • They included Mahadev Desai, Vallabh Bhai Patel, J.B. Kripalani, Subhas Chandra Bose, Abul Kalam Azad, Jawaharlal Nehru, Sarojini Naidu, Govind Ballabh Pant and C. Rajagopalachari.
  • Notably, these close associates of Gandhiji came from different regions as well as different religious traditions.
  • In turn, they inspired countless other Indians to join the Congress and work for it.
  • Discuss briefly the role of some of the above mentioned freedom fighters etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Introduction:

Gandhiji’s activities in India during the crucial period 1915-1948 can be construed as ‘Gandhian era’ in Indian National Movement. His use of hunger strikes, mass demonstrations, deliberate courting of jails were the principal weapons which he added to the nationalist struggle. The period between 1919 to independence is marked by three important struggles – Non-cooperation movement of 1919, Civil Disobedience movement of 1930, with its call of complete independence and the famous Quit Indian Movement of 1942.

Body:

While Mahatma Gandhi’s mass appeal was undoubtedly genuine – and in the context of Indian politics, without precedent – it must also be stressed that his success in broadening the basis of nationalism was based on careful organisation.

Mahatma  Gandhi’s  leading  ascended  from  grass-root  level  to  the  top.  He never forced his authority upon the people. Here lies the distinction between Mr. Gandhi and the early leaders of Congress.  His  idea  of Swaraj was  that  of  kingdom  of  God  that  worked  for the advantage of the masses.

Leaders:

  • Between 1917 and 1922, a group of highly talented Indians attached themselves to Gandhiji.
  • They included Mahadev Desai, Vallabh Bhai Patel, J.B. Kripalani, Subhas Chandra Bose, Abul Kalam Azad, Jawaharlal Nehru, Sarojini Naidu, Govind Ballabh Pant and C. Rajagopalachari.
  • Notably, these close associates of Gandhiji came from different regions as well as different religious traditions.
  • In turn, they inspired countless other Indians to join the Congress and work for it.
  • Many recognized leaders like Nehru, Motilal Nehru, Lala Lajpat Rai etc. surrendered their legal  practice  and  supported  the 
  • Vallabh Bhai Patel
    • Patel supported Gandhi’s non-cooperation Movement and toured the state to recruit more than 300,000 members and raise over Rs. 1.5 million in funds.
    • Helping organise bonfires in Ahmedabad in which British goods were burned, Patel threw in all his English-style clothes.
    • Patel also supported Gandhi’s suspension of resistance in the wake of the Chauri Chaura incident.
    • In Gujarat he worked extensively in the following years against alcoholism, untouchability, and caste discrimination, as well as for the empowerment of women.
    • In the Congress, he was a resolute supporter of Gandhi against his Swarajist critics.
  • Sarojini Naidu 
    • In 1931, she participated in the second round-table conference with Gandhiji and Madan Mohan Malaviya. She was jailed, along with Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Madan Mohan Malaviya, and others for participating in the Salt March, when 1st Round Table Conference took place in London.
    • The poet Sarojini  Naidu drove  2,500  marchers  on  the Dharasana Salt Works, around 150 miles north of Bombay. A few hundred British-drove Indian police-men met them and violently  beat  the  peaceful 
    • She played a leading role in the Civil Disobedience Movement and was jailed along with Gandhi and other leaders. In 1942, she was arrested during period of the “Quit India Movement”
  • J B Kripalani:
    • Kripalani was a Gandhian socialist, environmentalist, mystic and independence activist.
    • He grew close to Gandhi and at one point, he was one of Gandhi’s most ardent disciples.
    • Kripalani was a familiar figure to generations of dissenters, from the Non-Cooperation Movements of the 1920s to the Emergency of the 1970s.
  • SC Bose:
    • In the eventful years of World War II, when Gandhi gave a call of ”Do or Die” and Netaji led the Indian National Army to make a fierce assault on the eastern front.
    • Although traversing divergent paths to attain the country’s freedom, legendary figures Subhas Chandra Bose and Mahatma Gandhi were locked in affectionate bonds, with the Mahatma in later years admitting the greatness of his ”adventurist son.”
  • Khan Abdul Gaffer
    • In the North western Frontier Province Khan Abdul Gaffer who came to be known as Frontier Gandhi drove his devotees in a monstrous uprising.
    • His adherents were referred to as ‘red shirts’ as they wore red coloured kurtas. The association  that  he  had  made  with  workers  and  small landowners  was  known  as  the  Khudai Khidmatgar  (the  servants  of  God). 
    • Gaffer Khan turned into a committed adherent of Gandhi and leading member of the Congress.
  • Acharya Vinoba Bhave:
    • An ardent supporter of Gandhi,  was chosen by him to start the movement.
    • He even participated in the individual satyagraha. Later, he started off the Bhoodan movement.

