[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 11 January 2019

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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 11 January 2019

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic:  Salient features of world’s physical geography.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic– Salient features of world’s physical geography.

1) Why was most of the Earth’s coal made all at once during the Carboniferous period? Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Wikipedia

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to discuss as to why most of the world’s coal was formed during a particular period/ era- Carboniferous period.

Structure of the answer– write a few introductory lines about the  

Body-

Discuss why most of the coal was formed during the Carboniferous period. E.g

  • While coal deposits formed both before and after the Carboniferous, this period provided the mother lode. It occurred a bit over 300 million years ago.
  • The evolution of the wood fiber lignin and the bark-sealing, waxy substance suberin variously opposed decay organisms so effectively that dead materials accumulated long enough to fossilise on a large scale.
  • The second factor was the lower sea levels that occurred during the Carboniferous as compared to the preceding Devonian period. This promoted the development of extensive lowland swamps and forests in North America and Europe.
  • During this period club mosses grow to the size of trees while insects also reached comparatively gigantic proportions due to the higher-than-modern oxygen concentration.
  • The reason all that oxygen was present is the vast burial of organic material before it could be eaten by oxygen-respiring organisms.
  • And while oxygen rose, atmospheric CO2 fell, eventually leading to glacial conditions. It was a massive carbon-cycle experiment that mirrored our current one but with carbon moving in the opposite direction, from the atmosphere into the ground, where it formed the coal.
  • During the Carboniferous, the Pangaea supercontinent was coming together. And in a tropical swath along the equator, a mountain range (now the Appalachians) was being pushed up by continental collision.
  • On either side of that growing mountain range, the crust bowed downward a bit as a result. Those ever-deepening bedrock buckets were positioned right beneath soggy tropical wetland regions etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic- Salient features of world’s physical geography.

2) What are the factors affecting the location of industries. Discuss in context of the movement of Iron and Steel industry.(250 words)

ncert

 

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the factors influencing the location of Industries in general and and historical movement of Iron and Steel industry across the world.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Mention the relationship between location of Industries and the physical and human geography as well as history and politics of the region.

Body-

  1. Briefly discuss the factors affecting location of industries. E.g availability of raw material, land, water, labour, power, capital, transport and market etc.
  2. DIscuss the movement witnessed in Iron and Steel Industry. E.g
  • The inputs for the industry include raw materials such as iron ore, coal and limestone, along with labour, capital, site and other infrastructure. The process of converting iron ore into steel involves many stages.
  • Before 1800 A.D. iron and steel industry was located where raw materials, power supply and running water were easily available.
  • Later the ideal location for the industry was near coal fields and close to canals and railways.
  • After 1950, iron and steel industry began to be located on large areas of flat land near sea ports. This is because by this time steel works had become very large and iron ore had to be imported from overseas etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic – Salient features of world’s physical geography.

3) Discuss the distribution of volcanoes in the world?(250 words)

GC Leong – CH3: volcanoes and earthquakes

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the distribution of volcanoes and the reasons behind such a distribution.

Directive word

Discuss – here your discussion should bring out the areas where volcanoes are found and why.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about volcanoes

Body – Explain the distribution of volcanoes in the world and the reason it is so. Here you have to explain about the areas where volcanoes are caused such as divergent plate boundaries, volcanoes caused by subduction where there are convergent plate boundaries, also where hot spots are located. Explain about the ring of fire.

Conclusion – Summarize your answer.


Topic- Salient features of world’s geography.

4) Discuss the recent trends in international migration movement. Also discuss how international migration can be made more safe, orderly and regulated.(250 words)

Reference

Reference

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the current scenario of international migration and the prominent trends that can be witnessed in it. It also wants us to write in detail as to how it can be ensured that international migration is safe, orderly and regulated.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  history of International migration. E.g mention the migration of Home Erectus out of Africa etc.

Body-

  1. Discuss the recent trends in International Migration and the factors influencing it. E.g
  • 258 million INTERNATIONAL MIGRANTS were counted globally in 2017 – people residing in a country other than their country of birth. This represented 3.4% of the world’s total population.
  • Highest category of Migrants- Labour followed by Displaced persons followed by students and then by Migrant Smuggling.
  • Women migrants- around 48%
  • Two-thirds immigrate to Europe or Asia
  • In 2012, ILO estimated that 19 per cent of labour exploitation and 74 percent of sexual exploitation involves cross-border movement.
  • In recent years, the number of children migrating unaccompanied has increased. In 2015–2016, there were five times as many children estimated to be migrating alone than in 2010–2011 (UNICEF, 2017b) etc.
  1. Discuss how international migration can be made more safe, orderly and regulated. E.g
  •   Collect and utilize accurate and disaggregated data as a basis for evidence based policies.
  • Minimize the adverse drivers and structural factors that compel people to leave their country of origin
  • Ensure that all migrants have proof of legal identity and adequate documentation
  • Enhance availability and flexibility of pathways for regular migration etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


General Studies – 2


Topic–  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

5) Irrespective of its fate in the Upper House, the proposed citizenship amendment Bill has polarised the Northeast. Critically examine. (250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

Since Lok Sabha has passed the citizenship amendment Bill, the Bill has caused issues in North East and ignited a debate. Such debate has to understood in depth.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the details of the Bill, examine the reasons why it is leading to issues in North East, discuss other issues in the Bill and thereafter provide the way forward.

