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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 07 January 2019

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 07 January 2019

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic:  Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems;
ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations
and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance;
strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international
relations and funding; corporate governance.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic– urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

1) Delhi government’s draft e-vehicle policy differs from similar policies of other state governments and does well to encourage the growth of an ecosystem around electric mobility. Comment(250 words)

Downtoearth

Why this question

This article analyzes the recent draft e-vehicle policy of the government and discusses how it differs from the similar policies of other state governments. The focus here is on explaining how the policy could serve the e-vehicle industry well as well as smoothen the regulatory architecture going forward. Hence this question would enable you to be aware of what it happening in the policy space regarding e-vehicle.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first discuss the finer points of the policy and compare and contrast it with policies of other state government. Thereafter we have to analyze the pros and cons of the policy and discuss its usefulness for the future of the e-vehicle segment of the country.

Directive word

Comment – When you are asked to comment, you have to pick main points and give your ‘opinion’ on them based on evidences or arguments stemming from your wide reading. Your opinion may be for or against, but you must back your argument with evidences.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that to achieve the mission of 100% electric mobility by 2030, state governments are coming up with policy documents to accelerate the growth in the industry.

Body

  • Discuss the key features of the policy
    • aim of 25 per cent new electric vehicle registrations by 2023
    • Provides for Incentives on vehicles (subsidy) and mobility services
    • Focuses on creating private charging infrastructure etc
  • Compare and contrast the policy with those of other states
    • Most of the states, in their policies, primarily focused on the establishment of manufacturing and ancillary industries associated with the electric vehicle ecosystem. Others focused on the regulatory framework necessary to ease the operation of electric vehicles, including electricity supply.
    • What sets Delhi’s draft policy apart is that while its focus is on enabling the development of an electric mobility ecosystem within the state, it focuses on the state’s role as a regulator of important components of the ecosystem such as a network for private and public charging infrastructure.
  • Analyze whether the policy is a good start in achieving the aim with respect to e-vehicle
    • Delhi policy establishes small three-wheeler goods vehicles and public transport, including Intermediate Para Transit (IPT)—rickshaws and taxis as a segment of vehicles which have been identified for electrification by the state.
    • attempted to fund this transition to electric vehicles through cross-subsidisation as a matter of policy which is important etc

Conclusion – Give your view on the effectiveness of the policy and discuss way forward.


 

Topic – Post independence history

2) Bangladesh’s birth owes to Pakistani policy flaws much more than India’s intervention. Critically comment.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

The article discusses the reasons that led to the independence of Bangladesh and explains that the birth of Bangladesh was inevitable considering the policies followed by Pakistan, and provides an interesting insight in the mistakes committed and reasons for the birth of Bangladesh.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out reason behind birth of Bangladesh and give our view on what was the more pertinent reason – India’s intervention or policies followed by Pakistan.

Directive word

Critically comment – When you are asked to comment, you have to pick main points and give your ‘opinion’ on them based on evidences or arguments stemming from your wide reading. Critically comment is also forming opinion on main points but in the end you have to provide a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – highlight the situation in which Bangladesh was born.

Body

  • Discuss the reasons for creation of Bangladesh. Here you first need to touch upon the role played by India in liberation of Bangladesh.
    • Indian government allowed Awami league leaders to form government in exile
    • Gave military training to Mukti Vahini Sena on Indian soil
    • provided food, shelter, clothing and medical aid to refugees in spite of tremendous strain on their resources
    • in December 1971 Indian armed forces directly undertook the operation for liberation of Bangladesh which led to Indo-Pakistan war of 1971.
  • Point out that the seeds of partition was sowed as a result of the policies followed over the years by Pakistan
    • Highlight the issues caused by policy with respect to language
    • Persecution of people in Bangladesh etc

Conclusion – Give your view on what played more critical role in liberation of Bangladesh.


General Studies – 2


Topic– Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3) In its present form the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill, 2018 is very problematic and does little towards gender justice. Analyze.(250 words)

Epw

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill, 2018. E.g mention that the bill has been passed by the LS and is currently in RS; briefly mention the aims of the bill.

Body-

Discuss the problems associated with the provisions of the bill and how it does little towards the stated aim of ensuring gender justice. E.g

  • Since marriage is a civil contract, violation of this contract demands civil action, but the bill makes it a cognisable non-bailable offence.
  • As the majority judgment has set aside the practice of triple talaq and pronounced it to be unconstitutional and/or un-Islamic, the bill serves no purpose of further criminalising the practice of triple talaq.
  • The bill, which prescribes up to three years’ imprisonment, is silent on the provision of sustenance for the affected woman and her family.
  • The bill under discussion criminalises triple talaq by a Muslim man, but there is no corresponding penal provision for a non-Muslim man abandoning his wife. This goes against the universal principle of equality before law and is, hence, unfair towards non-Muslim women etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue. E.g need for a proper debate and involvement of all stakeholders in the process.


Topic– mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

4) The shocking neglect of child care institutions must presents a very sorry state of affairs. Examine.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article discusses the sorry state of affairs of child care institutions in the country and highlights the findings of the report of a central government report. It serves as an eye opener and the status of such institutions has come under the scanner because of the spate of crimes that have been reported from there.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the state of child care institutions and highlight the findings of the committee constituted by the government. Thereafter we need to bring out the issues plaguing such institutions and discuss the way forward.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – highlight the recent incidents that have come out of such institutions.

