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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 02 JANUARY 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 02 JANUARY 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic – Economic Geography.

1) Despite a ban, rat-hole mining remains a prevalent practice in Meghalaya. Explain what is rat hole mining and the issues associated with it?(250 words)

Economictimes

Why this question

The incident in Meghalaya where miners are trapped in one of the rat hole mines exposes the issues with this unsafe mining practice and also brings out the fact that NGT orders are being violated. It is important to understand what rat hole mining is and the issues associated with it.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out what rat hole mining is, explain the 2014 NGT order regarding the ban on rat hole mining and why such mining practices are still being continued. Finally, we need to discuss ways through which such practices can be stopped.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about the recent incident in Meghalaya which is the reason why rat hole mining is in news.

Body

  • Explain what rat hole mining is – involves digging of very small tunnels, usually only 3-4 feet high, which workers (often children) enter and extract coal. Rat-hole mining is broadly of two types – side-cutting procedure, where narrow tunnels are dug on the hill slopes and workers go inside until they find the coal seam, box-cutting, a rectangular opening is made, varying from 10 to 100 sq m, and through that is dug a vertical pit, 100 to 400 feet deep. Once the coal seam is found, rat-hole-sized tunnels are dug horizontally through which workers can extract the coal.
  • Explain that the National Green Tribunal (NGT) banned it in 2014, and retained the ban in 2015, on grounds of it being unscientific and unsafe for workers. The state government has appealed the order in the Supreme Court.
  • Discuss the reasons why rat hole mining was banned and the reasons why it continues despite the ban

Conclusion – emphasize on the ill effects of rat hole mining and discuss solutions to the problem.

Introduction:

                The collapse of a coal mine in Meghalaya’s East Jaintia Hills, trapping at least 15 workers who are still missing and are feared dead, has thrown the spotlight on a procedure known as “rat-hole mining”. Although banned by the National Green Tribunal in 2014 and upheld by the Supreme Court, it remains the prevalent procedure for coal mining in Meghalaya.

Body:

Rathole mining involves digging of very small tunnels, usually only 3-4 feet high, which workers (often children) enter and extract coal. It is broadly of two types.

  • Side-cutting procedure:Narrow tunnels are dug on the hill slopes and workers go inside until they find the coal seam. The coal seam in hills of Meghalaya is very thin, less than 2 m in most cases.
  • Box-cuttingprocedure:A rectangular opening is made, varying from 10 to 100 sq. m, and through that is dug a vertical pit, 100 to 400 feet deep. Once the coal seam is found, rat-hole-sized tunnels are dug horizontally through which workers can extract the coal.

            

NGT ban on Rathole Mining:

                The National Green Tribunal (NGT) banned it in 2014, and retained the ban in 2015, on grounds of it being unscientific and unsafe for workers.The NGT order bans not only rat-hole mining but all “unscientific and illegal mining”. The court placed much emphasis on a report of O P Singh, professor of environmental studies of North Eastern Hills University of Shillong that explained the grave environmental concerns and health concerns.

Major issues associated with Rathole Mining:

Ecology:

  • In their petition to the NGT, Assam’s All Dimasa Students’ Union and the Dima Hasao District Committee complained that rat-hole mining in Meghalaya had caused the water in the Kopili river (it flows through Meghalaya and Assam) to turn acidic.
  • No biological lives are seen in the river. The rocks in the river bed turned yellowish, which also indicates flow of acid mine drainage
  • Ecologically Sensitive Zones are being degraded due to increased mining activities.
  • Entire roadsides in and around mining areas are used for piling of coal which is a major source of air, water and soil pollution.
  • Off road movement of trucks and other vehicles in the area caused further damage to the fragile ecology of the area which lies in the Zone 5 seismic area.

Risk to lives:

  • During the rainy season, water floods into the mining areas resulting in death of many employees/workers.
  • Health hazards due to poisonous gases like Hydrogen Sulphide, Methane can cause instant death of miners.
  • The lack of regulations, treacherous work conditions lead to over-work and meagre pay.

