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7) Evaluate whether India is adequately prepared to handle the threat posed by emerging disruptive technologies?(250 words)

Topic-Challenges to internal security through communication networks

7) Evaluate whether India is adequately prepared to handle the threat posed by emerging disruptive technologies?(250 words)

The hindu


Why this question

The article examines the new age security challenges posed by emerging disruptive technologies and analyzes the effectiveness of the measures taken by India to deal with such challenges. This question would enable you to understand the changing nature of threats as a result of technological advancements along with India’s response to it.

Directive word

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the changing nature of threat posed by emerging disruptive technologies, examine the steps taken by India to deal with such challenges and evaluate their effectiveness.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – highlight that technological advancements have transformed the nature of security threats.


  • Explain about the new age security threats
    • current focus in military thinking across the world is increasingly moving away from traditional heavy-duty military hardware to high-tech innovations such as artificial intelligence (AI), big data analytics, satellite jammers, hypersonic strike technology, advanced cyber capabilities and spectrum denial and high-energy lasers
    • Strategic stability in the contemporary international system, especially among the nuclear weapon states, depends on several age-old certainties, the most important being the issue of survivability of a state’s nuclear arsenal and its ability to carry out a second strike after a first attack.
    • Once accuracies get better, hypersonic glide vehicles replace conventional delivery systems, real time tracking and surveillance make major strides, and AI-enabled systems take over, survivability of nuclear arsenal, which lies at the heart of great power stability, could take a severe beating.
    • Disruptive new technologies, worsening relations between Russia and America and a less cautious Russian leadership than in the cold war have raised fears that a new era of strategic instability may be approaching
  • Highlight India’s response to such challenges
    • Government decided to set up three new agencies — the Defence Cyber Agency, the Defence Space Agency and the Special Operations Division — in order to address the new age challenges to national security
  • Discuss issues involved
    • The issue of coordination
    • The issue of their relative importance in the pecking order of defence planning
    • China factor etc

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced opinion and discuss way forward.