SECURE SYNOPSIS: 11 FEBRUARY 2019

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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 11 FEBRUARY 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


Topic–  geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including water bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

1) Explain the difference between smog and haze? Examine the impact of haze on warming in South asia?(250 words)

Reference

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what smog and haze is and explain the difference between them. Thereafter, it expects us to how haze impacts warming in South Asia.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that precipitation comes in several form including smog and haze.

Body

  • Explain what smog and haze is
    • Haze is traditionally an atmospheric phenomenon where dust, smoke and other dry particles obscure the clarity of the sky (No condensation). Sources for haze particles include farming (ploughing in dry weather), traffic, industry, and wildfires.
    • Smog = smoke + fog (smoky fog) caused by the burning of large amounts of coal, vehicular emission and industrial fumes (Primary pollutants).
    • Unlike fog and mist, haze is a suspension of very small, dry molecules in the air. Smog is a type of air pollution. It is a mixture of smoke, gases, and chemicals that makes the atmosphere appear thick and dark or yellow in colour.
    • Smog is similar to haze but there is condensation in smog
  • Discuss the impact of haze on warming in South Asia.
    • composition of a class of carbon-carrying aerosols in the haze changes as it travels from above the landmass to the oceans. The light absorption capacity of brown carbon — a key component of the haze — decreases during transport but its bleaching half-life is 3.6 days compared to 9 to 15 hours in other regions. This means that brown carbon stays in the South Asian atmosphere for a longer duration and thereby may contribute to warming of the region, according to researchers.

Conclusion – Discuss what needs to be done.

Difference between smog and haze :-

  • Haze is the reflection of sunlight off air pollution, while smog is what happens when pollution causes low-lying ozone.
  • Haze is very fine solid particles (smoke, dust) or liquid droplets (moisture) suspended in the air, slightly limiting visibility while smog is a noxious mixture of particulates and gases that is the result of urban air pollution. 
  • Most of the time, haze occurs in areas far from the original source of the pollutants, which are carried by wind currents to where they ultimately gather. Haze forms when light reflects off airborne pollution particles and interferes with visibility .
  • Haze is traditionally an atmospheric phenomenon where dust, smoke and other dry particles obscure the clarity of the sky (No condensation). Sources for haze particles include farming (ploughing in dry weather), traffic, industry, and wildfires.
  • Smog = smoke + fog (smoky fog) caused by the burning of large amounts of coal, vehicular emission and industrial fumes (Primary pollutants).
  • Unlike fog and mist, haze is a suspension of very small, dry molecules in the air. Smog is a type of air pollution. It is a mixture of smoke, gases, and chemicals that makes the atmosphere appear thick and dark or yellow in colour.
  • Smog is similar to haze but there is condensation in smog

Impact of haze on warming in South Asia :-

  • The haze over Delhi and Northwest India seen during winters is not only causing problems to people on the ground but also impacting atmospheric climate. 
  • Brown carbon, a key component of haze stays in the South Asian atmosphere for a longer duration and thereby may contribute to warming of the region, according to researchers.
  • haze, also called atmospheric brown cloud (ABC), contains several types of particles emanating from vehicular pollution, biomass burning and other sources. This layer of polluted air plays critical role in regional climate as it both absorbs and scatters incoming solar radiation.
  • Even earlier studies point to the fact that Brown clouds of pollution that stretch over the Indian Ocean during the dry season are warming the climate just as much as greenhouse gases.
  • According to a study, published in the journal Nature, these ‘atmospheric brown clouds’ could be directly responsible for the melting of glaciers in the Asian Himalayan and Hindu Kush mountain ranges, and may lead to water shortages in southern and eastern Asia. The soot particles that make up these pollution blankets can both absorb and disperse light, and therefore both warm and cool the climate.
  • brown clouds have most likely contributed to the increase in air temperature in the region, which in turn is in part responsible for the observed melting and receding of glaciers. This could have an effect on the amount of water that flows down many major Asian rivers, such as the Yangtze, the Indus and the Ganges, reducing the amount of water available to the people who live along them.

