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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 07 February 2019

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 07 February 2019

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized
crime with terrorism


General Studies – 2


Topic– Indian polity : issues

1) Institutional decay occasions worry because it affects ordinary citizens in disastrous ways. Comment in the context of India. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

Off late several institutions have come under the public glare and not always for good reasons. CBI has become so controversial that there is a severe trust deficit in its functioning which have had ramifications for centre state relations etc. The article highlights the importance of institutional strength in a democracy and the issues involved.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the importance of strong institutions for a democracy like India and the likely impact that institutional decay can have. We need to provide a commentary on institutional autonomy and strength in the country and discuss way forward.

Directive word

Comment – When you are asked to comment, you have to pick main points and give your ‘opinion’ on them based on evidences or arguments stemming from your wide reading. Your opinion may be for or against, but you must back your argument with evidences.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that In a democracy, individuals are governed by institutions, and not by men. If we do not live in an institutional universe, we will be at the mercy of capricious individuals. And it is in this context that we need to examine the strength of institutions in the country

Body

  • Discuss the importance of having strong institutions in the country – discretionary power is not arbitrarily utilized, eliminate subjectivity, act as a framework etc
  • Discuss the impact of weakening of institutions on citizenry
  • Give a commentary on the state of institutions in the country and the problem emerging out if it – issues with the CBI and the impact it is having in centre state relations, issues with national statistical commission, RBI, planning commission etc

Conclusion – Give your view on the importance of institutions and discuss way forward.


Topic – Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the
performance of these schemes

2) Implementation of PM-KISAN is riddled with challenges and learning from Rythu scheme and Kalia scheme will help going forward. Examine.(250 words)

Economictimes

Why this question

PM KISAN announced in the budget is dominating the oped columns and the current article talks about the lessons that can be drawn from some of the similar schemes introduced by the state government and challenges ahead. This article will enable you to prepare the risks and challenges portion of the scheme.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the details of the scheme along with the challenges that may come in the implementation of the scheme. Thereafter, we need to explain the learnings that can be drawn from other similar schemes from where PM KISAN draws inspiration and discuss way forward.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that the scheme has been introduced in the budget.

Body

  • Explain about the PM KISAN scheme. Highlight that the scheme draws inspiration from Rythu and KALIA scheme and explain those too.
  • Discuss the likely challenges that can be faced while implementing this scheme
    • One, in the absence of updated land records, where in some states they have not been updated since the 1930s, creating a database of unique beneficiaries and connecting it with bank details (and possibly Aadhaar) will be the toughest part of the exercise.
    • Two, it is crucial that PM-KISAN payments are made directly into beneficiary bank accounts. Alternatively, GoI may want to consider issuing cheques.
    • Three, as agriculture is a state subject, cooperation from states is pivotal in delivering such a scheme. But how the Centre manages that, particularly from non-BJP states, is to be seen.
  • Highlight the learning from Rythu and KALIA scheme for better implementation of PM KISAN

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss way forward.


Topic – Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3) Is Ayushman Bharat going to enlarge the role of the private sector in healthcare? Analyze. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

Ayushman Bharat scheme is a landmark healthcare scheme which provides medical insurance to crores of poor families in India. However the scheme has been criticized for relying on private sector to deliver on its aims. In this context it is important to analyze whether the scheme will enlarge the role of private sector in healthcare.

Directive word

Analyze-here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the Ayushman Bharat scheme and bring out whether it will enlarge the role of private sector in India’s healthcare sector.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  Ayushman Bharat scheme. E.g

Body-

DIscuss in points how the scheme will enlarge the role of private sector in healthcare. E.g

  • The question is tautological as India’s health system is already one of the most privatised in the world, with three quarters of out-patient treatment and two thirds of in-patient treatment being provided by the private sector.
  • In any case, it is unrealistic to expect it to be otherwise. The health sector always had — and will continue to have — private participation. Its nature is what should concern us – one that is changing, and has gained a huge momentum with the introduction of Ayushman Bharat.
  • Discuss the role of NHA.
  • It is learnt that the pricing of services, a contentious issue between the hospitals and the NHA, has been or is proposed to be outsourced to a commercial firm.
  • A similar concern arises on the proposal to outsource monitoring, empanelment, settling of claims, grievance redressal – all vital functions of a government body —to commercial companies.
  • The detailed guidelines with the contract agreement to hand over large portions of district hospitals to private investors to establish the supply of specified services – cardiac, cancers, respiratory etc. — suggests a hybrid model that has no precedence, not even in the U.S.
  • This is a brainwave of The United States Agency for International Development (USAID)-Niti Aayog initiative: it is apprehended and with justification, that it will destroy the public hospital system in India and deepen the control of the private sector and create monopolies rather than a competitive environment, adversely impacting the cost of care.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 3