Citizens of India:

  • On Gokhale’s advice, Gandhiji spent a year  travelling  around  British  India, getting  to  know  the  land  and  its people.
  • The Banaras Hindu University Speech in 1916 was first  public announcement  of  Gandhiji’s own  desire  to  make  Indian nationalism  more  properly representative  of  the  Indian  people  as  a 
  • By 1922, Gandhiji had transformed Indian nationalism, thereby redeeming the promise he made in his BHU speech of February 1916.
  • During the  Non-Cooperation  Movement  thousands of  Indians  were  put  in    Gandhiji himself was arrested in March 1922, and charged with sedition.
  • It was no longer a movement  of  professionals  and  intellectuals;  now, hundreds  of  thousands  of  peasants,  workers  and artisans  also  participated  in 
  • Many of them venerated Gandhiji, referring to him as their ‘Mahatma’.
  • Some of the entrepreneurs, such as G.D. Birla, supported the national movement openly; others did so tacitly. Thus, among Gandhiji’s admirers were both poor peasants and rich industrialists, although the reasons varied.
  • The non-cooperation movement was a serious test for the people at all levels especially in terms of their self-reliance and awareness over their political rights

Conclusion:

His simple lifestyle and love of working with his hands allowed him to empathise more fully with the labouring poor and for them, in turn, to empathise with him.


Topic – poverty and developmental issues

5) Displaced and hounded out of their original habitats, Adivasis are now largely internally-displaced refugees. Critically comment.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Reference

Why this question

The article discusses the issues related to forest rights and how the tribal population of India has ended up getting the raw deal when it comes to forest rights. The article discusses the viewpoints of various stakeholders and how we have not been able to do justice to the tribal panchsheel policy.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the plight of the adivasi population and how by denying them their forest rights, they have been reduced to a status of refugee in their own country. The question expects us to discuss how forests have, over the past two decades, become the new contested arenas between a range of people and the impact that such contests have had on the adivasi population.

Directive word

Critically comment – When you are asked to comment, you have to pick main points and give your ‘opinion’ on them based on evidences or arguments stemming from your wide reading. Your opinion may be for or against, but you must back your argument with evidences. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about the issue – In a writ petition (civil) No. 109/2008, filed before the SC by some ‘conservation’ groups and a few relics of the forest bureaucracy, the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 or the Forest Rights Act was assailed as being contrary to the Constitution and therefore outside the powers of Parliament to legislate.

Body

  • Explain about the forest rights act and how it seeks to protect the interests of the traditional forest dwellers.
    • The Forest Rights Act (FRA) was an attempt to remedy this ‘historical injustice’ to the forest dwellers it recognised as ‘integral to the very survival and sustainability of the forest ecosystem’.
    • It set up a mechanism — with the Gram Sabhas as the nodal bodies — for the recognition (rather than the paternalistic ‘granting’) of the rights of these peoples to use forests in a sustainable way, for their livelihoods. It also charged these same people and the Gram Sabhas with the conservation of these natural resources.
    • procedural rights under the FRA under Rule 13 has been fraught with issues related to bureaucratic insistences
  • Discuss the viewpoint of the conservationist and the impact that lack of forest rights has had on the tribal population of the country. Explain about the tribal panchsheel policy of Nehru and how we have not implemented it in letter and in spirit. Highlight that efforts to oust the tribals have been motivated by mineral wealth exploitation etc

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss way forward.