Topic: geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including water bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

2) Explain the reason and impact of shifting magnetic poles?(250 words)

Indianexpress

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the reasons as to why the earth’s magnetic poles are shifting. It also wants us to write in detail about the implications of such a phenomenon for the world.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that the Earth’s magnetic behaviour is far more complex than that of a simple bar magnet. Its north poles and south poles move around sometimes erratically. Over large periods of time, they change their locations significantly, sometimes even interchanging their positions

Body

  • Explain that the shifting of poles is a periodical affair with no fixed time period, however research and shown that the pace of shift has accelerated in recent years – Scientists have now realised the pace of this movement has suddenly increased, quite significantly, from about 14-15 km per year till the 1990s to about 55 km per year in the last few years. This led to scientists on Monday updating the World Magnetic Model (WMM) that tracks this movement. It was a year ahead of schedule
  • Discuss why this is happening – The movement of liquid iron and other metals in the outer core of the Earth is known to influence the magnetic field, but this movement is chaotic and turbulent. Scientists do not fully understand how the movement happens or why. The study of the phenomena happening inside the earth can only be done indirectly or through computer modelling, because of the extremely hot temperatures prevailing there. Scientists hope that this acceleration in the shifting of magnetic north pole would throw some new insights into the phenomena happening deep inside the Earth’s surface.
  • Discuss its consequences – impact on transportation sector, some birds that use magnetic fields to navigate, An overall weakening of the magnetic field isn’t good for people and especially satellites and astronauts. The magnetic field shields Earth from dangerous UV radiation etc.

 

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Background:-

  • Earth’s north magnetic pole has been drifting so fast in the last few decades that scientists say that past estimates are no longer accurate enough for precise navigation. The magnetic north pole is wandering about 55 kilometers a year.
  • Since 1831 when it was first measured in the Canadian Arctic it has moved about 2300 kilometers toward Siberia. 
  • The magnetic south pole is moving far slower than the north

Reasons why Earth’s magnetic pole is shifting:-

  • This shift is caused by convection  a slow rotation of fluid rock and molten metal in the earth’s outer core .
  • They happen when patches of iron atoms in Earth’s liquid outer corebecome reverse-aligned, like tiny magnets oriented in the opposite direction from those around them. . There is a hot liquid ocean of iron and nickel in the planet’s core where the motion generates an electric field.
  • When the reversed patches grow to the point that they dominate the rest of the core, Earth’s overall magnetic field flips.
  • The last reversal happened 780,000 years ago during the Stone Age, and indeed there’s evidence to suggest the planet may be in the early stages of a pole reversal right now.
  • Earth’s magnetic field is getting weaker, leading scientists to say that it will eventually flip, where north and south pole changes polarity, like a bar magnet flipping over. It has happened numerous times in Earth’s past, but not in the last 780,000 years.

Implications:-

  • constant shift is a problem for compasses in smartphones and some consumer electronics.
  • Airplanes and boats also rely on magnetic north, usually as backup navigation.
  • The military depends on where magnetic north is for navigation and parachute drops, while NASA, the Federal Aviation Administration and U.S. Forest Service also use it.
  • Airport runway names are based on their direction toward magnetic north and their names change when the poles moved. 
  • Birds and animals:-
    • Shifting would bother some birds that use magnetic fields to navigate.
  • overall weakening of the magnetic field isn’t good for people and especially satellites and astronauts.
  • The magnetic field shields Earth from some dangerous radiation.
    • The alteration in the magnetic field during a reversal will weaken its shielding effect, allowing heightened levels of radiation on and above the Earth’s surface.
  • Other adverse impacts are decreasing accuracy and frequent update of instruments, increased cost and inconvenience. 


General Studies – 2


Topic: Development processes and the development industry- the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders

3) Discuss the role played by NGOs and international institutions through their development initiatives in helping India address its hunger problem?(250 words)

Financialexpress

Why this question

The article highlights the efforts made by Akshaya Patra foundation and how it has helped in tackling hunger on a large scale in this country. This brings into question the role played by NGOs in addressing developmental challenges and how in cooperation with government they can bring about huge social changes.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the role played by NGOs and developmental institutions in tackling the hunger problem. First we need to highlight the hunger problem in India and thereafter explain how NGOs and international institutions can and are playing a huge role in tackling such challenges.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that in a democracy, civil society has an important role to play in fulfilling developmental agenda and organised efforts happen through NGOs.