Economic:

  • According to government reports, the coal mining industry was among the biggest revenue earners for the state, generating about Rs. 700 crore annually, prior to its ban in 2014.
  • The value of extracted coal stored in Meghalaya was officially estimated at over Rs. 3,078 crore four years ago.
  • The Katoki panel reported that nearly 24,000 illegal mines are present in Meghalaya as interpreted from satellite images.

Reasons for its continuance:

Loopholes in the law:

  • The ban has been rendered meaningless by the Supreme court-sanctioned permission to transport “already-mined” coal till January 2019. Mine owners have used this loophole to continue mining operations illegally.
  • The State of Meghalaya has promulgated a mining policy of 2012, which does not deal with rat-hole mining, but on the contrary, deprecates it.
  • Meghalaya comes under the 6th Schedule of Constitution. The provisions allow for community ownership of land and autonomy over its use. However they are taken over by private players and tribals are left helpless.

Lack of Political and Executive will:

  • The unholy nexus of Politicians and Contractors: About 33% of political candidates have stakes in coal mining and transport companies, thus lobbying against the ban order.
  • A committee (headed by Retired Justice B.P. Katoki) appointed by the National Green Tribunal (NGT) has blamed poor implementation of NGT order by executive.
  • The committee revealed that the state government shockingly has no records about the rat-hole mines, number of workers involved and any other data relating to death or injuries to the workers.

Geological Conditions:

  • No other method would be economically viable in Meghalaya, where the coal seam is extremely thin unlike that in Jharkhand (where open-cast mining is followed).
  • Sustainable extraction methods are likely to be technology-intensive and expensive. Not the preferred option of mine owners, legal and otherwise.

Lack of Alternate Sources of Livelihood:

  • It takes long to locate the quarry as local people were scared to divulge information, fearing a backlash from mine owners and lose their livelihood.
  • It gives quick money for day-to-day survival.
  • It is a cheap method for the mine owners to extract coal and presence of abundance of Migrant labour.

Way Forward:

  • The Supreme Court must rectify this situation by banning transport of all coal, or by lifting the ban but enforcing regulation to make the mining non-polluting and safe.
  • The State mining policy should include ways of alternative towards Rathole mining.
  • The Schedule VI provisions must be implemented in true letter and spirit by granting community ownership rights. Involvement of Autonomous District and Regional Councils to further implement the orders is needed.
  • Alternative employment or economic engagement for the coal mine owners and labourers must be provided. g.: MGNREGA.
  • Strict implementation of Child labour prevention laws and Right to Education Act for the children involved in mining.
  • Use of Satellite imagery and drone technology to find the locations of illegal mines as suggested by BP Katoki committee.
  • Involvement of Social Activists, NGO’s and Local communityand education of the people about perils of rathole mining.

Conclusion:

The road ahead is to restore the environmentally degraded areas and rehabilitate exploited labour force.


Topic – Indian Economy : Issues

2) What do you understand by GAFA tax? Explain the rationale behind devising a separate framework to tax online service providers? Explain how such services are taxed in India and issues arising out of it?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The article discusses a novel issue regarding taxation provisions for online service providers and the challenges involved therein. With online companies like Google, Facebook etc repeatedly coming under the scanner of regulatory authorities, this issue becomes important and needs to be prepared.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain what GAFA tax is. Next, we need to discuss the reasons why special tax provisions are required for such online service providers. Thereafter, we need to discuss how such services are taxed in India, the issues involved therein and finally give suggestions as to what needs to be done.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that France recently announced introduction of GAFA tax and explain what it is.

Body

  • Discuss the rationale for having separate taxation provisions for such services – digital economy is characterized by a unique system of value creation resulting from a combination of factors such as sales functions, algorithms and personal information of users. What distinguishes technology companies from traditional businesses is user participation in creating value, which, in turn, translates into revenue.
  • Explain about similar taxation provisions in India. Finance Act, 2016, accommodated a 6% equalisation levy (EL) in lieu of specified digital services provided to residents in India. However, EL can only be imposed on advertising services. Thereafter, through the Finance Act, 2018, the Income Tax Act was amended to expand the meaning of business connection to “significant economic presence”, which includes digital services
  • Discuss about the issues involved therein such as assessing the value created, difference of opinion between source countries and others etc and how such issues can be resolved.

