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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 10 January 2019

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 10 January 2019

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic:  Salient features of world’s physical geography.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic– Salient features of world’s physical geography.

1) Explain some of the physical features that are formed in the upper courses of the river?(250 words)

GC Leong – Ch5

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to name and explain the physical features as a result of erosion in upper reaches of the river.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that the course of the river can be divided into three main stages and in the upper stages the physical features formed are a result of the erosional action of the rivers.

Body

  • Explain the phenomena of river capture and the associated physical features such as wind gap, pirating stream, pirated stream etc.
  • Explain how rapids, cataracts and waterfalls are formed
  • Also explain how duns are formed. Draw diagrams to explain more clearly

Conclusion – Highlight that these features are formed as a result of high pace of river in the upper courses.


Topic- Salient features of world’s physical geography.

2) While the earth’s crust is undergoing constructive changes to create new relief, external forces of nature are working vigorously to level this down”. Explain. (250 words)

GC Leong – Ch4

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain that the earth’s crust is a result of the constructive changes as a result of orogenesis and the external forces that are aggressively working to wear away the surface. Explain what these forces are and how they impact the formation of earth’s crust.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that earth’s crust is a result of the constructive changes as a result of orogenesis and the external forces that are aggressively working to wear away the surface.

Body

  • Explain that orogenesis builds new mountains, folding and faulting causes uplift or depression in certain areas and volcanic disruptions also modify the surface
  • Thereafter explain the various external forces that working against such forces such as weathering, erosion, transportation and depositing. Explain how they impact the relief features seen on earth’s crust

Conclusion – Explain what is the impact of such forces.


Topic – Salient features of world’s physical geography.

3) What are the causes and effects of El-Nino. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write at length about the causes/ factors which lead to El-Nino and also write in detail about its effects on the world climate and geography.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  El-Nino. E.g El Niño is a naturally occurring phenomenon that is linked to a periodic warming in sea surface temperatures across the central and east-central Equatorial Pacific. El Niño is Spanish for “the boy child,” which is often used to refer to Jesus Christ, and the phenomenon earned this name because it typically occurs in December around Christmas. El Niño occurs every 2-7 years, and can last anywhere between nine months and two years.

Body-

  1. Discuss the causes of El-Nino. E.g
  • The trade winds push warm water on the surface of the ocean from east to west (westerly). This causes the warm water to build up on the western side of the ocean near Asia.Meanwhile, on the eastern side of the ocean, near Central and South America, cold waters are pushed up towards the surface.
  • Because of this, there is a difference in temperature across the equatorial pacific, with warm water to the west and cold water to the east.The warm water in the west heats the air, making the warm air rise and leading to drastic weather, including rain and thunderstorms.
  • The rising warm air causes a circulation between east and west in the Pacific, with the warm, moist air rising in the west, and cool, dry air descending in the east.All of these natural occurrences lead to a reinforcement of the easterly winds, and cause a self-perpetuating motion in the air in the Pacific.
  • Under the proper conditions, the trade winds are weakened, causing less warm surface water to be pushed to the west, and less cold water to be pulled to the surface in the east. Parts of the ocean that are cold during the usual self-perpetuating cycle become warmer, cancelling out the normal difference in temperature in the equatorial Pacific between east and west etc.

 

  1. Discuss the effects of El-Nino. E.g
  • In South America, there is a drastic increase in the risk of flooding on the western coast, while there is an increase in the risk of droughts on parts of the eastern coast.
  • In eastern countries, like India and Indonesia, there is an increase in droughts.
    In general, El Niño causes vast amounts of rainfall in the eastern parts of the Pacific (the western coast of South America), and very dry weather on the western parts (India, Indonesia).
  • With all the extra heat at the surface of the Pacific Ocean, energy is released into the atmosphere, causing an overall warming of the global climate temporarily. Years in which El Niño occurs tend to feature higher temperatures across the globe.
  • The effects of El Niño on the weather peak in December and can last for several months after that etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 2


Topic–  Indian constitution- historical underpinnings and salient features.

4) Discuss the constitutional provisions related to reservation for Indian citizens.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

The government has recently passed a bill in Lok Sabha which gives reservations in employment to economically weaker but socially higher caste people of India. In this context it is essential to revisit the constitutional provisions dealing with the issue of reservations in India.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the constitutional provisions dealing with the issue of reservations. We have also to discuss at length as to how courts have interpreted those provisions in order to give a complete picture.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  recent passing of the bill providing quota to socially forward classes.

  1. Discuss the constitutional provisions related to the bill.
  • On the one hand, there is the principle of Equality, which prohibits the State from discrimination against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them under Article 15(1),
  • “equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State” under Article 16(1),
  • in addition to prohibition against discrimination against any citizen on the same grounds as in Article 15(1), specifically with respect to employment or appointment under the State.
  • The other leg is the special provisions, which under Article 15(4) empowers the State to “make any provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes”, and
  • under Article 16(4) provides “for the reservation of appointments or posts in favour of any backward class of citizens, which in the opinion of the State, is not adequately represented in the services under the State”.
  1. DIscuss about the Mandal Case Judgement. E.g The majority judgment in the Mandal case per Justice Jeevan Reddy held that “a backward class cannot be determined only and exclusively with reference to economic criterion. It may be a consideration or basis along with and in addition to social backwardness, but it can never be the sole criterion.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Development processes and the development industry the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders

5) Combating discrimination based on caste is no longer a priority for Indian reformers. Do you agree. Comment.(250 words)

Indianexpress

 

Why this question

The article discusses the other side of the discrimination based on caste and analyzes the declining interest of the social reformers of today in fighting against this discrimination.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our opinion as to whether combating discrimination based on caste is/ is not a priority for Indian social reformers and activists today. We have to substantiate our opinion with proper facts/ arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  social and economic inequalities in India. E.g present some statistics on economic inequality and mention the dilution of social discrimination with age.