Body

  • Discuss the state of problem of hunger in India – India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output.
  • Highlight how NGOs help in addressing the hunger problem and the role played by international institutions in resolving the hunger crisis
  • Discuss what more needs to be done. Discuss the issues faced by such NGOs and what needs to be done in this regard.

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss way forward.

Background :-

  • India tops the list as the most undernourished country with 194.6 million hungry citizens. Despite a remarkable progress in the economy, the country has failed to eradicate hunger at the grassroots levels and is home to 15 percent of the world’s hungry.

How NGO’s initiatives  helped address India’s hunger problem :-

  • Akshaya Patra feeds 326.5 million meals (in FY18) through 37 kitchens and the plan is to raise this threefold by 2025. There are even mobile kitchens to feed 5,000-7,000 people every day during the Kumbh Mela, the NTR canteens in Andhra Pradesh feed 60,000 people at just Rs. 5 per meal and 2,000 homeless are even fed every day outside the London School of Economics in the UK
  • Fight Hunger Foundation :-
    • It advocates for community-based management of acute malnutrition, and conducts several pilot projects in partnership with the Department of Health and local organizations. Fight Hunger Foundation also  undertakes studies to explore and test the efficiency of local ready-to-use therapeutic food products, and their effectiveness.
  • The Robin Hood Army is a voluntary organization that aims to provide surplus food from restaurants to the less fortunate across the cities of India.
  • Feeding India’s volunteers or Hunger Heroes have been working to provide food to the hungry. They collect leftover food from parties, weddings or other events and distribute it in shelter homes. 
  • No Hungry Child is the name of the project started by former corporate sector employee V.Sridhar who wanted to provide nutritious meals to children in the country. they also provide funding to other registered NGOs to cook and serve free food to the poor.
  • Embracing the Worldis a global initiative that works towards alleviating poverty. According to them, they try to provide five basic needs – food, shelter, healthcare, education and livelihood, “whenever and wherever possible.” The initiative helps feed 10 million people every year in India.
  • Skip a meal is a student driven initiative where volunteers forego one meal each week and give them to people in need.
  • The Right to Food Campaign (launched in March 2014), which is an informal network of individuals and organisations, is the result of public interest litigation. Under the campaign, organised efforts are made to persuade State governments to attend to the most pressing demands of society, including proper nutrition

International institutions:-

  • UN support:-
    • To address the linked nutrition and livelihood challenges in India and to ensure that vulnerable groups are not left behind, the UN priority group partners with the government to scale-up nutrition services and improve feeding and caring practices in the home.
    • It assists government efforts to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the safety nets under the NFSA, and work towards increasing farm incomes for small and marginal farming households.
    • The group provides support the strengthening of agriculture and livelihood dimensions of anti-poverty programmes, particularly the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act and the National Rural Livelihoods Mission.
  • The Zero Hunger Challenge (ZHC) recognises that eradicating hunger is multi-dimensional and that countries need to move beyond an approach that focuses on food production, to work towards achieving progress on five specific pillars. The ZHC is extremely relevant for India; home to 18% of the world’s population, 25% of the country’s people go hungry.
  • Improving Child Nutrition through Rice Fortification:-
    • The World Food Programme in India, in partnership with the Government of Odisha, is implementing a two-year project in Gajapati District to improve nutrition through rice fortification in nearly 1,500 schools through the mid-day meal scheme.
  • Rayagada’s Journey in Food Distribution Reform
    • The World Food Project’s pilot in Rayagada, Odisha reached a population of over a million people through nearly 400 Fair Price Shops and provided a learning opportunity for the formulation of an efficient Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS).
  • WFP Innovating with India
    • Over the last few years, WFP has transitioned from the direct delivery of food aid to providing advice and technical support to the Government of India to improve delivery of subsidised food through the Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS).

What can be done :-

  • India must ensure that the food security act is implemented properly, that all Indians have access to basic cereals and pulses, there is enough knowledge around nutrition and healthcare, and that our women and children have access to good, reliable, primary healthcare.
  • Some of the causes of hunger issue can be addressed by NGOs but much of it has to do with traditional norms and practices that we follow across communities that are harder to change. These need to be looked into.
  • Attention needs to be paid on building neighbourhood health and nutrition profiles and carrying out interventions based on identified needs.