Directive word

Critically examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any . When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – In your introduction, highlight that lok sabha has recently passed the bill and highlight the issues it has created in North East.

Body

  • Explain about the Bill – The Bill paves the way to grant citizenship to six religious minorities — Hindus, Jains, Sikhs, Parsis, Christians and Buddhists — from Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh who came to India before 2014.
  • Discuss why it is leading to issues in North east
    • there has been a strong resistance to the Bill (especially in Assam) as it would pave the way for giving citizenship, mostly to illegal Hindu migrants from Bangladesh, in Assam who came after March 1971, in violation of the Assam Accord of 1985.
    • There are an estimated 20 million illegal Bangladeshi migrants in Assam and they have inalienably altered the demography of the state, besides putting a severe strain on the state’s resources and economy.
    • The people of Assam — which has historically had the highest migration from what is now Bangladesh — see the bill as an unconstitutional attempt to undermine the current NRC process, and grant Indian citizenship to a large number of people who would otherwise be ineligible.
  • Discuss the key issues in the Bill
    • makes illegal migrants eligible for citizenship based on their religion and clearly violates Article 14 of the Constitution.
    • The bill clearly violates the Assam Accord.
    • The bill has potentially interesting implications for asymmetric federalism.

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced view and discuss way forward.


Topic– Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation

6) The success of Swachh Bharat mission lies in the behavioural change it has managed to bring, more than anything else. Critically analyze. (250 words)

Indianexpress

 

Why this question

The article discusses the impact of swachh Bharat mission in terms of numbers and the behavioural impact that it has managed to create. As we move into the fifth and final year of swachh Bharat mission, an assessment of the programme and its successes is important.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to critically analyze whether the most important success of swachh Bharat mission lies in the behavioural change that it has led to or other things. Thus we have to give the numbers in terms of toilets having been constructed under SBM rural and urban, the number of villages which have attained ODF status, and the behavioural change that it has brought about. In the end your opinion is required on what the mission has achieved.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Give a brief introduction to the swachh bharat mission.

Body

  • Discuss the objectives of swachh Bharat and what it has managed to achieve so far in terms of numbers. No of toilets constructed, no of villages declared ODF etc
  • Discuss the achievements under the scheme
    • Since October 2014, 91.5 million toilets have been constructed and 154.3 million rural households have toilets now. Goa and Odisha, however still lag behind. Barring these two states, IHHL (individual household latrine application) coverage in all states is in excess of 95 per cent (Telangana is marginally less). By October 2019, coverage should be universal.
    • simple on-ground verification of numbers uploaded on the MDWS website in a few areas found that many of the toilets claimed may not actually exist on the ground. This was revealed when organizations working in those areas went to provide the communities where such toilets were built information on post-construction usage and instead found the toilets missing. This raises questions on the efficacy of the SBM’s monitoring systems. Also a lot of money has been spent on building of toilets without an indication, at least until now, of toilet usage.
  • Discuss the achievements with respect to creating awareness with regards to sanitation and the role of swachhrahis
    • programme has achieved success in area of raising awareness about sanitation. Any cleanliness initiative will not achieve its objective without people’s participation. To that extent SBM surely deserves a credit. Other important initiatives include Bal Swatchata mission that was launched to inculcate cleanliness values and personal hygiene amongst children. This would go a long way in
  • Also discuss the positive impact of the scheme on sections of society such as manual scavengers etc

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


Topic-  Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems

7) Comment on whether it’s okay for officers to join politics early or wait till retirement?(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

The recent news of previous IAS topper having quit the service to join politics has brought the focus on this matter and the issue can be discussed from a GS4 perspective.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the ethics behind a decision to quit civil service and join politics as a means of serving society

Directive word

Comment – When you are asked to comment, you have to pick main points and give your ‘opinion’ on them based on evidences or arguments stemming from your wide reading. Your opinion may be for or against, but you must back your argument with evidences.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the incident of shah faesel quitting.

Body – Discuss whether it’s okay for a civil servant to quit his service to join politics. Discuss the implications of such a decision and whether it leads to diminishing the value of service.

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced view.

 



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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