Conclusion – Explain that this is an important tax revenue for government and discuss the way forward.

Introduction:

GAFA tax—named after Google, Apple, Facebook, Amazon—is a proposed digital tax to be levied on large technology and internet companies. France has decided to introduce the tax (3% tax on revenues from digital activities) which will take effect from 1 January, and is estimated to raise about €500m (£450m) in its first year.

Body:

The rationale for having separate taxation provisions in France:

  • Existing tax norms that are framed envisaging brick and mortar business models are not suitable to regulate online services.
  • Digital economy is characterized by a unique system of value creation resulting from a combination of factors such as sales functions, algorithms and personal information of users.
  • The technology companies differ from traditional businesses as a result of user participation in creating value, which, in turn, translates into revenue.
  • The often complex corporate structures set up by several companies that derive huge revenues from major European economies but allow them slash their tax bills by shifting profits to low-tax jurisdictions.(Base Erosion and Profit Sharing issue)
  • To combat attempts by the firms to avoid paying what is considered a “fair share” of taxes in the country, by taking advantage of European tax laws.
  • Reports suggest that digital businesses pay an effective average tax rate of only 9.5%, compared with 23.2% for bricks-and-mortar firms.

Taxation initiatives of such services in India:

With growing Internet and mobile penetration in India, there is aneed to consider the adoption of an accurate methodology to assess value created through user contributions. This will help in taxing more effectively the digital service providers in India.

  • The Finance Act, 2016, accommodated a 6% equalisation levy (EL) in lieu of specified digital services provided to residents in India.
  • However, EL can only be imposed on advertising services.
  • Through the Finance Act, 2018, the Income Tax Act was amended to expand the meaning of business connection to “significant economic presence”, which includes digital services.
  • While this comes close to taxing value created by Indian users of foreign digital service providers, it is not clear whether the assessment of attributability is based on value creation per se.

Issues involved in such taxation:

  • Lack of Objectivity: Inability to devise a definite method of assessing the value that users generate in a source country.
  • Assessment of value of user contribution in the source country could be subjective. This can create greater friction and undermine the efficacy of double taxation agreements.
  • The lack of consensus due to a difference in the interests of developed (residence) countries and developing (source) countries.
  • Smaller countries, such as Ireland, Luxembourg and Estonia, fear such taxation could hand an advantage to the US, Japan, or even Brexited Britain.

Way Forward:

  • The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), a group of major world economies, has been working on proposals for an international scheme that would regulate taxation on technology companies.
  • Deliberations in multi-lateral for a like G-20 to build a consensus oriented approach across countries.

Conclusion:

It is imperative that policymakers deliberate upon the possibility and feasibility of adopting a methodology to assess value creation objectively to tax digital players more effectively in the source country.


Topic-Inclusive growth

3) The aspirational districts programme will play a key role in bridging the development gap is vital to social and political stability. Examine. (250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The progress shown by some of the districts under the aspirational districts programme leads us to harbour belief that sustained focus on the progress of these districts would enable us to bridge the developmental gap. It is important to know about this programme and the impact that it creates.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain about the aspirational districts programme. Next, we need to explain about the impact that this programme is having in the social indicators of these backward districts and bring out how it can help us achieve SDG etc.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that unevenness of development has been flagged as a major issue by economic survey.

Body

  • Explain what aspirational districts programme is and how it plans to take India on to the path of inclusive growth. Under the “aspirational districts” programme, central and state officials are working closely to identify the strength of each district and use it to catalyse growth. NITI Aayog, which anchors the programme, has ranked these districts on their performance in key development areas of health and nutrition, education, farming, water resources, financial inclusion, skill development and access to basic infrastructure such as road, potable water and power.
  • Discuss about the progress shown by some of the districts in achieving their targets and what it means for achieving SDG and bringing the inequality across regions.
  • Explain why bridging this inequality vital to ensure political and social stability.

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss way forward.