Body-

  1. Mention that  in the pre-1947 era eradicating casteism was an important strand of both the freedom struggle and many Hindu reform movements. Give names of such movements, struggles and associated endeavours and personalities.  
  2. Discuss why the general population particularly the educated urban class reformers no longer give so much priority to combating discrimination based on caste. E.g
  • First, thanks to our Constitution and progressive laws, the most abhorrent forms of casteist bias have been criminalised.
  • Second, overt casteism is no longer visible in the anonymity of our cities; atrocities directed at Dalits are largely of rural provenance.
  • The third and perhaps most important reason why the socially privileged feel absolved of any further responsibility for fighting casteism is the policy of reservations. Mandatory quotas in universities, government jobs and elected offices are seen as having done enough (and indeed too much in the eyes of many) to create secure pathways for SCs to achieve upward mobility.
  • Despite this grim picture, many believe that with all the enabling conditions now in place it is simply up to the Dalit community to pull themselves up.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 3


Topic- Indian economy : mobilization of revenue

6) Evaluate whether having multiple GST rates make the GST structure cumbersome and discuss how can we make GST more simple?(250 words)

Livemint

 

Why this question

Off late, GST and the issues faced in its implementation along with the idea of simplification of GST has been in the news. The article critically analyzes the issue and hence needs to be prepared.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the rate structure in GST and thereafter analyze the pros and cons of having multiple rates in light of revenue protection, federal structure etc and gives a fair and balanced opinion on whether the multiple rate structure in GST makes the tax regime quite cumbersome. Thereafter, we need to give suggestions for making the tax regime simpler.

Directive word

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about the recent statements given by the FM that we are eventually planning to move towards a single rate structure under GST.

Body

  • Explain the current rate structure under GST
  • Evaluate its pros and cons
    • The complicated GST structure we began with can partly be explained by the messy federal bargaining in the GST Council and partly by a flawed incentive structure.
    • Centre guaranteed the states that their revenues from GST would grow at 14% a year. Any shortfall would be compensated.
    • GST collections have not met with the monthly revenue and growth targets which validates the need for keeping certain goods in higher tax bracket
    • World Bank study published in May 2018 said that the Indian GST rate was the second highest among the 115 countries with a national value-added tax. It was also the most complicated, with five main tax rates, several exemptions, a cess and a special rate for gold. The multilateral lender said that only five countries had four or more non-zero tax rates—India, Italy, Pakistan, Luxembourg and Ghana.
  • Highlight that committees formed for this purpose such as the Modi committee had recommended a 12% GST rate, of which 5% would go to the Union government, 5% to the state governments and the other 2% to the third tier of government.
  • Suggest measures which would make the GST regime simpler such as single rate , simplification of returns process etc

Conclusion – Give your view whether the multiple rate structure under GST makes the tax regime cumbersome.


Topic– Indian agriculture : issues

7) Indian agriculture has entered the era of permanent surpluses, which is further worsening the condition of the farmers. Discuss. Also examine how can agricultural marketing improve the situation?(250 words)

Financialexpress

Why this question

Although Indian agriculture suffers from several perennial problems, permanent surpluses have only been a recent phenomena. Instead of ameliorating the condition of the farmers, the phenomena has further hurt the farmers. The key to resolving this lies in improved agricultural marketing and needs to be discussed.

Key demand of the question

The question wants us to express our knowledge/ understanding of the issue and present our opinion. We have to explain how Indian agriculture has entered the permanent surplus era, what impact it has on farmers and what should be done in this regard. In the next part, we have give our opinion on whether the solution lies in improved agricultural marketing.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain the meaning of the term permanent surplus  in agriculture.

Body-

  • Discuss some statistics related to agricultural production and mention examples of places where farmers faced the problems of surplus production coupled with lower prices.
  • Discuss how India has reached trade surplus- technology, infrastructure, diffusion and adoption rate of technology/ innovation etc.
  • Discuss the good and bad of permanent/ near-permanent surplus in agricultural production.
  • Examine how far agricultural marketing is a solution to the problems discussed above

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss the way forward.


General Studies – 4


Topic- Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions;

8) Do you think commercial advertisements need to be ethical. Comment.(250 words)

Livemint

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our opinion about the ethical dimension of advertisement of various kinds of consumer products and discuss whether they need to be ethical or not.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  volume of advertisements we consume everyday and the platforms of such advertisement ranging from billboards to public transport to social media and even news channels.

Body-

  1. DIscuss the hollowness and even false claims by advertisements too woo more customers. Give some practical examples- like beauty products; health products etc.
  2. Discuss how those adds spread unethical behaviour/ notions.
  • Patriarchy
  • Sexism
  • Consumerism
  • Corruption etc.
  1. Discuss the role of those who participate in such advertisement- Models, Sportspersons,        Media figures, consumers, advertising companies, government etc.
  2. Discuss the effects of such advertisements without any ethical foundations. E.g it indicates lack of honesty and integrity on part of the companies, advertisement agencies and persons appearing for the advertisement; it induces unwanted, unhealthy behaviour on part of customers; it undermines consumers capacity to make informed decisions; it impacts environment negatively etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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