Introduction:

                The Supreme Court recently passed orders on a case challenging the Forest Rights Act, 2006, which seeks to protect the rights of forest-dwellers and communities that have traditionally depended on the forest. They ordered state governments to proceed with evicting those whose traditional claims have been rejected. As a consequence, more than one million tribals could be displaced, mainly in central India.

                The petitioners, all conservationists, have qualified the objectives of their petition and highlighted the case for safeguarding the forests against “bogus claims to forest rights”, calling for the state to take action against the loss of forest cover.

Body:

Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 or Forest Rights Act 2006 has been enacted by the government of India to recognize the rights of the forest dwellers and local communities on the forest and with the aim of empowering them with regard to most of the decisions regarding forest and its use.

It deals with the rights of forest-dwelling communities over land and other resources. The Act grants legal recognition to the rights of traditional forest dwelling communities, partially correcting the injustice caused by the forest laws.

  • Rights under the Act:
    • Title rights – Ownership to land that is being farmed by tribals or forest dwellers subject to a maximum of 4 hectares; ownership is only for land that is actually being cultivated by the concerned family, meaning that no new lands are granted.
    • Use rights – to minor forest produce (also including ownership), to grazing areas, to pastoralist routes, etc.
    • Relief and development rights – to rehabilitation in case of illegal eviction or forced displacement; and to basic amenities, subject to restrictions for forest protection.
    • Forest management rights – to protect forests and wildlife.
  • It set up a mechanism — with the Gram Sabhas as the nodal bodies — for the recognition (rather than the paternalistic ‘granting’) of the rights of these peoples to use forests in a sustainable way, for their livelihoods.
  • A leading example emerged in the Niyamgiri case of Odisha in which the Supreme Court upheld FRA and ordered that forests could be diverted for mining only if the gram sabhas of the local Dongria Kond community gave their consent.
  • It also charged these same people and the Gram Sabhas with the conservation of these natural resources.

The conservationists contest that the FRA is damaging the forest and its resources.

  • The existing Indian Forest Act (IFA) and Wildlife Protection Act (WLPA) provided adequate protection to local people.
  • Recognition of the rights of forest dwellers would increase encroachment on forestland due to false claims
  • The passing of the act had been carried out in haste and without adequate thought being applied to the impact of the FRA on forests and wildlife.
  • The provisions of the FRA are used by local politicians to influence the local communities for their vested political interests.

However, the tribals and the FRA are not the culprits for the declining forest cover and biodiversity loss as contested in the petition.

  • By recognizing and vesting forest rights to local people, the FRA empowers forest dwelling communities to manage natural resources and conserve
  • Additionally, by envisaging and providing for local stewardship of forests, it creates a possibility of collaboration between local people, state agencies and other actors, on equal terms.
  • The government’s own data shows that 14,00,000 ha of forests have been diverted since 1980 for non-forestry purposes, mainly for mining, defence projects, and hydroelectric projects. In response to a query in Parliament in 2016, it was officially accepted that up to 25,000 ha of forests are being diverted every year for non-forestry activities.
  • The FRA offers the chance to rethink wildlife conservation approaches in protected areas too, by making local communities rights-holders in the forest and improving the governance at the local level.
  • The Adivasi has become a pawn in the games that an indifferent polity, a corrupt administrative apparatus and an aggressively ambitious dominant society are playing
  • The Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre and the Norwegian Refugee Council released a new report which ranked India third among countries most affected by displacement related to disasters followed by China and the Philippines.
  • The adverse integration of tribals into the most exploitative labour regimes and the most indifferent forms of administration.
  • The despoliation of India’s forests by the mining, timber and tourism industries not been addressed.
  • The presence of large resorts and the heavy footfall of tourists on these sites be legitimised while the rights of their original inhabitants remain challenged

The worrisome condition of the tribes:

  • Hounded for the mineral wealth that their lands contain, cheated out of land rights by money lenders, and, caught between left-wing mobilisation, a life of penury and rampant alcoholism, many Adivasi communities live a disturbed life.
  • Nature conservation programmes such as “Project Tiger” that seek to restore forests as pristine nature spaces have transformed forest-dwellers and turned Adivasis into eco-refugees.
  • The original inhabitants live in impoverished colonies outside the sanctuaries and parks while the forest department’s writ runs large over these terrains.
  • The illegal regimes of forest extraction continue, administrative laxity has permitted the growth of a nature tourism industry in the garb of ‘Eco-tourism’.
  • Adding to the depletion of their habitats are a range of government programmes that go against the ways of lives of the Adivasis.
  • Poor quality education means that these communities are not able to access mainstream advantages.
  • The Forest Rights Act was passed to enable them to regain their lost habitats. But there has been a failure of political will to implement this piece of legislation

Way Forward:

  • There is an urgent need to treat Adivasis as envisaged in Nehru’s Tribal Panchsheel policy which was in support by Anthropologist s like Verrier Elwin, Thakar Bapa etc.
  • Studies indicate the strength of tribal knowledge of forests and ecological resources. Such knowledge enabled not only the conservation of flora and biodiversity but also that of fauna.
  • The negative fallout of decades of intensive chemical and technology-based agriculture and the recent impact of global climate change, which threatens natural resources and food production, it may be important to draw on such knowledge systems.
  • An Adivasi can claim collective rights on a format that recognises clan/tribal affiliation and work/production plans that can include restoration of habitats, ecological sustainability and autonomous governance

Conclusion:

The strength of India’s democracy is that it recognises the pluralism of Indian society. If we are to safeguard this, the Adivasi must be recognised as key dramatis personae on the national stage.


Topic: India and its bilateral relations

6) Discuss the current state of India Pakistan relations and comment on the way forward for relations between the two countries?(250 words)

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Why this question

The article discusses the status of India Pakistan relations which has seen heightened levels of acrimony in the days gone by with things coming to a head with the threat of war looming. The article touches upon these issues and discusses ways to de-escalate the tension.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the status quo of relations between India and Pakistan, highlight that the threat of war is looming large over the countries. Thereafter, we need to give our view based on reasoned arguments about the next course of action.

Directive word

Comment – When you are asked to comment, you have to pick main points and give your ‘opinion’ on them based on evidences or arguments stemming from your wide reading. Your opinion may be for or against, but you must back your argument with evidences.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that relations between the two countries is at its nader.

Body

  • Discuss the reasons which led to the current sequence of events
  • Discuss about the possible course of actions going forward such as release of IAF pilot which could set the course for de-escalate of tension between the two countries, ways through which Pakistan can be brought to the dialogue table and how international pressure can be built for ensuring that Pakistan takes credible action against terror groups on its soil
  • Give your view on what should be the best course of action for India

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced view and discuss way forward.

Introduction:

The recent spate of events between India and Pakistan after the terror attack at Pulwama has put the bilateral relations at an all time low. It has created a war-type situation between the neighbours.

Body:

Recent events:

The Indian Air Force’s (IAF) precision strike on a Jaish-e-Mohammed terror camp at Balakot was responded by an impetuous Pakistan retaliating the following day and was quickly thwarted. Pakistan claimed an Indian MiG fighter was shot down and its pilot captured.

Current state of relations with Pakistan:-

  • Bilateral relations stalled in 2016 following the Pathankot and Uri attacks.
  • The inaction of Pakistan towards the non-state actors on its soil has further added to the mistrust between neighbours.
  • With the rampant use of high calibre weapons such as mortars and even artillery in the borders in Jammu and Kashmir, civilian casualties and the destruction of their habitats have risen steadily.
  • Pakistan has violated the ceasefire over 600 times so far this year, the highest in the last one decade.
  • In September 2016, India launched ‘surgical strikes’ as retaliation for the Uri attack but this has not reduced infiltration.
  • Since Burhan Wani’s death, local recruitment by radical groups is also on the rise.
  • India has successfully stalled the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) summit since 2016
  • But limits to the policy of isolating Pakistan are also apparent.
  • Over the last five years, the bilateral trade trajectory has been volatile. From a high of $2.70 billion in 2013-14, it fell to $2.40 billion in 2017-18. During this time, while Pakistan’s exports to India were fairly consistent, India’s exports decreased.
  • The judicial battles fought at ICJ over the curbing of consular access to Indian prisoner Kulbhushan Jadhav has added to more animosity.
  • The issues of water sharing raised due to the dams built on Indus and its tributaries are a bone of contention despite Indus Water Treaty, 1960.