 

Introduction:

India is on a high growth trajectory that is expected to lift millions out of poverty. However, presently the quality of life of many of its citizens is not consistent with this growth story, a fact reflected in UNDP’s 2016 Human Development Index wherein we are ranked 131 out of 188 countries. A closer look at the data reveals high heterogeneity in the living standards in India. There are significant inter-state and inter-district variations. By uplifting the districts which have shown relatively lesser progress in achieving key social outcome, India can move ahead in the human development index.

Launched in January 2018, NITI Aayog’s ‘Transformation of Aspirational Districts’ initiative aims to remove this heterogeneity through a mass movement to quickly and effectively transform these 115 districts across 28 states.

       

Body:

 

Extra information on Aspirational Districts Program:

Core Strategy: The broad contours of the programme are Convergence (of Central & State Schemes), Collaboration (of Central, State level ‘Prabhari’ Officers & District Collectors), and Competition among districts driven by a spirit of mass Movement. With States as the main drivers, this program will focus on the strength of each district, identify low-hanging fruits for immediate improvement, measure progress, and rank districts.

NITI Aayog which has been driving the program has introduced a system of ranking to inculcate a spirit of competitiveness among the chosen districts. The present ranking is based on 49 indicators across 5 sectors. These sectors are areas that have been targeted for transformation –

  1. Health and Nutrition (30%)
  2. Education (30%)
  3. Agriculture and water resources (20%)
  4. Financial inclusion and skill development (10%)
  5. Basic infrastructure (10%)

Selection:The  115  districts  were  identified  from  28 states,  at  least  one  from  each  state,  in  a transparent manner by a committee of Senior Officers  to  the  Government  of  India,  in consultation   with   State   Officials   using   a composite   index of   key   data   sets   based on above indicators.

 

The second set of rankings in December 2018, showed that five districts have particularly made rapid progress—

  • Kupwara in Jammu and Kashmir
  • Ranchi in Jharkhand
  • Siddharthnagar in Uttar Pradesh
  • Fatehpur in Uttar Pradesh
  • Jamui in Bihar

While districts such as Siddharthnagar made progress on several fronts, including education and basic infrastructure, Pakur in Jharkhand remain backward in education, health, nutrition and basic infrastructure. Pakur, which ranks at the bottom of the list, at 111, has plenty of room for improvement.

Bridging this inequality is vital to ensure political and social stability.

Political Stability

1)    Fillip to democracy: Due to the collaboration at all the three levels of Governance.

2)    Co-operative and competitive federalism: The index-based ranking system helps in achieving a competitive spirit which will further encourage states to perform better.

3)    Helps in SDG goals achievement. Currently India is only half-way in SDG goals.

4)    Secessional demands, regional demands based on polarization will be reduced

5)    Naxalism, Radicalisation, mob lynching, crime rates and social unrest will be reduced as the developmental factors increase

 

Social stability

1)    Inequality reduction, in turn poverty reduction by equitable distribution of income and tackling discrimination.

2)    Food Security ensuring availability, accessibility and affordability to all. This will lead to focus on other developmental aspects of Education and skilling.

3)    Education acts as a stepping stone to success by giving the opportunity to grow.

4)    Health: With programs like Ayushman Bharat offering health cover to 100 million vulnerable families, reduces the Out of Pocket Expenditure saving many families from falling BPL.

5)    Tackling Unemployment by creating opportunities of employment and skill development

6)    Reduced stress migration by developing the rural areas with modern urban facilities and seamless connectivity.

 

Challenges:-

 

  • Local government is in a unique position to understand the complexities of the districts. They can experiment with different measures to enhance socio-economic development on the ground. Panchayats are neglected.
  • State government in its conditions has also demanded allocation of more funds for the most backward districts.
  • Data collection and analysis on monthly basis is a very hectic process which needs resources and efficient workforce.
  • The districts which are backward need to compete with the best performing so quick transformation might be difficult and be flawed as well.
  • Also there might be conflicts between centre and states. Work might be affected during elections etc.

 

Way forward:-

 

  • For the programme to succeed there is a need for effective monitoring which can be done by social auditing.
  • Increase the awareness amongst the people and even some of them can be given work as volunteers.
  • With lack of digital literacy and infrastructure at local level compiling the enormous data and updating it is a humongous task.
  • Seeking rapid transformation of these districts on specific parameters such as health, education and nutrition need to happen alongside unlocking of their development potential.
  • In this context, recognising development trajectory of each district, relentlessly tracking district’s progress on its chosen interventions and indicators is probably a better approach.

