[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 08 January 2019

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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 08 January 2019

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic:  Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems;
ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations
and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance;
strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international
relations and funding; corporate governance.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic– Factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)

1) India’s unprecedented economic growth during the last two decades has been spearheaded by lopsided spatial development, with clusters of economic activity concentrated in a few highly dense megacities. Examine. (250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

This article rues the fact that spatial development in India both in manufacturing and services has been uneven which has affected employment, inequality, growth etc. The article provides a good perspective on the issue and needs to be prepared.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first shed light on the statement mentioned by explaining what is meant by uneven spatial development, and how it manifests. Thereafter, we need to explain the reasons behind such uneven spatial development, discuss its impact and suggest ways through which this trend can be reversed.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that uneven spatial development means that industries and services are concentrated in high density economically developed area and engines of growth have failed to spread to less dense secondary cities.

Body

  • Highlight that uneven spatial development can be seen both in manufacturing as well as services sector. Explain that unlike in China, Europe and the US, where the engines of growth and job creation have spread to the secondary cities, in India medium-sized cities remain mired in joblessness and poverty.
  • Highlight that India’s manufacturing sector is spatially spreading at a much faster pace than the services sector. The low-density manufacturing districts are growing at a much faster pace than high-density districts in India.
  • Discuss the reasons for such uneven spatial development
    • manufacturing sector has not spread to all districts. Only those districts that have improved their physical and human infrastructure have attracted manufacturing enterprises
    • While large manufacturing enterprises are moving away from more congested megacities into secondary cities, this is not happening at a faster pace to create more jobs.
    • High-density service clusters have continued to grow at a much faster pace than less dense areas and more dense locations have become more concentrated over time.
  • Examine the impact of such uneven spatial development such as poverty, joblessness, inequality, social disharmony etc
  • Discuss how this trend can be reversed

Conclusion – Highlight that the trend needs to change and discuss the way forward.  


General Studies – 2


Topic– Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or
affecting India’s interests

2) J&K needs sustained coordinated efforts of public outreach from all stakeholders in order to establish long term peace in the state. Comment.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  present situation in Kashmir. E.g Highest number of militants killed in a decade, governor’s rule followed by President’s rule etc.

Body-

Discuss the need for sustained and coordinated efforts of public outreach involving all the key stakeholders. E.g

  • While the army’s Operation Sadbhavna (a military civic action initiative of 20 years) has helped in extending marginal outreach, the lack of mass engagement has prevented the development of any perception change and the creation of alternative narratives to counter the propaganda from Pakistan and the separatists.
  • Need to engage the security personnel especially army and CRPF for public outreach and conduct of public meetings and include the politicians and the public officials along with.
  • Need to explore recruitment rallies, when youth are in a different state of mind.
  • Need to involve local clergy which has substantial hold on the local populace and seek its cooperation in messaging the youth and others on the uniqueness of the Indian system.
  • Exploitation of social media, as much as the countering of online propaganda.
  • Setting aside of the mutual fears of the people of Jammu and of Kashmir and bringing the people of Ladakh into this ambit as well.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3) Explain the provisions of fugitive economic offenders act, 2018 and critically examine its impact?(250 words)

The hindu

prsindia

Why this question

Vijay Mallya is the first person to be declared a fugitive economic offender and thus we need to be aware of this development as well as the law behind it and it’s impact.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain the key provisions of the bill and thereafter bring out why the Bill is significant and what will be it’s likely impact.

Directive word

Critically Examine -When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any . When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that Vijay Mallya is the first person to be declared a fugitive economic offender.