Body

  • Explain the status quo of such institutions. Here we need to discuss the findings of the central government committee
    • only 32% of Child Care Institutions or Homes were registered under the JJ Act as of 2016, while an equal number were unregistered, and the rest were either empanelled under other schemes or awaiting registration
    • child care standards were poor in many institutions, sans proper bedding, food and nutrition and sanitation.
    • Some States have too few homes, giving authorities little incentive to take up cases of children in distress
  • Discuss the reasons behind this state of affairs
  • Highlight what needs to be done
    • priority should be to bring about uniformity of standards and procedures, evolving common norms for infrastructure, human resources, financial practices and external audits.
    • Enforcement of standards and strict action against such wrongdoers

Conclusion – highlight that the most vulnerable children live in such shelters and there is a need to ensure that their survival is not at stake.


Topic – Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments

5) Evaluate whether the All India judicial service is an idea whose time has come?(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

The article examines the policy suggestion of Niti Ayog of having all India judicial service and gives its view. This debate has often cropped up and this article would enable you to prepare points on things that are faulty with such a proposal.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the suggestion of Niti Ayog regarding creation of all India judicial service, highlight it’s pros and cons and give our view on whether or not the time for this idea has come.

Directive word

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that the vision document titled ‘Strategy for New India @ 75’, released by the NITI Aayog in December last, amongst other things, proposes a spate of judicial reforms. The think-tank has come out batting for the creation of an All India Judicial Service, akin to the other central services like the IAS and the IPS

Body

  • Explain the genesis of the idea – the constitutional provisions regarding AIJS. Explain that 14th Report on Reform of Judicial Administration — alluded to the need for creating a separate all-India service for judicial officers. This report favoured an AIJS to ensure that subordinate court judges are paid salaries and given perks at parity with government bureaucrats, thereby incentivising the option of the state judiciary as a viable career prospect
  • Examine issues with the policy proposal of Niti Ayog
    • AIJS is being proposed as a panacea to cure the chronic vacancy crisis plaguing the Indian subordinate judiciary. Given the limited extent to which the Constitution only permits the appointments of district judges to such a prospective AIJS, it will not magically remedy this crisis. At best, what an all India service potentially offers is a more streamlined and regularised recruitment process for the limited number of vacancies for district judges in the country.
    • second concern is the much wider composition of the AIJS proposed by NITI Aayog, than what is permissible under Article 312. The top government think-tank has rather ambitiously pitched an omnibus service to covering entry level civil judges, prosecutors and legal advisers to comprise the service. Such a sweeping mandate would require considerable amendments to the Constitution, especially with respect to the appointments process for the lower subordinate judiciary etc

Conclusion – give your view on whether the proposal needs to be given merit and discuss way forward.


General Studies – 4


Topic- Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems;

6) What are the different categories of public service values. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  meaning of values. E.g Values are the individual principles or qualities that guide judgement and behaviour’. In order to better conceptualise and contrast values, they are frequently grouped rather than treated on an individual basis.

Body-

Discuss about the different categories of public service values. E.g

  1. Ethical values
  • Integrity
  • Fairness
  • Accountability
  • Honesty
  • Probity  etc.
  1. Democratic values
  • Rule of law
  • Neutrality
  • Accountability
  • Responsiveness
  • Legality etc.
  1. Professional values
  • Excellence
  • Efficiency
  • Leadership
  • Innovation
  • Quality etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic -Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems;

7) Public servants today more than before face various kinds of value conflicts and challenges. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  conflict in public service values. E.g the nature of public service and the multiple tasks of public servants will inevitably result in value conflicts. Also, in the context of greater fluidity between the public and non-public spheres, traditional values are challenged and/or complemented by other value sets.

Body-

  1. DIscuss in detail why value conflict arises in public services. E.g
  • The environment in which the public service operates is a constantly changing one – current dynamics of change include new technologies, growing and changing public expectations, demographic changes and the effects of economic and social globalisation.
  • In this environment economic, political and social values can come into conflict with the professional values of the public administrator.
  • Values can also differ within public service organisations.
  1. Discuss the types of value conflicts. E.g
  • Intrapersonal value conflicts occur within the individual when he or she is faced with competing personal values.
  • Interpersonal value conflicts occur between individuals with different ambitions and goals.
  • Finally, individual-organisational value conflicts occur when the values employed by an organisation are at variance with the personal values of an employee.
  1. Discuss briefly how these value conflicts can be resolved. E.g
  • While intrapersonal value conflicts require an almost exclusively personal self assessment of work priorities, interpersonal and individual organisational value conflicts can be resolved through the provision of clear value statements and the motivating capacity of ‘value-centred leaders’.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance

8) What are the methods by which public service values can be instilled in public servants. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about instilling values among public servants. E.g Short-term outward facing measures, such as the development and publicising of values statements in offices are an important first step, but are limited in terms of their impact. Moving beyond this level towards behavioural (or external) and eventually attitudinal (or internal) change amongst employees in an organisation requires training and the reinforcement of value sets through multiple interactions and activities.

Body-

DIscuss the method and means by which public service values can be instilled among public servants. E.g

  • Reinforcement and transmission of common cultural values needs to be planned and systematic. Without attention being given to inculcating core values and standards, other more localised values can come to the fore.
  • Recognise and assert the importance of ethics to good government
  • Integrate the management of ethics into the wider system
  • Exercise leadership from the centre and demand similar leadership in departments · promote through a combination of standards, guidance, education and recognition of good practice
  • Allow information to flow to inform and guide devolved decision making
  • Continue to test theory and rules against experience and remain responsive to challenges in the political and policy environment.
  • Strengthening the existing strength of the values culture within the organisation
  • Identification of high-risk ‘zones’ which require strong control and monitoring activity etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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