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8) Analyze the debate between lithium-ion batteries and hydrogen fuel cells?(250 words) 

Topic– Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

8) Analyze the debate between lithium-ion batteries and hydrogen fuel cells?(250 words) 


Why this question

The article provides deep insight into battery technology used in electric vehicles which are going to become the preferred mode of transportation in the days and years to come. Hence this question

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain how Li Ion battery and hydrogen fuel cells battery work. Thereafter, we need to highlight the pros and cons of each technology and give a fair and balanced view regarding the future of these technologies.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that electric vehicles are the way forward because of threats of climate change


  • Explain how Li Ion and fuel cell batteries work
    • Li ion – All lithium-ion batteries work in broadly the same way. When the battery is charging up, the lithium-cobalt oxide, positive electrode gives up some of its lithium ions, which move through the electrolyte to the negative, graphite electrode and remain there. The battery takes in and stores energy during this process. When the battery is discharging, the lithium ions move back across the electrolyte to the positive electrode, producing the energy that powers the battery. In both cases, electrons flow in the opposite direction to the ions around the outer circuit. Electrons do not flow through the electrolyte: it’s effectively an insulating barrier, so far as electrons are concerned.
    • Fuel cell – Fuel cells use an electrochemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen, catalysed by platinum, to produce energy. The only exhaust is the combination product—water. The challenge is to produce hydrogen in an energy-efficient manner, transport it to distribution points and store it in gaseous or liquid form in a car.
  • Discuss the pros and cons of both technology for the purpose of usage in electric vehicles

Conclusion – Give your opinion on which technology is the future and what should India do.