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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 16 January 2019

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 16 January 2019

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic:  Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc)


General Studies – 1


 

Topic– Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times

1) Discuss the contributions made by scholars of ancient India in the field of medicine and mathematics?(250 words)

The hindu

 

Why this question

Off late, there has been much debate over the developments in science and technology in ancient India. This question expects you to discuss the advancement made by Indians in the field of aforementioned fields.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the contributions of scholars of ancient India in the aforementioned fields.

Directive word

Discuss – Here in your discussion, you need to discuss the contributions of the scholars in the fields mentioned above.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that off late there has been much discussion about the contribution made by ancient India to the field of science and technology.

Body

  • Discuss the contribution in the field of medicine
    • Diseases cures and medicines were first mentioned in Atharva veda
    • Takshila emerged as the centre of medicine and learning
    • Discuss texts such as charaksamhita and sushrutsamhita etc
  • Discuss contribution in the field of mathematics
    • Mention that apastamba in 2nd century BC introduced practical geometry involving acute angle etc
    • Discuss contribution such as decimal system, notation system etc
    • Discuss the role of books such as Surya Siddhanta etc

Conclusion – Highlight the significance of these contributions in modern times and what it says about the culture of science in the country.


Topic-  Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues

2) Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj was a social reformer well ahead of his time. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, his thoughts, his works and his contribution towards development and reformation of Indian society.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj. E.g Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj also known as Rajarshi Shahu was considered a true democrat and social reformer. First Maharaja of the princely state of Kolhapur, he was an invaluable gem in the history of Maharashtra.

Body-

Discuss in points his contributions towards the Indian society. E.g

  • Greatly influenced by the contributions of social reformer Jyotiba Phule, Shahu Maharaj was an ideal leader and able ruler who was associated with many progressive and path breaking activities during his rule.
  • From his coronation in 1894 till his demise in 1922, he worked tirelessly for the cause of the lower caste subjects in his state.
  • Primary education to all regardless of caste and creed was one of his most significant priorities.
  • He established hostels separately for different ethnicities and religions.
  • He established the Miss Clarke Boarding School for the socially quarantined segments of the community.
  • He introduced several scholarships for the poor but meritorious students from backward castes.
  • He also initiated a compulsory free primary education for all in his state.
  • Chhatrapati Shahu was a strong advocate of equality among all strata of the society and refused to give the Brahmins any special status.
  • He established schools to educate the women, and also spoke vociferously on the topic of women education. He introduced a law banning the Devadasi Pratha etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic –  Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc

3) Differentiate between between cyclone, hurricane, tornado and twister. Explain the necessary conditions for their formation. Which of these are generally observed in India and at which places?(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question is quite straightforward and expects us to first explain the differences between the aforementioned terms. Next, it expects us to list out the conditions necessary for their formation and finally explain which of the above occur in India and why.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that these 4 are closely related.

Body

  • Cyclone is weather situation characterised by a rotating organized system of clouds coupled with thunderstorms and has low pressure centre and closed low-level atmospheric circulation. Hurricane is also similar weather phenomenon. They differ in name based on location where the storm occurs. While in the Atlantic and Northeast Pacific such weather phenomenon is termed as “hurricane”, in the South Pacific and Indian Ocean the same is referred as “cyclone”.
  • Discuss the conditions for their formation
    • The temperature of tropical waters must be at least 26.67° for up to 165 feet below the ocean’s surface.
    • Cyclone is referred as hurricane when the maximum sustained wind speed reaches 74 miles per hour or higher.
    • Coriolis effect must be present for initiating and maintaining the cyclone
  • Explain the difference between tornadoes and twisters – Tornado is a violent storm. It is characterised by rapidly rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the Earth and cumulonimbus cloud.  Tornadoes are formed over hot land surfaces. Twister is just another name for tornado.
  • Discuss when they are formed
  • Cyclones as well as tornadoes both occur in India. However, unlike cyclones the frequency of tornadoes outbreak is very low. Cyclones originate in the Bay of Bengal region as well as in the Arabian Sea region. Tornadoes of weak strength occur in north-western and north-eastern region of the country.

General Studies – 2


Topic– Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4) There is a need for National Clean Air Programme to create room for tighter action and better fiscal strategy . Examine.(250 words)

Downtoearth

 

Why this question

The NCAP is a much needed policy document that has been recently released by the central government. In this context it is important to understand the programme and discuss its shortcomings.

Directive word

Examine- here we have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the recently released NCAP and bring out the reasons as to why the programme needs to create room for stronger action.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  NCAP. E.g It proposes a framework to achieve a national-level target of 20-30 per cent reduction of PM2.5 and PM10 concentration by between 2017 and 2024.