Topic– Indian economy : issues

4) Estimating economic activity is never going to be an easy task in an economy that has poor data standards. Examine.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

Off late several economy related statistics have presented conflicting viewpoints which makes it difficult to gauge the performance of the economy and also leads to other issues. The article examines these issues and highlights the need of improvement of statistical methodology in the country.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the problems associated with estimating economic activity in India because of the varying pictures presented by the data. We need explain the issues involved and highlight the impact of such data uncertainty on policy making and economy.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight why this issue is in news. Also mention that India thanks to mahalanobis had built a statistical system that was once the envy of the world.

Body

  • Explain why does the question say that India has poor data standards. Here we need to talk about the controversy related to employment data statistics, GDP data etc
  • Discuss the issues with data standards of the country
    • How surveys are designed and questions are developed has evolved into a science that transcends the skill set usually employed by our statistical systems.
    • We decided to adopt international standards developed for industrial societies where self-employed farmers and shopkeepers have been swallowed up by large corporations. In India, the socio economic realities are vastly different.
    • data collection is increasingly being done by contractual employees and for-profit organisations. Supervising them and ensuring their honesty remains challenging. While improved technology for monitoring fieldwork such as random segment audio recording of interviews and real-time checks for detecting frauds and errors may help increase honesty, there is no substitute for empathy and experience
  • Discuss the impact of poor data standards on economy and policy making such as on setting interest rates based on inflation data etc
  • Discuss the way forward – finalizing the draft national policy on official statistics etc

Conclusion – Give your view on the importance of accurate data standards and what needs to be done.

 


Topic- Security challenges and their management in border areas;

5) The Comprehensive Integrated Border Management System (CIBMS) is touted as a more robust and integrated system that is capable of addressing the gaps in the present system of border security. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

India shares a long border with several countries and the difficult nature of the terrain and open border at many poses special challenges for India. In this context it is important to discuss the need and scope of CIBMS.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the CIBMS and how it will address the gaps in the present system of border security.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  Indian border. E.g mention the varied and difficult terrain, hostile neighbours and porous border at many places.

Body-

  1. Discuss about the CIBMS and how it will help in better border management and control. E.g
  • The use of high-tech solutions for border security was being considered by the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) since 2012 when it released an Expression of Interest (EoI) for a Comprehensive Integrated Border Management System (CIBMS).
  • The CIBMS is touted as a more robust and integrated system that is capable of addressing the gaps in the present system of border security by seamlessly integrating human resources, weapons, and high-tech surveillance equipment.
  • It has three main components:
  • a) new high-tech surveillance devices such as sensors, detectors, cameras, ground-based radar systems, micro-aerostats, lasers as well as existing equipment for round-the-clock surveillance of the international border;
  • b) an efficient and dedicated communication network including fibre optic cables and satellite communication for transmitting data gathered by these diverse high-tech surveillance and detection devices; and
  • c) a command and control centre to which the data will be transmitted in order to apprise the senior commanders about the happenings on the ground and thus providing a composite picture of the international border.
  • A composite picture would help senior commanders analyse and classify the threat and mobilise resources accordingly to assist the field commander in his response.
  • The purpose of the CIBMS is to eventually replace manual surveillance/patrolling of the international borders by electronic surveillance and organising the BSF personnel into quick reaction teams to enhance their detection and interception capabilities.
  • Other factors such as power back up, training of the BSF personnel in handling the sophisticated equipment, and maintenance of the equipment are incorporated into the CIBMS.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation

6) The receding glaciers in Hindu Kush underline the need for cooperation between countries that share Himalayas. Comment.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

The impact of climate change on glaciers in the Hindu-Kush region is prominent and scary. The ranges provide water and livelihood security to billions of people. In this context it is important to discuss the need for cooperation among countries sharing the Himalayas.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding about the recession of glaciers in the Hindu-Kush range and express our opinion on the need for the countries sharing the Himalayas to cooperate in this regard.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  Hindu-Kush and the Himalayas. E.g mention the countries which share Himalayas.