 

Conclusion:

Plugging the development gaps and improving the quality of life of people in these backward areas is important. India, set to be the fifth largest economy in the world, bridging the development gap is vital to social and political stability. Thus, Aspirational District Programme will go a long way to achieve regionally balanced, inclusive and sustainable growth.


Topic-Part of static series under the heading – “Tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections”

4) What do you understand by tolerance? Evaluate the importance of tolerance in contemporary world?(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what tolerance is and bring out the importance of tolerance in contemporary world. We need to discuss how tolerance is important for resolving the issues faced by contemporary world.

Directive word

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what tolerance is – Tolerance is restraint from reacting to unpleasing or unfavorable happenings. It requires high moral, forbearance, patience and a large heart to tolerate. Tolerance is fundamental for forgiveness and respect for contradictory views and practices.

Body

  • Discuss about the importance of tolerance in contemporary world at multiple levels – tolerance at individual level, at societal level, at government level, in terms of international relations etc
  • Discuss about issues such as religious strife, migration problem etc which can be addressed by cultivating the quality of tolerance.
  • Explain that the ethics of tolerance reinforces many values useful in current world such as respect for others, strengthening our own resilience etc

Conclusion – summarize your answer by re-emphasizing the importance of tolerance.

 

 

Introduction:

        According to Neufeldt, Tolerance is recognizing and respecting other’s beliefs and practices without sharing in them. It can also be described as “a respect, acceptance and appreciation of the rich diversity of our world’s cultures, our forms of expressions (speech, religion etc.) and ways of being human. Tolerance is harmony in difference”

        If we consider tolerance as the midpoint on a spectrum ranging between prohibition at one end to acceptance at the other:

 

Prohibition———————-Tolerance———————-Acceptance

 

The Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle called this middle point of the spectrum, the golden mean. Approaching tolerance this way, makes it what philosophers call a virtue – the characteristic between two vices.

 

Tolerance is restraint from reacting to unpleasing or unfavourable happenings. It requires high moral, forbearance, patience and a large heart to tolerate. Tolerance is fundamental for forgiveness and respect for contradictory views and practices.

 

Body:

 

Its importance in contemporary world is manifold

  • Individual level
  • Tolerance teaches one to be respect others and not impose our will on others.
  • It helps us to broaden our perspective and thinking.
  • g.:A certain food may be religiously proscribed for an individual, but it may be part of someone’s culture. Acceptance and respecting other’s views is developed due to tolerance.
  • Societal level
  • Tolerance is vital because it promotes the receiving or acknowledging of new ideas and this helps to break the status quo mentality.
  • Tolerance is particularly needed in large and complex societies comprising people with varied beliefs, as in India.
  • This is because readiness to tolerate views other than one’s own facilitates harmonious coexistence.
  • Tolerance respects context.
  • g.:Tolerance towards various linguistic groups have cemented India’s unity whereas its absence led to division of Pakistan and civil war in Sri Lanka.
  • Government level
  • Helps increase its legitimacy and inspire confidence even among the dissidents.
  • g.:The accommodative policies of Patel and Nehru has helped shape India into a political union that it is today.
  • Toleration promotes the free exchange of ideas, including criticism and debate of public policy in the interest of the people.

4) International relations

  • Tolerance is the virtue that makes peace possible and in turn security of nations and neighbours.
  • g.: The global initiatives like WTO are a result of Vigorous deliberation of disagreement and moral evaluation. Issues such as refugee crisis can be solved as a result of tolerance.
  • Tolerance provides the space for a culture of dialogue, where we can all benefit.

 

The Ethics of tolerance reinforces many values useful in today’s world such as

  • Mutual Respect to others.
  • Strengthening one’s own resilience.
  • Acting as a moral force of change and acceptance of alternative views.
  • Harmonious and peaceful co-existence.