The best possible course of action for India is

  • Strategic:
    • It is time to define the nature and scope of our conflict with Pakistan.
    • As the dominant power in South Asia and one of the world’s leading democracies, India must find a proper answer to what could otherwise become a serious existential crisis.
    • India need to establish a national security doctrine in order to deal with all security issues
    • Surgical strikes with support of the global countries.
    • Strong intelligence network both inside as well as outside the country with effective dissemination to the stakeholders.
    • Water issues should be resolved through the mechanisms provided by the Indus Basin Treaty and should not be allowed to degenerate into a serious source of conflict.
  • Diplomatic:
    • Creating International pressure on Pakistan to curb state sponsored terror.
    • There is a strong need for India to change its approach from Responsive to Proactive.
    • Gaining support of global players to designate terror organizations and its entities as global terrorists.
    • India needs to engage and develop relationships with countries from important organizations like SCO, BRICS and try to enable solutions for the issue of cross border terrorism.
    • This must be bolstered with Dialogues at the highest level to track 2 diplomacies.
    • More avenues for people to people contact need to be encouraged.
  • Economic:
    • Imposing economic and political sanctions on Pakistan and asking the world to follow suit.
    • The recent move of removing MFN status, increasing of import duty to 200%.
  • Technological:
    • Advance technology like drones, thermal imaging etc can be used to monitor the activities in the border and track any violations beforehand.
  • Against cross-border firing:
    • To reduce the destruction of civilian habitats is to lower the calibre of the violations. The two sides could consider withdrawing heavy artillery to 50 km behind the zero line.
    • The two Director-Generals of Military Operations, along with their delegations, could consider holding regular meetings every six months. Data show that every time the leaderships of the armed forces meet, ceasefire violations come down
    • Establishing more flag meeting points between local commanders and responding quickly to meeting requests could lead to better communication and reduced misunderstandings resulting in fewer ceasefire violations.
    • Confidence-building measures should be pursued to alleviate the “trust deficit” but should not be used as a substitute for the resolution of disputes.

Conclusion:

There is a need to embrace an overarching strategic stability regime and to shun aggressive security doctrines to reduce the possibility of a nuclear conflict. The problems of terrorism and Non-State Actors need to be addressed jointly through institutionalised mechanisms. Indeed, India should focus on a different type of a surgical strike; it’s a strike that could push Pakistan out of its terror past and military dependency.


Topic: Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

7) 5G technology can fulfil the vast potential ascribed to it these past years. Examine. (250 words)

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Why this question

The article brings out the huge potential of 5G technology and discusses its application and the impact on various sectors. The technology has been in news for quite some time and the article provides an interesting insight into its various applications.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain about 5g technology and thereafter discuss its potential in various areas and how it can prove useful. The question also expects us to discuss the impact of these applications and discuss how India can make use of it in the best possible manner.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what do you understand by 5g technology.

Body

  • Discuss the various applications of the technology such as
    • 5G not only represents a generational leap in connectivity speeds, the new network standard will also introduce lower latency (for improved response) and the ability to connect more devices at once
    • 5G will revolutionize the mobile experience with supercharged wireless network, which can support up to 10 to 20 GBPS of data download speed. It is equivalent to a fiber optic Internet connection accessed wirelessly. Compared to conventional mobile transmission technologies, voice and high-speed data can be simultaneously transferred efficiently in 5G etc
  • Discuss the various areas in which the technology can be employed for better results
    • Industry 4.0,
    • mixed reality (MR) applications, which is augmented reality (AR) plus virtual reality (VR),
    • sports and entertainment,
    • fixed wireless access
    • autonomous vehicles etc
  • Discuss the limitations of the technology – High investment cost which makes telecom companies unsure about RoI, in India the telecom sector is facing capital augmentation issues which need to be resolved etc

Conclusion – Give your view on the potential of the technology and the way forward.