Body-

Discuss the recession of the Himalayan glaciers and how they could impact socio-economy of the region and Bring out the need for the nations sharing Himalayas to protect the melting glaciers. E.g

  • Success in meeting the Paris Climate Pact’s most ambitious target might not be enough, a recent study says, to prevent a serious meltdown in the Hindu Kush Himalayas.
  • the Kathmandu-based International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development’s (ICIMOD) “Hindu Kush Himalaya Assessment” reveals that more than 35 percent of the glaciers in the region could retreat by 2100, even if the global temperature rise is capped at 1.5º C.
  • This could destabilise the hydrology of large parts of South Asia, China and Myanmar.
  • Regions in higher altitudes tend to warm faster than low-lying lands.
  • This will have a major bearing on the ice-fields, which are the largest repository of permafrost outside the polar regions. The region’s snow is the source of 10 major river systems — including the Ganga, Indus, Brahmaputra and Mekong — in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China and Myanmar.
  • Large-scale warming could drastically alter the river flows in these countries. The receding glaciers could cause a deluge in the rivers during the monsoon while the flows are likely to plummet during the dry seasons, with serious implications for irrigation, hydropower and ecosystem services.
  • The number of intense precipitation days and intensity of extreme precipitation have increased overall in the last five decades. If these trends persist, the frequency and magnitude of water-induced hazards in the (Hindu Kush Himalaya) region will increase,” it says. This is a significant conclusion given that developments in the Himalayas are known to have a spin-off on the monsoon in the Subcontinent.
  • There is a need for more data sharing between the countries that share the Hindu Kush Himalayas.
  • political differences between these countries should not come in the way of joint efforts to build resilience of vulnerable communities and shore up the region’s water security.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic –  linkages of organized crime with terrorism

7) The nexus between terrorism and organized crime presents a major challenge for India. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

Terrorism is often closely linked to organized crime. It is important to discuss how the issue poses challenges to India.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail as to how terrorism and terrorism nexus operates in India and what are the challenges India faces from this nexus.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about India. E.g mention its geographical location and its hostile neighbourhood.

Body-

Discuss the challenges posed by the terrorism-organized crime nexus to India. E.g

  • While terrorism is an act of political defiance that is carried out overtly, organized crime is mostly conducted covertly to earn profits.
  • While terrorism results in large scale violence, conducted to exploit political objectives and religious or nationalist sentiments, crime is largely nonviolent and is carried out for economic objectives.
  • Terrorist groups need a steady stream of funding to finance their operations and often resort to a plethora of illegal activities which includes the Hawala system, abuse of charities or donations from the diasporic community, credit card fraud and illegal arms and the narcotics sale.
  • Therefore crying and terrorism has a symbiotic relationship with organizational operational and ideological links that are cultivated through clothes coordination are in some cases through fostering strong linkages.
  • Rapid advances in telecommunication Technologies particularly social media platforms, the dark web, and illegal payment channels have strengthened the crime-terror Nexus which at times can acquire translational character.
  • India has a long history of fighting the separatist insurgency and controlling civil conflicts that are spread across different parts of the country.
  • There are several conditions that make India particularly prone to transnational organized crime and terrorism- proximity to major heroin producers and exporters regional drug trade through overland routes and the sea.
  • Moreover, groups willing to take risks, pervasive prop poverty and protracted nature of low-intensity conflict have also created a permissible environment for the crime-terror Nexus in India.
  • The major conflict zones in India are concentrated in Jammu and Kashmir North Eastern states of Assam Nagaland and Manipur and the most area of Chhattisgarh, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


 

Topic – Linkages of organised crime with terrorism

8) How is organised crime in India reinforcing terrorism? What are the linkages especially with regard to terror funding?(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question is quite straightforward in its demand. Apart from answering the basic demand of the question, towards the end of your answer you also need to discuss in brief about the checks required to curb such nexus.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that Crime and terrorism can potentially have a very close linkage. Explain what do you mean by organised crime.

Body

  • Explain the linkage –
    • we look at some of the regions in the country affected by terrorism, this linkage becomes apparent. In the Northeast, extortion is the fundamental basis for funding all forms of terrorism. In addition to this, kidnapping has been used extensively for spreading terror and raising funds. Human trafficking, drug trafficking and gun running are some of the other criminal activities that have been common in these areas.
    • In J&K, counterfeit currency has been a major source of funding terrorism.
    • In the Maoist terror movements, extortion is yet again a common phenomenon. They have also indulged in robberies of banks to fund their movement. There have also been reports of cuts being enforced on drug yielding crops in the region.
    • There are also a number of insurgent groups which over a period of time have morphed into crime syndicates. What began as an ideological movement is now merely a means of generating profit. This is especially the case with insurgent groups in Northeast India.
  • Discuss how can such syndicates be tackled and the impact reduced.

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss way forward.

 



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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