Conclusion:

The spirit of tolerance and love is not only an interesting feature of Indian society from very early times, but it is also playing an important part at the present. Being tolerant of each other and caring for each other is what makes us human.  By teaching tolerance, we allow individuality and diversity while promoting peace and a civil society.  Our success in the struggle of intolerance depends on the effort we make to educate ourselves and our children. 

Intolerance can be unlearnt. Tolerance and mutual respect have to be learnt


Topic– Aptitude and foundational values for civil service.

5) The Indian Constitution contains all such values, the values that are the universal, human and democratic of the modern age.
Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the various constitutional values enshrined in the constitution of India and try to analyze them as universal, humanistic and democratic.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  meaning and role of values of a person/ organisation.

Body-

Discuss the key constitutional values of Indian democratic republic. E.g

  1. Discuss the values enshrined in the preamble to the constitution- sovereignty, socialism, secularism, unity and integrity, liberty, equality, fraternity, dignity of an individual etc.
  2. Discuss some other important constitutional values- promotion of international peace and justice etc
  3. Discuss their importance vis a bis public services. E.g discuss how fraternity is an important value or discuss about equality and secularism etc. Mention how constitutional values form the bedrock of other values of a nation and how they are prim

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 

Introduction:

The Indian Constitution has certaincore constitutional values that constitute its spirit and are expressed in various articlesand provisions. These values form the basisaccording to which the people want the country to be governed and the society tomove on.The values expressed in thePreamble are expressed as objectives of the Constitution.

       

Body:

Democratic:

Sovereignty: Sovereignty gives us thedignity of existence as a nation in the international community. The mentionof ‘We the People of India’ in the Preamble clearly indicates that sovereigntyrests with the people of India.

 

Socialism: Aimed at promoting social change and transformation toend all forms of inequalities. Our Constitution directs the governments and thepeople to ensure a planned and coordinated social development in all fields. There are specific provisions that deal with inequalities in the Chapterson Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State Policy.

 

Democratic: As a form ofgovernment it derives its authority from the will of the people. The people electthe rulers of the country and the elected representatives remain accountable tothe people.It allows dissent and encouragestolerance. And more importantly, it is based on the principles of rule of law,inalienable rights of citizens, independence of judiciary, free and fair electionsand freedom of the press.

Human:

Equality: TheConstitution ensures equality of status and opportunity to every citizen for thedevelopment of the best in him/her. As a human being everybody has a dignifiedself and to ensure its full enjoyment, inequality in any form present in our countryand society has been prohibited.

Dignity of the individual: Promotion of fraternity is essential to realize thedignity of the individual. It is essential to secure the dignity of every individualwithout which democracy cannot function. It ensures equal participation ofevery individual in all the processes of democratic governance.

Fraternity: stands for the spirit of common brotherhood among allthe people of India. In the absence of fraternity, a plural society like India standsdivided. Therefore, to give meaning to all the ideals like justice, liberty andequality.

Universal

Liberty: The Preamble prescribes liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith andworship as one of the core values. These have to be assured to every member of all the communities. It has been done so, because the ideals of democracy cannot be attained without the presence of certain minimal rights which areessential for a free and civilized existence of all individuals.

Justice: Living in a democratic system alonedoes not ensure justice to citizens in all its totality. The political freedom granted to Indian citizens has to beinstrumental in the creation of a new social order, based on socio-economicjustice. Justice must be availed to every citizen. This ideal of a just and egalitariansociety remains as one of the foremost values of the Indian Constitution.

Secularism:India is a home to almostall major religions in the world. Secularismimplies that our country is not guided by any one religion or any religiousconsiderations.

The other values like Republic, Unity and Integrity of the Nation, International peace and a just international order, Fundamental Duties are an amalgamation of Democratic, Human and Universal values.

Importance of the values vis-à-vis Public Services:

  1. The values like Fraternity, Secularism are imperative to hold the nation against the divisive forces of communalism, racialism, growing intolerance, caste discrimination.
  2. The ideals of socialism is necessary to ensure to reduce the growing inequalities as made evident through reports like Socio-Economic Caste Census, Oxfam Report etc.
  3. The Equality, Justice and Liberty is needed to ensure that voice of the weaker sections like women, aged, transgender, minority sections of society.
  4. It gives a uniform structure of Rule of Law and grants every citizen his rights and assigns some duties.