Body-

  1. Discuss some of the important and salient provisions of the programme. E.g
  • It is expected to be the only “cooperative and participatory initiative”.
  • This will not be notified under the Environment Protection Act or any other Act to create a firm mandate with a strong legal back up for cities and regions to implement NCAP in a time bound manner for effective reduction.
  • Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) will execute this nation-wide programme in consonance with the section 162 (b) of the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1986 etc.
  1. Discuss why the programme needs to create room for stronger action and better fiscal strategy. E.g
  • It has not taken on board the ‘polluter pay’ based taxation mechanism to mobilise resources for dedicated funding of pollution control action and also to discourage polluting products, processes and activities.
  • Already, following the NGT order, 102 cities have started to prepare their first baseline action plans based on whatever data and expertise they have access to within a short time frame.
  • This will have to be taken forward under the NCAP and what will matter most are the right governing principles, and detailed qualitative and quantitative indicators for strategy development and targeted reduction in each sector at local and regional scale.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or
affecting India’s interests

5) Non Alignment is one of the most important legacy of Indian foreign policy which need not be sacrificed at the altar of pragmatism. Discuss.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

The article delves deep into Indian foreign policy of non alignment, explains what the policy meant for India and the form of non alignment that would help  India in navigating the tides of global politics.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the indian policy of non Alignment and what impact it has had on India’s relation with other nations. Thereafter, we need to analyze the pros and cons of India’s dalliance with non alignment and explain the nature of non alignment that might be more prudent in the current times.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain the Nehruvian idea of non alignment.

Body

  • Explain how India’s experience with the policy of non alignment has been – as the leader of non aligned movement, and its relationship with major powers
  • Discuss the pros and cons of the policy of non Alignment in terms of its impact on achievement of the foreign policy objectives of india. Discuss the difference between strategic autonomy and non alignment
  • Examine the form and nature of non alignment that would work for India – issue based alignment and not ideological

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced view and discuss way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation.

6) Some of the possible solutions to climate change and environmental degradation themselves pose challenges to the environment. Analyze.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

The world is grappling with the consequences of climate change and environmental degradation. A number of solutions have been posed and several of them are current being implemented. However it has been seen that many of those solutions while addressing one aspect create further problems for environment and our climate. It is therefore important to discuss those solutions and their effects.

Directive word

Analyze-here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the solutions being posed and implemented to address the issue of climate change and environmental degradation and how they in turn affect the environment in a negative way.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines highlighting environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and climate change. E.g present some related statistics and mention that a number of solutions have been currently in vogue to address those issues.

Body-

DIscuss the solutions to climate change that are currently in vogue and bring out how they themselves pose challenges to the environment. E.g

  • Discuss Desalination technology and challenges posed by it.
  • Discuss HFCs and replacement of HCFCs to protect ozone depletion and challenges posed by it.
  • Discuss Biofuels as alternatives to fossil fuels and challenges posed by them.
  • Wind farms vs biodiversity loss.
  • Solar energy vs Ground pollution.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.  


Topic- Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation.

7) What do you understand by Globalization 4.0. Discuss in the context of earlier phases of globalization. Also discuss how it can be leveraged to fight climate change.(250 words)

Reference

Reference

 

Why this question

Globalisation 4.0 has arrived and it also presents some possible solutions to climate change. In this context it is important to discuss the meaning and scope of the concept and how it will help in fighting climate change.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the meaning and scope of Globalisation 4.0 and also bring out in detail as to how it can help us in fighting climate change across the world.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about globalization. E.g mention what was the first globalization- Globalization 1.0 was pre-World War 1 globalization, which was launched by a historic drop in trade costs when steam and other forms of mechanical power made it economical to consume goods made faraway.

Body-

  1. Briefly discuss the globalization 2.0 and 3.0. E.g Globalization 2.0 is the post-World War II phase where trade in goods was combined with complimentary domestic policies that helped share the pains and gains of globalization (and automation). The market was in charge of efficiency; the government was in charge of justice; globalization 3.0 ushered into an era when factories crossed borders, and – critically – the know-how of G7 firms along with them. This created a new world of manufacturing in which high-tech was combined with low wages.
  2. Discuss what is globalization 4.0. E.g it is the current phase of globalization which has just started in the wake of industry 4.0; driven by big data, AI etc.
  3. Discuss how globalization 4.0 can be leveraged to fight climate change. E.g  building new forms of alliances within and between the private and public sectors; forging new clubs of like-minded governments, cities, states and provinces; and building new leadership platforms for policy experimentation and public-private action, each targeted to suit different industrial, national and regional agendas etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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