Print Friendly, PDF & Email

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 17 January 2019

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 17 January 2019

Click on EACH question to post/upload you answers.

How to Follow Secure Initiative?

How to Self-evaluate your answer? 

INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic:  Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc)


General Studies – 1


 

Topic– Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity,
cyclone etc.

1) Why are the world’s fold mountain systems located along the margins of continents? Bring out the association between the global distribution of Fold Mountains and the earthquakes and volcanoes.(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question is quite straightforward in its demand. In the second part of the answer we have to separately bring out the relation between the global distribution of fold mountains and volcanoes and earthquakes with examples.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what fold mountains are. You can draw a diagram to show how they are formed.

Body

  • Explain why fold mountains are formed at the margins of continents – fold mountains are formed from the folding of crust and uprising of the sediments accumulated by rivers along the margins of the continents by the collision of two continental plates or a continental plate and an oceanic plate. An example of fold mountains formed by converging of two continental plates are Himalayas mountains and fold mountains formed by convergence of a continental plate and an oceanic plate are Andes mountains, Appalachians mountains etc.
  • Explain the relation between fold mountains and Earthquakes – with the passage of long time the folding continues and crust becomes over folded and strata(layers) of rock develop. It is called Over-thrust fold. Now, further folding leads to fracture in rock called Nappe. Upper layer of rock slides over lower layer leading to release of tremendous amount of energy which causes Earthquakes.
  • Explain the relation between fold mountains and volcanoes – As two plates converge, the denser plate subducts under the lighter plate. This subducted plate enters onto the Mantle region of earth which causes melting of rocks to form Magma. Due to high pressure underneath this magma comes out from the up-lying continental plate in the form of Lava, causing the formation of volcanoes at some distance from continental margins.

Conclusion – Give examples.


Topic-  changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

2) Discuss the factors responsible for the extinction of flora and fauna being witnessed today across the world.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the factors and reasons that have led to the extinction of flora and fauna being witnessed today, across the world.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  decrease in flora and fauna. E.g briefly mention the recent Living Planet Index report of WWF.

Body-

DIscuss in points the factors responsible for the extinction of flora and fauna across the world. E.g

  • Overexploitation of species either for human consumption, use, elaboration of byproducts, or for sport.
  • Habitat destruction;
  • Habitat fragmentation;
  • Habitat degradation
  • Climate Change
  • The spread of non-native species around the world;
  • a single species (us) taking over a significant percentage of the world’s physical space and production; and,
  • human actions increasingly directing evolution.
  • chemical products associated with agriculture or other productive processes have affected many species such as honeybees and other pollinators etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic –  Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc

3) “The Himalayas are highly prone to landslides.” Discuss the causes and suggest suitable measures of mitigation.(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the reasons why himalayas are prone to landslides. Thereafter, we need to bring out the impact of such landslides and how such impacts can be mitigated.

Directive word

Discuss – Here your discussion should focus around answering the key demand of the question.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that The Himalayas are highly prone to landslides, leading to heavy loss of both life & property. Explain what landslides are – Landslides are mass movement of soil or rocks along the slopes of mountains

Body

  • Explain the causes of such landslides
    • Natural causes such as earthquakes, rainfall, slope
    • Man made causes such as deforestation, jhum cultivation, illegal mining and industrial activities etc
  • Discuss the impact of such landslides
  • Highlight how such situation can be improved
    • Tree plantation
    • Building catchment areas to capture extra rainfall water
    • Stopping Jhum cultivation.
    • Teaching people about landslides & ways to mitigate.
    • Constructing a permanent assessment team comprising scientists & geologists that would look into the matter

Conclusion – Comment on the general environmental degradation taking place in Himalayas and discuss way forward.


General Studies – 2


 

Topic– Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4) What is the Global housing tech challenge? Examine how will it benefit Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana?(250 words)

The hindubusinessline

Why this question

In order to resolve the housing problem in the country, the government launched the PMAY scheme under which the achievements have not kept pace with the aims. As a result, this technological innovation project has been initiated to improve the attainment of objectives under PMAY which needs to be discussed.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain about the challenge. Highlight why such a challenge is necessary, by talking about the need of it under PMAY. Finally, we need to give our view on the importance of this challenge as well as the way forward.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the problem of housing shortage in the country and the need to accelerate construction of houses with suitable statistics.

Body

  • Explain about the challenge – Centre to offer about ₹150 crore as a technology innovation grant to build 6,000 homes — cheaper, faster and better — using alternative technologies and materials under the Global Housing Technology Challenge (which was launched recently). Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs to invite bids and identify proven demonstrable technologies from around the world which are to be adapted and mainstreamed for use in the Indian context.
    Apart from state and Central assistance of ₹1.5 lakh each, the Centre will offer an additional technology innovation grant of ₹2.5 lakh for each house.
  • Highlight that The PMAY (U), was launched by prime minister in June’15. It is aimed at ensuring Housing for all by 2022 by providing financial assistance to the beneficiaries. Around 68.5 lakh houses have been approved so far for construction under the PMAY (U).
  • Highlight that pace of construction under the urban section of Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana or Housing for All is too slow. It has completed just over 10% of its target as the scheme reaches its halfway point.
  • Explain how the challenge would help in achievement of aims under PMAY.

Conclusion – give your view and discuss the way forward.