Body

  • Discuss the key provisions of the Bill
    • applicable in cases where value exceeds 1000cr,
    • gives power for confiscation of property irrespective of whether the proceeds are on account of crime or not,
    • prohibits fugitives from pursuing civil cases in India
    • provides for confiscation of benami properties.
    • The Enforcement Directorate (ED) will be the apex agency to implement the law etc
  • Highlight that off late a number of economic offenders such as Nirav modi, Vijay Mallya etc who were supposed to face trial have escaped the clutches of law and this law is an attempt to bring them to book. The bill has been brought because existing civil and criminal provisions in law are inadequate to deal with the severity of the problems. The bill provides teeth to the powers enjoyed by law enforcement agencies to book such culprits.
  • Also highlight the cons of the law
    • Under the Bill, any court or tribunal may bar an FEO or an associated company from filing or defending civil claims before it.  Barring these persons from filing or defending civil claims may violate Article 21 of the Constitution i.e. the right to life. Article 21 has been interpreted to include the right to access justice
    • The Bill does not require the authorities to obtain a search warrant or ensure the presence of witnesses before a search.  This differs from other laws, such as the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC), 1973, which contain such safeguards. These safeguards protect against harassment and planting of evidence.

Conclusion – give your view on the need of this law and discuss way forward.


Topic – Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian
Diaspora.

4) Critically analyze the significance of Asia Reassurance Initiative Act for India?(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

America recently enacted the Asia Reassurance Initiative Act (ARIA), which promises to bring back fresh focus to American priorities in the Indo-Pacific. This is going to have a sizeable impact on India’s interests in the region and needs to be analyzed.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain India’s interest in Asia Pacific and explain the pros and cons of the said act on India’s interests in the region. Finally we need to provide a fair and balanced opinion and discuss the way forward.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that America recently enacted the Asia Reassurance Initiative Act (ARIA), which promises to bring back fresh focus to American priorities in the Indo-Pacific.

Body

  • Explain in detail about the Act. It spells out a long-term strategy for the Indo-Pacific. It conveys willingness of the Congress to support financial appropriations for initiatives the US Administration may bring before it in realising various components of the strategy.
  • Discuss India’s interest in the region
    • India is worried about the prospect of American withdrawal from Afghanistan as well as about the inroads that China is making in India’s neighborhood.
    • A third concern is more broadly the challenge that China poses to India, both militarily and politically.
    • So, New Delhi is likely to judge this Act on how it will address these three challenges.
  • Explain the positives of this act for India.
    • reiterates India’s significance in the U.S. strategy in the region. The Act notes India as a Major Defense Partner, a “unique” status for India, which would ease defense trade and sharing of technology, including “license-free access to a wide range of dual-use technologies” as well as promote greater coordination on security policies and strategies and increased military-to-military engagements
    • congressional action comes immediately after Trump’s decision to withdraw U.S. troops from Afghanistan. Whether the congressional action will slow down or alter American withdrawal remains to be seen. Trump is reportedly considering changes to his approach to Syria, including slowing down a reduced presence.
    • represents a relatively greater level of commitment to the region than the earlier ‘Pivot to Asia’ declared by President Obama in 2013 that turned out to be mainly a rhetorical flourish
    • ARIA is important because it manifests a change in US perception of China from it being a competitor to now an adversary. The Act expresses ‘grave concerns with Chinese actions
    • ARIA embraces the concept of Indo-Pacific in place of the earlier focus on Asia-Pacific. The difference between the two concepts is the inclusion of India as an integral part of the geostrategic space that the US sees as the main theatre of contestation with China.
  • Discuss the limitations in the act in altering the status quo
    • The amount indicated is modest, a mere $1.5 billion per year for the next five years, hardly commensurate with the scale of ambition ARIA manifests. Etc

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced opinion, based on arguments made, on the significance of the Act for India and discuss way forward.


General Studies – 3


Topic-   Storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related
constraints.

5) Among several options being contemplated to address agricultural distress in the country, direct income/ investment support is the most prudent option. Critically analyze.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  various options being discussed in political and media circles about addressing farmers’ distress. E.g Loan waiver schemes, Increased MSPs and Direct Cash/ Investment support.