Conclusion:

        Thus, the constitutional values has provisions for bringing about social change and definingthe relationship between individual citizen and the state. These values constitute the spirit of constitution and are expressed in various articlesand provisions.


Topic– Foundational values for civil service

6) “Empathy without sympathy is dangerous; sympathy without empathy is blind.” Comment.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding about empathy and sympathy and form an opinion as to whether empathy without sympathy is dangerous and whether sympathy without empathy blind. We have to support our opinion with substantial and valid arguments and facts.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  meaning of empathy e.g ability to comprehend the emotional state of the other person etc.

Body-

  1. Discuss the meaning and scope of empathy and sympathy in detail. E.g Empathy means “feeling into” — the ability to project one’s personality into another person and more fully understand that person. Empathy allows you to imagine what it’s like to be me, him, or her; Sympathy means “feeling with” – the ability to project another person’s experience into our heart and feel benevolence for her etc.
  2. Discuss why empathy without sympathy can be dangerous. E.g Empathy is cognitive. It is the capacity to infer how another person senses, feels and thinks. It doesn’t mean anything more than ‘I am aware what it feels like to be in your shoes and see the world from where you are.’ It is a purely operational concept without moral value. You can be a very empathetic psychopath. In fact, the most dangerous psychopaths are highly empathetic etc.
  3. Discuss why sympathy without empathy is blind. E.g Sympathy allows you to feel compassion and concern for others; You can’t relate effectively until you see the world the way others do. But to relate effectively with another human being you also need sympathy. You cannot appreciate others in a mature way until you respect them, accept the legitimacy of their perspectives and take them on sympathetically.

Give real life examples to illustrate your point and score better marks.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 

Introduction:

        Sympathy and empathy are separate terms with some very important distinctions. They are both acts of feeling for other person.

        Sympathy is acknowledging another person’s emotional hardships and providing comfort and assurance.

        Empathy is about being able to accurately hear out and understand the thoughts, feelings and concerns of others, even when these are not made explicit.

 

Body:

Sympathy means feeling into – the ability to project another person’s experience into our heart and feel benevolence for her. When we sympathise, we feel for the person, we are sorry for them or pity them but we don’t specifically understand what they’re feeling.

Empathy can best be described as feeling with the person. It may be impossible to be fully empathetic because each individual’s reactions, thoughts and feelings to tragedy are going to be unique. Yet the idea of empathy implies a much more active process. Instead of feeling sorry for, we are sorry with and have clothed ourselves in the mantle of someone else’s emotional reactions.

        Empathy and sympathy are not mutually exclusive, nor are they always felt in tandem. For example, people who lose a loved one can receive sympathy from many, but only those who have experienced a similar loss are able to empathize truly.

 

Empathy without sympathy can be dangerous

  • Empathy is cognitive, it is the capacity to infer how another person senses, feels and thinks.
  • It doesn’t mean anything more than ‘I am aware what it feels like to be in your shoes and see the world from where you are.’
  • It is a purely operational concept without moral value.
  • Dangerous as there is lack of compassion towards the subject in action. g.:Most psychopaths are empathetic but lacks sympathy. They enjoy sufferings of subject by being empathetic.
  • In Governance, such an attitude by civil servants can lead to a superiority complex and treat the citizens as mere objects. g.: In Dictatorships, the top brass can empathise in few situations and mostly don’t sympathise with people leading to hardships of people.

 

Sympathy without empathy is blind

  • Sympathy allows you to feel compassion and concern for others.
  • You can’t relate effectively until you see the world the way others do.
  • The lack of cognitive component of empathy leads to inaction. The sufferers keep on suffering without any change in their condition. g. The incident in Koppal, Karnataka where a cyclist was run over by a bus. The crowd was sympathetic but no one helped the victim leading to his death.
  • In Governance, such an attitude by public servants can lead increased inequalities, more people falling into poverty. g.: 1) The lack of effective action by the authorities to recognize the transgender as third gender. 2) Manual Scavengers though recognized are not rehabilitated by authorities.

