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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 14 January 2019

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 14 January 2019

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Tomorrow’s Static Topic:  Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)


General Studies – 1


 

Topic– Salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1) Unsubstantiated claims about the achievements of India’s past do more harm than good for the future India. Comment.(250 words)

epw

Why this question

India has recently witnessed several high claims about Its past achievements in science and technology. In this context it is essential to understand whether such claims are helpful for India or not.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our opinion as to why/ why not unsubstantiated claims about India’s achievements in the past are helpful for India’s future.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about some of the claims made recently about India’s past achievements. E.g mention the claims about aeroplanes and in-vitro fertilization etc.

Body-

Discuss why such unsubstantiated claims are not good for India’s future. E.g

  • It is not that India has not had great achievements. But, as is the case with much of science, the great ideas derived through inductive studies have since been taken over by more deductive methods of European science that have scaled even greater heights.
  • Hence, there is really no need to invent false achievements of our ancestors. Equally interestingly, all such claims are post facto and none have predicted any future discovery.
  • They will invite ridicule and discredit even genuine studies of the work of our ancestors.
  • They distract India from its path forward, exploring science and technology using its limited resources.
  • They set bad precedents for our coming generations by giving respectability to irrational claims.
  • When subscription to such claims is considered a test of one’s loyalty to the ­nation, they become seriously poisonous and disruptive etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic-   Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian subcontinent)

2) What are the major regions in India that produce oilseeds? Examine the reasons for India’s dependence on imports of oilseeds and what measures should be taken in this regard?(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first shed light on the oilseed production of India and thereafter examine whether India is depended on imports of oilseeds and the reasons for it. We need to provide suggestions on how to improve the situation wrt imports.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Discuss the kind of region required for production of oilseeds and the major oilseed produced in India.

Body

  • Explain that At present, India’s largest oilseed producing state is Gujarat, thanks to its position as top groundnut producing state of India. Rajasthan is India’s top Rapeseed & Mustard producing state, followed by Madhya Pradesh and Haryana. Almost half (48.12%) of Rapeseed and Mustard is produced by only Rajasthan. India’s top Soyabean producing state is Madhya Pradesh with a share of 44% in India’s total production of this protein rich crop. Among other oil crops, Karnataka is largest producer of Sunflower.
  • Highlight that huge demand-supply gap exists and India is number one edible oil importer of the world. The 60-65% import dependency worsens during the unfavorable monsoon years
  • Discuss the region for dependence on imports – domestic demand for vegetable oils and fats has been rising rapidly at the rate of 6% per year but domestic output has been increasing at just about 2 per cent per annum. In India, the average yields of most oilseeds are extremely low as compared to those other countries of the world. The cultivation of oilseeds in India is in high risk regions where there are uncertain returns on the investments.
  • Suggest way forward
    • Bringing additional oilseed areas under irrigation
      Promotion of modern crop technology and better dry farming etc

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss way forward.


Topic –  Factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)

3) Examine why Pharmaceutical Industry is largely located on the Western Coast of India?(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to highlight the location of pharmaceutical industries in India and thereafter, examine the reasons why they are mostly situated on the West coast of India.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that Pharmaceutical industry is a footloose industry (i.e it does not require specific local resources ) and hence it can occur wherever the industrial feasibility criteria are met.

Body

  • Explain the reasons why Pharma industry is largely situated on the west coast of India
    • Proximity to ports (Kandla, Bhavnagar etc.) which facilitates easy export to Africa, Europe etc. Africa for long has been an important market for India’s Generic Drug Industry. India exports cheap life saving drugs to African nations. The ports also help to import raw materials required for the manufacturing of drugs.
    • favorable State policy like ease of doing business, stable policies of state government (Gujarat, Maharashtra)
    • Proximity to petrochemical hubs near Gujarat Coast and Mumbai.
    • Easy availability of Capital ( The western part of India has traditionally been the hub of trade and Capital)
    • Historical factors include the spirit of entrepreneurship
  • Highlight that the above factors explain the emergence of Pharmaceutical industries in western region, many of the factors may be found at other places across the country (Bangalore, NCR region etc.). So the Pharma industry is not just located at west but scattered across the country wherever economic considerations allow.

Conclusion – conclude by summarising the points made above.


Topic-  Factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)

4) Despite being rich in natural resources, Africa continent has widespread poverty and under-development. Examine. (250 words)

Livemint

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first shed light on how resource rich Africa is, the status quo of Africa in terms of industrial development and socio-economic development. Thereafter, we need to bring out the causes behind such poverty in Africa and discuss how to rectify the situation.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that Africa is a land of paradox because of its vast amount of natural resources ranging from agricultural land to minerals and despite that fact the country remains struck by poverty and hunger

Body

  • Highlight in brief the nature of natural resources found in Africa and also highlight the status quo regarding socio economic conditions.
  • Next explain the reasons for above such as
    • Inefficient investment.
    • Lack of transparent rules.
    • Corruption.
    • Governance issue.
    • Nature-based conflicts, including violent conflict, civil wars and secessionist movements, have been commonplace in Africa.
  • Discuss the impact of these factors on distribution of industries in Africa. Suggest measures through which the situation can be improved.

