[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 16 February 2019

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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 16 February 2019

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance
and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information,
Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery,
Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.


General Studies – 2


Topic– Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability

1) Explain the main issues involved in Rafale deal controversy and discuss CAG’s report in this regard?(250 words)

Reference

Economictimes

Why this question

The controversy over Rafale deal has become a major talking point in newsroom debates and oped pages. It is important to understand the issues involved as well as the details of cag report on the deal.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to highlight the main points of controversy in the Rafale deal. Thereafter, it expects is to discuss the content of CAG’s report and debate it. Finally we need to provide a fair and balanced opinion and discuss the way forward.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about the deal and highlight the incessant noise surrounding the deal.

Body

  • Discuss the main reasons why the deal is controversial
    • cost breakdown of Rafale in the original bid under UPA and in the 36 aircraft in the government-to-government deal under NDA are not in the public domain.
    • There was no agreement on the terms of Technology Transfer previously. What was on offer was just Licence Manufacturing technology. Under the current agreement, the 36 Rafale procurement offset proposal supports the ‘Make In India’ initiative of the Indian Government through Article 12 of the IGA. It states that the French Party will facilitate the implementation of ‘Make In India’ by the industrial supplier notably through offsets for 50% value of the supply protocol. Overlooking HAL for a private company appears controversial to some
    • India has managed to negotiate the acquisition of the latest weapons package for the Rafale. These are the new weapons, beyond the standard package such as SCALP and METEOR
  • highlight the details of CAG report
    • CAG found the 2016 deal to be 2.86 per cent cheaper than the deal negotiated by the UPA
    • present government has left a five-squadron gap in India’s defence preparedness, with no arrangement for five out of the seven squadrons, each of 18 Medium Multi Role Combat Aircraft, that the Air Force needs and began the process of procuring in 2001.
  • Give your view on the cost calculation, examine whether such secrecy in public procurement is justified etc

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss way forward.


General Studies – 3


Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation

2) Examine whether the National Clean Air policy will help in restoring the air quality?(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

Air pollution has become one of the most stubborn urban challenge that India has to deal with year after year. A national policy for clean air was much required and the article delves deep into the details and an analysis of the policy. This question will help you getting better understanding of National Clean Air Policy.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the details of the policy, examine its need and evaluate how far the policy measures are effective in tackling this problem.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – 11/12 cities in most polluted list of WHO were in India. Quote the Lancet report. This reflects the magnitude of the problem and a policy in this regard couldn’t have come any sooner.

Directive word

  • Explain the details of the policy
    • Highlight that the policy acknowledges the severity and urgency of the problem
    • The National Clean Air Policy lays down the road map for Indian cities to clean up their act in the next five years.
    • Cities are declared ‘non-attainment’ if they consistently fail to meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM10 (particulate matter that is 10 microns or less in diameter) or Nitrogen Dioxide over a period of five years.
    • Covers various stakeholders such as ministries of road transport and highway, petroleum and natural gas, new and renewable energy, heavy industry, housing and urban affairs, agriculture, and health. Etc
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the policy.
    • Highlight the markers of success such as clear target, drawing learnings from previous measures to tackle pollution etc
    • three-tier mechanism for review of monitoring, assessment and inspection for implementation” under which trained manpower and regular inspection drives will be ensured for “stringent implementation”.
    • Highlight the challenge of implementation

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss the way forward such as strengthening laws to give more teeth to the policy.


Topic – infrastructure

3) Critically analyze the progress made in creating a more efficient transport infrastructure in the country?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The article talks about the progress made in creating an efficient transport infrastructure in the country. One of the chief factors responsible for the takeoff of accelerated growth in the country is on account of poor quality of transport infrastructure. Progress made in this regard would have a key role on taking India to double digit growth. Hence this question.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out why focussing on strengthening the transport infrastructure of the country is important. Thereafter, we need to highlight the progress made and the issues still in strengthening the transport infrastructure of the country. Finally, we need to give our view on the progress made and discuss steps for further improvement.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that investments in infrastructure equal to 1% of GDP will result in GDP growth of at least 2% as infrastructure has a “multiplier effect” on economic growth across sectors. Hence the government has focussed on strengthening the same.