Introduction:

5G is the fifth generation mobile network. It’s a unified platform which is much more capable than previous mobile services with more capacity, lower latency, faster data delivery rate and better utilisation of spectrum. The standards for the usage of 5G are defined and driven by 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).

Body:

Characteristics of 5G technology:

The various areas in which the technology can be employed for better results:

  • Industry 4.0:
  • The manufacturing industry is going through a digital revolution.
  • Within the context of Industry 4.0, manufacturers are becoming more efficient through the application of automation and data exchange to their existing factory processes to enable better integrated workflows and smarter manufacturing.
  • Industrial IoT technologies are streamlining and simplifying many manufacturing processes in revolutionary ways.
  • Mixed reality (MR) applications:
    • The MR Apps comprise augmented reality (AR) plus virtual reality (VR) apps.
    • Beyond the consumer market (think Pokémon Go), interesting applications are also likely to be found in industrial and medical contexts.
    • Remote medical procedures, engineering, public safety and field-service applications are all strong use case opportunities for the application of low latency 5G services.
  • Sports and entertainment:
    • A combination of VR and AR with ultra high-fidelity enabled by 5G could transform the way fans interact in these events.
    • Motorsports is ideal for VR in particular: equipped with their mobile device or headset, fans could be served information like lap or technical information about cars as they race on the track in a sport like Formula 1
  • Fixed wireless access:
    • Fixed wireless access could also be used to bring high bandwidth digital services to under-served rural areas.
    • Mobile operators will then be able to compete with wireline, satellite and cable companies, offering new revenue streams and faster RoI.
  • Autonomous vehicles:
  • The idea that much of the car, if not all of it, is controlled not by the driver but by technology.
  • 5G is critical to realize this as it will offer the connectivity and speed needed to deliver vast amounts of data to one another as well as other objects simultaneously.
  • 5G can provide a completely seamless mobile experience is a must so that cars can stay constantly connected.

Challenges present to adapt to 5G are:

  • Frequency allocation: Indian operators have far less spectrum in comparison to international operators. The high investment cost which makes telecom companies unsure about Return on Investment.
  • Network investment: In India, the telecom sector is facing capital augmentation issues which need to be resolved.
  • Non-availability of funds for investment: Many of the Indian operators are also weighed down by debt.
  • Regulatory restrictions: Faster rounds of new technology introduction when prior technology investments have not been recouped add further complexity.
  • Technical Challenges: Designing IT architecture that can be deployed globally, while still allowing for localized technology to cater for different regions is a challenge.

Way forward for India:

  • Need to align Digital India with 5G technology.
  • Incentivize design and manufacture of 5G technologies, products and solutions in India.
  • Allocate funds and incentivise local technology and telecom firms to develop their internal capacities which would in turn help 5G technology succeed in the country
  • Promote 5G start-ups that enable this design and manufacturing capabilities.
  • Promote generation of IPR backing the above designs.
  • Manufacture of 5G chipsets, this may require massive investments.
  • Appropriate test-beds and technology platforms to enable and help Indian technical ecosystem to have an edge in 5G.
  • Accelerated deployment of next generation ubiquitous ultra-high broadband infrastructure with 100% coverage of 10 Gbps across urban India and 1 Gbps across Rural India.
  • Coverage, reliability, and scalability must be optimized and seamless mobile networks will require a unified management policy to ensure consistent standards

Conclusion:

The World Economic Forum predicts that by 2023 there will be a staggering 9.1 billion mobile subscriptions. 5G will act as the catalyst for Digital India—a watershed moment in digital transformation. India is at the cusp of a next generation of wireless technology 5G. It provides an opportunity for industry to reach out to global markets, and consumers to gain with the economies of scale. It can help in better service delivery, faster access to services and deeper penetration of digital services.