Body-

  1. DIscuss the cons of first two options briefly-
  • Loan waiver schemes- Only helps large farmers who are able to take institutional credit; it is a band aid solution not a comprehensive one; It enforces and strengthens uneconomical populism and abjures the government from its responsibilities etc.
  • Increased MSPs – Only helps a fraction of farmers especially those growing Wheat< Rice and Sugarcane; Higher Chances of corruption in this model; Also it helps mainly large farmers who are able to have sufficient surplus etc.
  1. Discuss the pros of the direct income/ investment support. E.g
  • It can be enforced to include almost all the farmers who have access to formal banking channels (Jan-Dhan Accounts)
  • Provides financial help at proper time/ season.
  • Helps large as well as small farmers and can even be capped to limit unwarrantedly huge transfers to rich farmers.
  • No corruption issue.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


General Studies – 4


Topic -Accountability and ethical governance;

6) What do you understand by the concept of accountability and why is accountability important for good governance. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Write a few introductory lines about the increased stress placed on accountability of organizations, leaders, politicians, civil servants etc.

Body-

  1. DIscuss the concept of accountability in detail. E.g Bring out the meaning of accountability and mention that  Accountability consists of three vital components
  • Transparency:
  • Answerability:
  • Enforceability:

        Mention that  accountability involves both a horizontal and a vertical dimensions. The horizontal dimension is the system of checks and balances among the executive, the legislative and the judicial branches. Vertical accountability entails the relationships between citizens and decision makers, including the ability of citizens to influence political decision-making processes.

  1. Discuss the importance of accountability in good governance. E.g
  • Accountability ensures rule of law and respect for institutions
  • It ensures commitment to promises, manifestos and citizen’s charters.
  • It empowers citizens and aids their development.
  • It reduces corruption and builds trust among the governors and the governed.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– part of static series under the heading – “; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance”

7) Discuss some of the measures taken to strengthen ethical values in governance and what more should be done in this regard?(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the various measures in the form of laws, rules, regulations, code of ethics etc that the government has brought in order to ensure that ethical values are practiced and reinforced in governance. Moreover, we also need to give suggestions regarding what more can be done to strengthen ethics in governance.

Directive word

Discuss – Here your discussion should focus on bringing out the steps taken by the government to improve ethical values in governance and what more can be done in this regard. We also need to discuss the impact of such steps.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what do you mean by ethical values in governance.

Body

  • Discuss the steps taken by the government to improve ethical values in governance and the impact of such steps
    • eGovernance and Digitisation to increase transparency and accountability along with easing paper work
    • RTI to allow for citizen’s right to know which enhances probity in governance
    • Civil service codes and various Service Rules to ensure honesty and integrity
    • Citizen charters and citizen oriented governance to better address feedback, grievances
    • In 2006 the department Of Personnel drafted a Public Service Bill which enumerated fundamental values of Public Services, a Code of Ethics, a Management Code etc. with the objective of developing public services. The bill didn’t make much headway and is in cold storage etc
  • Discuss what more can be done
    • Effective implementation of charter
    • Removing political interference in administration and politicisation of administration
    • You can take more suggestions from the 2nd arc report on ethics in governance

Conclusion – Emphasize on why ethics in governance is important and the way forward.


Topic: strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international
relations and funding; corporate governance.

8) What are the ethical issues related to conditional funding in the international sphere. Discuss.(250 words)

LEXICON FOR ETHICS< INTEGRITY AND APTITUDE: VALUES AND ETHICS IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

Directive word

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  term conditionality. E.g Conditionality is a concept which describes the use of conditions attached to a loan, debt relief, bilateral aid or membership of international organizations, typically by the international financial institutions, regional organizations or donor countries.

Body-

Discuss the ethical issues raised by conditional funding in international arena. E.g

  • The donors shape the policy framework and strategies through impositions, seriously undermining the rights, choices and decisions of the people to determine their own demands and actions needed for their own development.
  • Local societal diversities and local ownership are ignored.
  • Policy conditions can interfere with the formation of an independent and mature democracy and political framework.
  • Democratic ownership implies mutual accountability, transparency, and participation in policies and programmes, where both donors and governments feel equal, sharing.
  • Domination by the government or the donors in the process undermines the basic principles of democratic ownership etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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