General Studies – 3


Topic  -Awareness in the field of space

4) Space race is once again hotting up. Discuss in this context the prospect of Indo Japan cooperation and how will it prove beneficial?(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

The article discusses the advancements made by space agencies of various countries and the strategic implications of the same. The article also discusses how India and Japan are cooperating in the arena of space research and why this cooperation is important.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the advancements made by the space agencies of various countries and the space policies of the major powers which suggests that space race is hotting up. Thereafter, it expects us to discuss the strategic cooperation between India and Japan and why this is beneficial for India.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that the cold war witnessed the first space race and once again the competition is heating up amongst several space agencies in an era of geopolitical flux.

Body

  • Discuss the US space policy directive, landing on moon by China, the need to tap into space resources and making a base for further exploration and how several countries are involved in it
  • Discuss the terms of India and Japan cooperation in space research
    • Both Japan and India have been eyeing the growth of China’s military space programme under the leadership of the People’s Liberation Army. The changing balance of power equations in Asia along with the troubled history among key Asian powers are likely to lead to competition in the outer space domain as well.
    • India-Japan strategic partnership has been growing stronger, and this also extends to their cooperation on matters of outer space. The two countries recently announced that they will be holding their first space security dialogue in March this year. Until now, India has held a space security dialogue only with the US, which began only in March 2015.
    • Discuss the scope of indo japanese cooperation in space arena – Earth observation, satellite-based navigation, space sciences and lunar exploration.

Conclusion – Explain about the scope of this partnership and how this might prove useful for India.

Background:-

  • Six decades after the erstwhile Soviet Union stole a lead in the space race by launching the Soyuz rocket ahead of the US, a fresh round of jousting seems to have reached critical mass as once again the competition is heating up amongst several space agencies in an era of geopolitical flux.
  • Growing fears that satellites could be threatened by newfangled space weapons or sophisticated hacking are forcing governments to think of their space programs not just as scientific endeavours but as pressing national security concerns.
  • US space policy directive, landing on moon by China, the need to tap into space resources and making a base for further exploration by many countries is complicating the space race further.

The India-Japan strategic partnership has been growing stronger, and this also extends to their cooperation on matters of outer space:-

  • The two countries recently announced that they will be holding their first space security dialogue in March this year. Until now, India has held a space security dialogue only with the US, which began only in March 2015.
  • The bilateral space partnership between the two is also driven by the increasing alignment of strategic thinking in shaping a stable and secure Asian strategic order.
  • In September 2017, the two leaders applauded the deepening partnership between the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) on a number of important areas, including Earth observation, satellite-based navigation, space sciences and lunar exploration.
  • The space dialogue and the broader strategic partnership between New Delhi and Tokyo are driven by the rising China factor and the strategic consequences of China’s rise.
  • The Asian geopolitical competition characterised by the simultaneous rise of three Asian powers is a strong imperative for the deepening partnership between the Indian and Japanese space agencies.

Prospects:-

  • India and Japan through their cooperative efforts would possibly have a better chance of effecting some changes in the emerging Asian space security dynamics. Surveillance and Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) of the waters in the East China Sea, the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean will likely remain focus areas in the bilateral space collaboration.
  • India and Japan have plans for the Moon mission, where China is already making impressive strides.
  • India is dependent on the US satellite imagery for the movement of Chinese troops along its borders and with this new Space dialogue between the two countries, India is looking at others to gather information.
  • Countries like India and Japan, which have promoted space development from a “civilian and peaceful perspective are “increasingly driven to develop certain military characteristics.
  • The countries intend to cooperate not only on lunar exploration but also security, including surveillance sharing.
  • The scope of indo Japanese cooperation in space arena – Earth observation, satellite-based navigation, space sciences and lunar exploration

Topic – Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

5) Schemes to allow for clean energy penetration at a large scale are hinging on serious power sector reforms. Critically analyze in this context the success of UDAY?(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

The article discusses the problems faced by the discoms in India and analyzes how far Uday has been successful in addressing such challenges. This question would enable you to prepare in detail the problems faced by discoms in India and how far Uday has been successful.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to highlight the issues faced by discoms in India which create hindrances in setting ambitious renewable energy targets and establish the need for power sector reforms. Thereafter, we need to highlight the role of Uday in addressing such challenges and examine how far has it been successful.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that India requires to accelerate itself on the path of clean energy. But even before that it needs to work on deepening electricity penetration in the country for which power sector reforms and imperative.