 


Topic– Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

5) Making Universal Basic Income Scheme work requires huge funding as well as certain other measures to raise revenue and reduce expenditure. Analyze.(250 words)

Indianexpress

 

Why this question

The central government as well as the state of Sikkim has recently mooted the idea of UBIS, which will require huge amounts of funds. In this context it is important to discuss how the financial resources can be raised to fund the scheme.

Directive word

Analyze-here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the issue and bring out how financial resources can be raised for UBIS and how other expenditures can be reduced to fund the scheme.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  UBIS. e.g mention what universal means; what basic means and what the scheme entails.

Body-

  • Since UBIS is to be given to the rich and the middle classes as well, it can be expensive.
  • There is need for funding it from reducing some of the subsidies that are at present enjoyed mainly by the better-off,
  • also taking a bit from the various tax concessions mostly to business (called “revenues foregone” in the Central Budget), and
  • taxing the currently exempt wealth, inheritance, and long-term capital gains, and collecting more taxes from the currently under-assessed and under-taxed property values.
  • If, to start with, it is given only to women, it’ll halve the cost
  • packaging a significant UBIS with a simultaneous increase in the taxes on the rich will help macro-economic stability, apart from assuaging the poor who will face some of the price rise in commodities or services, when subsidies are withdrawn (for example, the price of urea will rise for all farmers, if the fertiliser subsidy is curtailed, even though most of the subsidy goes to large farmers and factories). 

Topic– Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating Education

6) Despite the RTE Act being more than a decade old, educational outcomes in India continue to remain poor. Examine.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The article discusses the result of the ASER report and delves deep into a problem long faced by education sector in India which is poor learning outcomes. Understanding the causes of this problems along with possible mitigation strategies is important.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the findings of the aser report which again highlights the poor learning outcomes among Indian children. Thereafter, we need to discuss the reasons why it is so including the issues with RTE Act. Finally, we need to discuss solutions to the issue.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that the the latest Annual Status Of Education Report 2018 (Rural) or ASER 2018 holds a mirror to a country that is aspiring to be a knowledge power.

Body

  • Highlight in detail the findings of the ASER report which would reflect the magnitude of learning outcomes in the country – ASER report shows Indian children have a huge learning deficit. The highly respected annual report, which collected data from 596 districts in India, shows that one in two students (50.3%) in Indian schools lack basic reading ability not just of their own grade but also of those of three levels below. This is a 2.2 percentage point increase compared with the situation in 2014 and a dip of 3.1 percentage points compared with 2010. The situation with regard to arithmetic is equally abysmal—just 44.1% of class VIII students can do simple division. This strike rate is almost same as in 2014 and 4 percentage points less when compared with 2012
  • Explain the measures taken by the government to improve the situation such as the RTE Act, schemes such as “Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat”, apart from states’ efforts.
  • Discuss the impact of such measures and issues involved therein.

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss the way forward.


Topic: Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.

7) Discuss the role of WHO in promoting public health and environmental health across the globe.(250 words)

Wikipedia

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail the role and functions performed by the WHO in order to promote public and environmental health across the world.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  WHO. E.g The WHO is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health. It was established in 1948, and is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The WHO’s Constitution states that its objective “is the attainment by all people of the highest possible level of health”.

Body-

  1. DIscuss the structure and functioning of WHO. E.g
  • As of 2016, the WHO has 194 member states: all of them Member States of the United Nations except for the Cook Islands and Niue.
  • WHO Member States appoint delegations to the World Health Assembly, WHO’s supreme decision-making body.
  • All UN Member States are eligible for WHO membership.
  • The Executive Board is composed of members technically qualified in health, and gives effect to the decisions and policies of the Health Assembly.
  • In addition, the UN observer organizations International Committee of the Red Cross and International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies have entered into “official relations” with WHO and are invited as observers.
  1. Discuss the functions of WHO. E.g
  • The WHO is responsible for the World Health Report, the worldwide World Health Survey, and World Health Day.
  • providing leadership on matters critical to health and engaging in partnerships where joint action is needed;
  • shaping the research agenda and stimulating the generation, translation, and dissemination of valuable knowledge;
  • setting norms and standards and promoting and monitoring their implementation;
  • articulating ethical and evidence-based policy options;

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 4


Topic– Part of Ethics case study series.

8) You are an engineer in a plant outside a small community. You work during normal hours, but are on call afterwards; the plant operates continuously. There are some large vessels in the plant that contain hazardous vapors. Although your company has an excellent safety record, several groups in the community have expressed concerns over the danger it poses, and  have published letters to the editor in the local paper every month or so.

 

In the middle of a winter night, your plant manager calls reporting that several feet of snow which have accumulated since yesterday have caused a section of the roof in the plant to collapse. Little more is known yet, but as an engineer you are expected to help. You are the first person the manager has called, and they need to know what step to take next.

  1. Considering public opinion, how much must you know before notifying the public?
  2. What would be your next step in this case?
  3. How can you react in a safe manner while saving your as well as the company’s  face?(250 words)

Structure of the answer

Take the help of different case studies and explore different sources of information to frame your answer.

  1. Discuss the key points-technical as well as managerial that you should get information about in order to give proper and adequate information to the public.
  2. Discuss how you will approach the issue as an incharge of engineering department.
  3. Discuss what information shall you divulge to the public so that it serves the legal and ethical purpose but at the a=same time saves yours and as well as the company’s reputation.


NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

Subscribe to Blog via Email

Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.