Body

  • Highlight the reasons why focussing on transport infrastructure is critical (in brief)
    • Multiplier effect
    • Boost manufacturing thus assist in achieving targets under make in India
    • Enhance public investment and associated Benefits
  • Highlight the progresses made in creating an efficient transport infrastructure in the country
    • Talk about mega projects like Bharatmala and sagarmal
    • Pace of construction of roads and successful implementation of PPP projects
    • Measures taken to enhance road safety
    • Technologically sound projects undertaken etc
  • Discuss the challenges still
    • Highlight that Bharatmala project has been hit by delays and cost overruns as per an NHAI report
    • Implementing the kelar committee report for PPP sector removed several bottlenecks but challenges remain
    • Train routes remain crowded etc

Conclusion – give your view and discuss way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


Topic– Quality of service delivery

4) “Ethical leadership is influencing people through ethics.” Comment.(250 words)

Reference

 

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding about the ethical leadership and express our opinion as to how it is about influencing people through ethics.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  meaning of ethical leadership. E.g write a simple definition of ethical leadership.

Body-

Discuss in points as to how ethical leadership is about influencing people through ethics. E.g

  • Ethical leadership is considered to be one solution for creating a balance between the wellbeing of the subordinates and the wider community, and the organization’s profitability.
  • The leadership theory strongly encourages the leader to place the vision and mission of the organization at the core of decision-making.
  • Ethical leaders explicitly focus attention on ethical standards through communication and accountability processes
  • Ethical leadership encourages and empowers others to take the lead. It has a big mentoring component attached to it, which calls for people to experience the difficulties of leadership etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic-  Right to Information

5) Information sharing is critical in a democracy. Examine why.(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to highlight the importance of information sharing in democracy and examine the state of information sharing in our country as well as measures required for improvement.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about the RTI Act and how it ushered in an era of information sharing.

Body – discuss the advantages of information sharing in a democracy such as empowerment of citizens, greater discretion, citizenry is active and involved which deepens the democracy etc. Discuss the current state of information sharing in the country and highlight improvements needed if any.

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss way forward.

 


Topic-Citizen’s Charters

6) Primarily an adaptation of the UK model, the Indian Citizen’s Charter has certain essential elements and an additional component of expectations from the clients. Discuss.(250 words)

Insightsonindia

 

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question

The question wants us to write in detail about the essential elements of a Citizen’s Charter and also how it is different from the primary UK model from which it has been adopted.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  Citizen’s Charter. E.g Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances in Government of India (DARPG) initiated the task of coordinating, formulating and operationalising Citizen’s Charters.

Body-

  1. Discuss the essential elements of a Citizen’s Charter in India. E.g

-(i) Vision and Mission Statement; (ii) Details of business transacted by the organisation; (iii) Details of clients; (iv) Details of services provided to each client group; (v) Details of grievance redress mechanism and how to access it; and (vi) Expectations from the clients.

  1. Discuss the additional components vis a vis the UK model. E.g
  • Involvement of consumer organisations, citizen groups, and other stakeholders in the formulation of the Citizen’s Charter is emphasised to ensure that the Citizen’s Charter meets the needs of the users.
  • Regular monitoring, review and evaluation of the Charters, both internally and through external agencies, are enjoined.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Citizen’s Charters

7) Designing Citizen’s Charter is necessary but it also important to ensure that they are meaningful. How can you ensure as an administrator to make Citizen’s Charter a success. Discuss.(250 words)

Insightsonindia

 

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail as to how after framing a Citizen’s Charter, we can ensure that it is successfully implemented.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  Citizen’s charter. E.g mention the purpose of having a Citizen’s Charter.

Body-

Discuss in points as to what should be done to ensure that Citizen’s Charter is successfully implemented. E.g

  • Creating guarantees and redress policies
  • Building service standards into your performance management system
  • Publicizing and comparing performance against the standards
  • Creating awards for meeting tough customer service standards
  • Involve customers in the creation of guarantees, standards, redress policies, complaint systems, and customer service agreements.
  • Educate customers about your services, so they will have realistic notions of what is possible and will understand their own responsibilities.
  • Involve frontline employees in creating standards and other tools – and in figuring out how to meet them – to help them buy in etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– challenges of corruption.

8) The real impediments to the fight against corruption are as much the interests of the politico-administrative apparatus as the fatalism and ignorance of the victims. Comment. (250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding of corruption and express our opinion within the context of the given statement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  corruption, especially in India.

Body-

Discuss in points as to how corruption is a politico-administrative issue as well as an issue of ignorance of the citizens. E.g

  • Civil servants who refuse to toe the line are removed from office;
  • similarly, businessmen who oppose it are penalised vis-à-vis their competitors.
  • Furthermore, an image of the state has grown up over the years according to which the civil service, far from being a body that exists to implement the rights of citizens – rights that mirror their duties – is first and foremost perceived as the least risky way of getting rich quickly.
  • All of which helps to make corruption seem normal.
  • Public administration in developing countries is often bureaucratic and inefficient. And a large number of complex, restrictive regulations coupled with inadequate controls are characteristic of developing countries that corruption helps to get around.
  • Bring out the importance of information and awareness about one’s rights in cotrolling corruption etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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