- Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.
International Year Of The Periodic Table
What to study?
For Prelims and Mains: International Year Of The Periodic Table, about Periodic table- key facts, IUPAC.
Context: To celebrate the 150th anniversary of the organisation of the periodic table, UNESCO has launched the International Year Of The Periodic Table.
Key facts relevant for Prelims:
- Russian scientist Dmitry Mendeleev published the first periodic such table in 1969.
- The table organizes all chemical elements by the number of protons in a given atom and other properties.
- There are seven rows, called periods, and 18 columns, called groups, in the table.
- Elements in the same group share similar properties. Those in the same period have the same number of atomic orbitals.
- Most elements on the table are metals divided into six broad categories – alkali metals, alkaline earths, basic metals, transition metals, lanthanides and actinides. They are located on the left, separated from the non-metals on the right by a zig-zag line.
- Lanthanides and actinides, often called “inner transition metals”, are commonly hived off as a separate section under the main table as including all 30 – including Uranium – would make the table too wide.
- The table is a useful tool for people to derive relationships between the different properties of the elements. It can also help predict the properties of new elements that have yet to be discovered or created.
The International Union of Pure Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is responsible for maintaining the periodic table.
- IUPAC is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries. It is a member of the International Council for Science (ICSU).
- Headquarters of IUPAC is in Zürich, Switzerland.
- Established in 1919 as the successor of the International Congress of Applied Chemistry for the advancement of chemistry.
- Its members, the National Adhering Organizations, can be national chemistry societies, national academies of sciences, or other bodies representing chemists.
- The IUPAC’s Inter-divisional Committee on Nomenclature and Symbols (IUPAC nomenclature) is the recognized world authority in developing standards for the naming of the chemical elements and compounds.
UNESCO has also launched its educational initiative, 1001 Inventions: Journeys from Alchemy to Chemistry. Consisting of educational material and science experiments to help young people improve their understanding of chemistry and its numerous uses, the initiative will be brought to schools around the world during 2019.
Sources: the hindu.