Body

  • Discuss the issues plaguing power generation , transmission etc in India and why power sector reforms are required
  • Explain about the Uday scheme and discuss how successful has it been –
    • a) Bad Loans – The Banks have provided Loans to Public Sector Power Generation Companies which they failed to recover and hence this resulted in accumulation of Bad Loans in Sector.
      b) Distribution Losses – Although UDAY succeeded in cutting down Distribution losses by around 21% , a Major share of Losses is still left which is a major challenge for DISCOMS.
    • Electricity Theft – Electricity Theft is not curbed completely and hence possess major challenge to DISCOMS.
    • Metering and Billings – The inadequacy in Metering and Billing Process is a major challenge to DISCOMS in gaining Economic Stability.
  • Discuss what more needs to be done
    • Strict Actions to curb Electricity theft and other actions that lead to Losses to DISCOMs.
    • Integrating UDAY scheme with Make in India and Startup India to ensure overall Development.
    • Integrating UDAY with KUSUM to increase amount of electricity to DISCOMS.

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss way forward.

Background:-

  • India has a 200-GW power system which is growing at a healthy pace, while dealing with technological, environmental and regulatory discontinuities. The need for continuous investment in conventional and renewable generation, as well as transmission infrastructure is necessary.

UDAY:-

  • UDAY was launched in 2015 and is aimed at reviving electricity distribution companies (discoms), improving demand and, in the process, resolving the woes in the sector. Scheme aims at financial turnaround and revival of Power Distribution companies(DISCOMs) and ensures a sustainable permanent solution
  • It allows power DISCOMs in selected states to convert their debt into state bonds as well as roll out number of measures to improve efficiency at power plants
  • It Improves operational efficiencies of DISCOMs, Reduce of cost of power, Reduce interest cost of DISCOMs, Enforce financial discipline on DISCOMs.
  • Improve operational efficiency by swapping of coal linkages, monitoring technical and commercial (AT&C) losses , smart metering and feeder separation in states

Performance of the scheme:-

  • It took off well, with a large number of states joining the scheme. Several states took over the debt of their utilities ,improving their liquidity situation. Anecdotalevidence also suggests an improvement in the power supply situation.
  • Power transmission
  • Government’s UDAY scheme has helped debt-laden discoms of 24 states to reduce losses to Rs 369 billion in 2016-17 from Rs 515.9 billion in the previous financial year.
    • The participating states have achieved an improvement of one per cent in Aggregate Technical & Commercial (AT&C or distribution) lossesand Rs 0.17 a Unit in the gap between Average Cost of Supply and Average Revenue realised in 2016- 17
  • UDAY can smoothen the power off take distribution process.
  • It talks about cost-side efficiency such as immediate reduction of interest service burden, reduction in fuel cost through coal swapping, time-bound loss reduction, etc. 
    • Reduction in interest cost has benefitted discoms finances
  • On the revenue side, it talks about a strict discipline of quarterly fuel cost adjustment, annual tariff increase, taking regulators on board and finally including discom losses in the FRBM limits for the states.
  • UDAY has potential to unclog the entire power chain as operational efficiency improvements to reduce the distribution losses from around 22 per cent to 15 per centand eliminate the gap between average revenue and average cost by FY19.