 

Conclusion:

The capacity to sympathize and empathize are considered vital for a sense of humanity — i.e., the ability to understand one’s fellow humans and their problems.


Topic– Foundational values for civil service- empathy.

7) Do you think we can help other people in managing their emotions. Comment, along with an an example.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding about emotional intelligence and whether people can be taught from outside, by other persons, to manage their emotions. We have to form our opinion based on a proper discussion and presentation of valid arguments and facts.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  Emotions. E.g Although you can’t observe the internal states of others, you can observe external signs. Emotions have a physical component (flushing cheeks) and a behavioral component (tightening fists).

Body

  1. Write a few lines indicating your opinion as to whether other people can be helped to manage their emotions. E.g You can make valid inferences about the other’s feelings based upon these observable emotional clues (physical and behavioral), an understanding of the other’s situation; your attribution of values and objectives to the other, and your projection onto the other of the emotional dynamics you would experience in a similar situation (empathy);  You can’t read another’s mind. On the other hand, disregarding emotional signs is a great disadvantage. The skillful way to work with attributions (inferences about another person’s emotional and mental state) is to base them upon the best evidence available, state them tentatively (acknowledging that they are just your interpretation) and ask the other to verify them.
  2. Discuss the ways and process of  teaching other people to manage their emotions. E.g Acceptance—diffusion—Inquiry and listening—coaching questions etc

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Introduction:

An emotion is a feeling such as happiness, love, fear, anger, or hatred, which can be caused by the situation that you are in or the people you are with. Emotions are expressed in a variety of ways, physical component (flushing cheeks, raised eyebrows) and a behavioural component (hugging, tightening fists).

Emotional Intelligence includes the ability to engage in sophisticated information processing about one’s own and others’ emotions and the ability to use this information as a guide to thinking and behaviour. That is, individuals high in emotional intelligence pay attention to, use, understand, and manage emotions, and these skills serve adaptive functions that potentially benefit themselves and others.

Body:

The ways and process of teaching other people to manage their emotions are

Recognition:

  • By observing emotional clues (physical and behavioural) of a person, valid inferences about the other’s feelings can be made.
  • An understanding of the other’s situation is needed.
  • By empathising how you would feel in a similar situation.
  • By enquiring the other person about his actual feelings.
  • g.: When you notice a friend is sitting with crossed arms, completely quiet, and a little lost, you could say, “Tim, I see that you’re quiet, your arms are crossed, and you’re seated far from the table. I’m wondering how you’re feeling about our conversation.” Notice how different that is than attacking Tim with “Why are you upset? What’s wrong with you?”

Acceptance:

  • To work with others’ emotions it is necessary to accept them without judgment. (being tolerant)
  • It’s not only useless to chastise somebody for what he or she feels, it’s also counterproductive.
  • Challenging others’ emotions makes them feel judged, misunderstood, and disrespected.
  • g.:A manager who notices that employees are scared about an upcoming organizational change might feel inclined to reassure them, “There’s nothing to be concerned about.”

Defusion:

  • Accepting the other’s emotion without judgment helps him recover his equanimity.
  • Simply not reacting exerts a dampening effect on intense emotions.
  • Without a reaction, an attack can’t last long. Like a fire that runs out of fuel, the emotional heat will consume itself.
  • Best way is to empathise with the other person.
  • g.:Without a reaction, an attack can’t last long. Like a fire that runs out of fuel, the emotional heat will consume itself.

Inquiry and Listening:

  • Inquiry aims to help others understand their emotions and act skilfully.
  • The key is to help them present their needs and interests in a way that helps us see how to genuinely satisfy those needs and interests while also taking care of our own.
  • Inquiry and listening are about influencing others, not manipulating them.
  • The difference is respect for their autonomy, focusing on valid information and free choice.
  • g.: The way a mother listens to her child when she is in pain or a Psychiatrist listens to his patient patiently.

Coaching Questions:

  • Asking questions about other’s emotions
  • g.: What are you sad about? Why are you angry? Etc.

Conclusion:

        Thus, an emotionally intelligent person can help those around them become more emotionally intelligent after attaining emotional mastery over oneself.