Conclusion – Therefore, to make the ‘Lost Continent’ a true ‘Land of opportunities’, there is the necessity of political stability, education and true leadership to take the front seat and drive the growth of Africa.

 


General Studies – 2


Topic–  Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

5) The lack of alarm caused by the denial of local democracy reveals our collective bias regarding the place of local governments.. Comment. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

Despite the constitutional amendments made to empower the local government in India, the progress has been tardy and the mechanism has not yet taken its due place. In this context it is important to discuss the status of local government in India.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and express our opinion as to why the lack of alarm caused by the denial of local democracy reveals our collective bias regarding the place of local governments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the constitutional status of local bodies. E.g mention the aims of 73rd and 74th amendments of the constitution.

Body-

Discuss the problems/ issues in devolving powers to the local governments in India. E.g

  • Prescribing various kinds of criteria like educational qualification, presence of a functional toilet at home etc.- It restricts a citizen’s right to contest elections and thereby challenges the basic premise of a republican democracy.
  • Though local governments now have a definite space within India’s constitutional structure, they are still seen as administrative vessels for implementing programmes of the Central and State governments.
  • Not holding elections to local governments.
  • In most States, tasks like delimitation of seats are still done by the State government instead of the SEC. It is often under the guise of delimitation of seats that local government elections are delayed, especially when the party in power fears losses etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

6) For Ayushman Bharat to succeed, the private sector will have to take greater ownership. Critically analyze.(250 words)

Indianexpress

 

Why this question

The success of Ayushman bharat is critical for improving the healthcare outcomes in the country and private sector has an important role to play in that. The article discusses these issues and needs to be discussed.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to critically analyze the role of private sector in the success of Ayushman Bharat and bring out the pros and cons of involvement of private sector to conclude whether or not there should be greater involvement of private sector.

Directive word

Critically analyze -When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about Ayushman Bharat.

Body

  • Explain that India ranks as low as 145th among 195 countries in healthcare quality and accessibility, behind even Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. The country spends an abysmal 1.3 per cent of its GDP on health, way less than the global average of 6 per cent. Over 70 per cent of the total healthcare expenditure is accounted for by the private sector. Given the country’s crumbling public healthcare infrastructure, most patients are forced to go to private clinics and hospitals. Health care bills are the single biggest cause of debt in India, with 39 million people being pushed to poverty every year.
  • Highlight the constraints with increasing government finances for improving health infrastructure
  • Discuss the capacity in which private sector can contribute towards the success of Ayushman Bharat and the constraints involved therein.

Conclusion – Give your view on how necessary private sector participation is for the success of Ayushman Bharat.


General Studies – 3


Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

7) A 10% quota for the upper-caste poor will not necessarily translate into employment opportunities. Comment.(250 words)

epw

Why this question

Recently the central government has passed a bill which provides 10% reservation to economically poor but socially higher castes in India. The article explores the potential of such a measure over employability of the targeted group.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding of the recent measure of the central government to provide reservations to economically weaker upper caste people in India and express our opinion as to why/ why not this measure will translate into employability for them.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  recent move of the central government to provide reservations to economically weaker upper caste persons in India.

Body-

Discuss the implications of such measure on employment in India. E.g

  • A recent report by the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) reveals that-
  • the situation in the Indian job market is bleak: first, unemployment is on the rise with the rate shooting up to 7.4% in December 2018, the highest ever seen in the past 15 months;
  • the incidence of joblessness is the highest among the (economically) vulnerable sectors and sections (for example, around 82% of the jobs lost are in the rural sector, already facing the agrarian crisis,
  • and almost 80% of the joblessness is borne by women.
  • Recruitment in the government sector is tardy, wherein a third of the backlog vacancies is already of the “reserved” category.
  • Simultaneously, the unorganised and informal sector that had been a source of employment, historically, is evidently reeling.
  • The International Labour Organization’s (ILO) World Employment and Social Outlook: Trends 2018 has classified almost four-fifths of the employment in India as “vulnerable,” with less than a fifth of the workers being regular salaried employees and another two-fifths perceiving themselves to be underpaid.
  • Bring out whether the 10% reservations will help Indian youth gain employment, based on your discussion.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 4


Topic- Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships.

8) “The first step in the evolution of ethics is a sense of solidarity with other human beings.” Comment(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding about solidarity in ethics. We have to express our opinion as to how and why a sense of solidarity is the first step in the evolution of ethics.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  solidarity. E.g Solidarity highlights in a particular way the intrinsic social nature of the human person, the equality of all in dignity and rights and the common path of individuals and peoples towards an ever more committed unity.

Body-

Discuss the importance of solidarity in ethics in detail. E.g

  • Solidarity must be seen above all in its value as a moral virtue that determines the order of institutions.
  • Solidarity is also an authentic moral virtue, not a “feeling of vague compassion or shallow distress at the misfortunes of so many people, both near and far.
  • On the contrary, it is a firm and persevering determination to commit oneself to the common good. That is to say to the good of all and of each individual, because we are all really responsible for all
  • Solidarity rises to the rank of fundamental social virtue since it places itself in the sphere of justice. It is a virtue directed par excellence to the common good.
  • The principle of solidarity requires that men and women of our day cultivate a greater awareness that they are debtors of the society of which they have become part.

Write some more lines about the vital role of solidarity and take the help of other related sources to frame your answer.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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