Why there is a need for power reforms :-

  • Issues with discoms :-
    • Distribution Losses :-
      • Although UDAY succeeded in cutting down Distribution losses by around 21% , a Major share of Losses is still left which is a major challenge for DISCOMS.
    • Electricity Theft :-
      •  Electricity Theft is not curbed completely and hence possess major challenge to DISCOMS.
    • Metering and Billings :-
      •  The inadequacy in Metering and Billing Process is a major challenge to DISCOMS in gaining Economic Stability.
  • Failure of UDAY:-
    • Three years on, the results of UDAY remain unclear and questionable. Many tasks are running behind schedule like smart meter installations.
    • AT&C losses remain high, with some states indicating losses of over 40 per cent, a far cry from the 15 per cent target.
    • The gap between average cost of supply (ACS) and the average revenue realised (ARR) continues to be high in most states.
    • Much of the NPA (non-performing asset) or bad loan resolution in the power sector is beyond UDA
    • Over and above the prevailing maladies in the distribution system rising share of renewable energy (RE) is increasing the average cost of supply, as it is displacing consumption of low-cost coal.
    • The bonds issued are essentially held by the same entities that had lent funds to the State electricity boards (SEBs). 
    • The interest received is lower by at least 4-6 per cent; this means that there is a loss of income. Intuitively, it can be seen that every ₹1 lakh crore of UDAY bonds issued involves a loss of up to ₹6,000 crore for banks and FIs that have lent money to them.
    • There is no guarantee that there will not be future losses as there is no retribution if the State electricity boards choose not to reform. In fact, this has been kept out of the purview of the scheme. 
    • By also mandating that State governments have to progressively take over the losses of their SEBs, the Centre has put the onus on the States to deal with the problem.

Way forward:-

  • Discom business needs to be fundamentally restructured.
  • Governance needs to be improved with greater resilience to political influence.
  • Robust mechanisms need to be put in place to ensure tariff rationalisation and follow-through on subsequent increases.
  • Market-friendly electricity reforms need to be introduced and enforced. This includes expanding the role of short-term markets, as well as strict enforcement of PPAs to assure investors and developers of the legal sanctity of contracts signed with discoms.
  • Streamlining the open access process, with the fair application of additional surcharges will boost the demand for renewable energy from the commercial and industrial sectors. 
  • Discoms will have to be pushed harder to invest in technical solutions and infrastructure upgrade such as feeder separation, installing smart meters and undertaking detailed data collection and analysis.
  • Strict Actions to curb Electricity theft and other actions that lead to Losses to DISCOMs.
  • Integrating UDAY scheme with Make in India and Startup India to ensure overall Development.
  • Integrating UDAY with KUSUM to increase amount of electricity to DISCOMS.

General Studies – 4


Topic– Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.

6) Explain the role of emotional intelligence in administration and governance?(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what emotional intelligence is and how is it useful in administration and governance. We also need to discuss how can emotional intelligence concepts be better utilized in administration and governance.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what emotional intelligence is – Emotional intelligence is generally said to include three skills: emotional awareness; the ability to harness emotions and apply them to tasks like thinking and problem solving; and the ability to manage emotions, which includes regulating your own emotions and of others.

Body

  • Discuss the role of emotional intelligence in governance
    • There are actions in the realm of governance which remains spontaneous, intuitive or experience based. A person with emotional intelligence will respond better in such situations.
    • Responsiveness to citizens must carry with it sensitivity and sympathy to public needs and demands and this means being aware of feelings and emotions. It also helps in managing emotional responses of the citizens.
    • During a conflict situation, the ability to manage emotions may be the only way out
    • Identifying emotions in faces, voices, postures, and other content during public management activities can help in giving a better response.
    • Emotions could be evoked to motivate others to get the task done.
    • Identifying emotions can also allow us to better evaluate the repercussions of our actions.
  • Give examples of some administrators who have employed emotional intelligence in governance and succeeded.

Conclusion – Summarize the importance of emotional intelligence in governance and administration.

Background:-

Emotional intelligence is an ability to understand and to problem that involves:

  • Managing emotional responses of stakeholders in public sphere 
  • Understanding emotions and emotional  meanings of others 

