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1) India’s unprecedented economic growth during the last two decades has been spearheaded by lopsided spatial development, with clusters of economic activity concentrated in a few highly dense megacities. Examine. (250 words)

Topic– Factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)

1) India’s unprecedented economic growth during the last two decades has been spearheaded by lopsided spatial development, with clusters of economic activity concentrated in a few highly dense megacities. Examine. (250 words)

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Why this question

This article rues the fact that spatial development in India both in manufacturing and services has been uneven which has affected employment, inequality, growth etc. The article provides a good perspective on the issue and needs to be prepared.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first shed light on the statement mentioned by explaining what is meant by uneven spatial development, and how it manifests. Thereafter, we need to explain the reasons behind such uneven spatial development, discuss its impact and suggest ways through which this trend can be reversed.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that uneven spatial development means that industries and services are concentrated in high density economically developed area and engines of growth have failed to spread to less dense secondary cities.

Body

  • Highlight that uneven spatial development can be seen both in manufacturing as well as services sector. Explain that unlike in China, Europe and the US, where the engines of growth and job creation have spread to the secondary cities, in India medium-sized cities remain mired in joblessness and poverty.
  • Highlight that India’s manufacturing sector is spatially spreading at a much faster pace than the services sector. The low-density manufacturing districts are growing at a much faster pace than high-density districts in India.
  • Discuss the reasons for such uneven spatial development
    • manufacturing sector has not spread to all districts. Only those districts that have improved their physical and human infrastructure have attracted manufacturing enterprises
    • While large manufacturing enterprises are moving away from more congested megacities into secondary cities, this is not happening at a faster pace to create more jobs.
    • High-density service clusters have continued to grow at a much faster pace than less dense areas and more dense locations have become more concentrated over time.
  • Examine the impact of such uneven spatial development such as poverty, joblessness, inequality, social disharmony etc
  • Discuss how this trend can be reversed

Conclusion – Highlight that the trend needs to change and discuss the way forward.