Emotional intelligence in governance and administration :-

  • Emotional intelligence in administration can be used for the following ways :-
    • Appraising emotions arising from situations.
    • Using emotions for reason based decisions and policy making.
    • Identifying emotions in faces, voices, postures, and other content during public management activities.
  • Recruitment:-
    • EQ measurement is invaluable in selecting and recruiting high performance workers.
  • Predicting performance :-
    • Some companies are blending IQ testing with scientific measurement of EQ to predict job performance and direct workers to jobs where they are most likely to succeed.
  • Negotiation:-
    • Whether you’re dealing with a trading partner, competitor, customer or colleague, being able to empathize and be creative in finding win-win solutions will consistently pay off  
  • Performance management:-
    • 360-degree feedback is a common tool for assessing EQ. Knowing how your self-perception compares with others’ views about your performance provides focus for career development and positive behavioural changes  
  • Peer relationships:-
    • Good networking skills are a staple of job effectiveness for the average worker. Networking has too often been associated with “using” other people, but a heightened EQ ensures a mutually beneficial approach to others.
  • Social responsibility
    • When a leader cares about others, he is not a centre of attention and keeps everyone in the loop by making their intentions known.
  • Stress tolerance
    • To stay focused, stress should be managed and it involves own reactions to stress or the reactions of others to the stress.
  • Impulse control
    • Independent people evaluate the alternatives and initiate the work by taking appropriate action by executing the right options. People who manage their impulses avoid being distracted and losing control of the situation.
  • Optimism
    • Optimistic people have a target that they’re aiming toward. These people are confident in their ability to carry out the required actions and meet the target by looking for successful solutions to problems.

Topic- Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.

7) Explain the importance of emotional intelligence in workplaces. Explain how it differs from intelligence quotient. (250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain how emotional intelligence is important at workplaces and how the impact of intelligence quotient differs from emotional intelligence in general and particularly in workplaces.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that emotional intelligence is the ability to identify, evaluate and manage emotions of self and of others. Emotional importance helps a person to deal with adverse situations in a better way.

Body

  • Discuss the role of emotional intelligence in public places
    • Emotional intelligence is important at workplaces to build the social capital at work place by creating a positive work culture
    • It’s role in managing stress
    • Interacting and working with a team with diverse people etc
  • Discuss how EQ differs from IQ
    • IQ is assessment of an individual’s cognitive and knowledge grasping ability. EQ differs from IQ in following aspects : While its easy to measure IQ of a person through standard tests, measuring EQ is difficult because numerous parameters are involved; Possession of high EQ is becoming more important nowadays than high IQ, because high IQ makes good task performers, but high EQ makes a person an efficient doer, manager, negotiator, leader etc.

Conclusion – Summarize the role of emotional intelligence at workplaces.

Background:-

  • Emotional intelligence describes an ability, capacity, skill, or self-perceived ability to identify, assess, and manage the emotions of one’s self, of others, and of groups.
  • Like it’s counterpart IQ ,EQ can be tested ,measured and incorporated into the work place in productive ways.

Some of the reasons why emotional intelligence can be the key to workplace success:

  • Emotional intelligence can lead to better business decisions
  • Emotionally intelligent employees are more likely to keep their cool under pressure
  • Those with high EQ are better at resolving conflicts
  • Emotionally intelligent leaders tend to have greater empathy
  • Employees with high EQs are more likely to listen, reflect, and respond to constructive criticism
  • Embracing the nuances of human emotion in the workplace can have pragmatic benefits, such as better collaboration among employees and a happier workplace.
  • Employees with higher scores on measures of EQ also tend to be rated higher on measures of interpersonal functioning, leadership abilities, and stress management. Other studies have linked higher emotional intelligence with better job satisfaction as well as overall job performance.
  • Since modern organizations always look to improve performance, they recognize that objective, measurable benefits can be derived from higher emotional intelligence.
  • When emotional intelligence is high, organization members can understand the cause and effect relationship between emotions and events and plan effectively .

Difference between emotional intelligence and intelligence quotient:-

Definition Emotional Intelligence, or emotional quotient (EQ), is defined as an individual’s ability to identify, evaluate, control, and express emotions. IQ, or intelligence quotient, is score derived from one of several standardized tests designed to assess an individual’s intelligence.

 

Abilities ·         Identify, evaluate, control and express emotions ones own emotions; perceive, and assess others’ emotions; use emotions to facilitate thinking, understand emotional meanings

·         People with high EQ usually make great leaders and team players because of their ability to understand, empathize, and connect with the people around them. 

Ability to learn, understand and apply information to skills, logical reasoning, word comprehension, math skills, abstract and spatial thinking, filter irrelevant information
Workplace success EQ is a better indicator of success in the workplace and is used to identify leaders, good team players, and people who best work by themselves.

 

 
Acquisition

 

It is learned and improved ability. It is an inborn ability
Recognizes

 

Leaders, Captains, Managers and people with social challenges. People with high intellect, common sense, mental challenges, etc.