[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 05 January 2019

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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 05 January 2019

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic:  Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems;
ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations
and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance;
strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international
relations and funding; corporate governance.

 


General Studies – 3


Topic – Indian economy : issues

1) Analyze whether the slew of measures meant to aid the MSME sector to address their woes have come too little too late?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The article first gives a nice summary of the series of steps taken by the government to address the woes faced by MSME sector due to demonetization and GST introduction. Thereafter it also analyzes whether these steps will actually prove beneficial for msme sector. MSME sector is a critical part of our economy and hence this question.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain the woes faced by MSME sector. Next, we need to explain the series of steps taken by the government. Finally we need to analyze whether these steps would end up alleviating the issues faced by MSME sector. Finally we need to discuss the way forward.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that a slew of relief measures for msme sector has been announced off late.

Body

  • Discuss about the problems caused to msme sector as a result of demonetization and GST.
  • Highlight the steps taken by the government to address their woes such as
    • setting up of an export promotion cell within the MSME
    • Restructuring of MSME loans announced by RBI
    • Clarification on eCommerce regulations etc
  • Analyze how these steps would benefit the MSME sector, if at all

Conclusion – emphasize on the importance of MSME sector for the economy and the way forward.


Topic– Indian agriculture : Issues

2) Reducing farmer’s vulnerability to negative shocks through focussed financial help is more critical than unconditional loan waivers scheme. Critically analyze.(250 words)

Livemint

Livemint

Why this question

Farm loan waivers is the news of the season with multiple editorials having been written around the issue. These articles in particular dissect the issue very well even explaining the scenarios where farm loan waivers might actually work. Hence it provides very good fodder points for a question on farm loan waiver.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain about the recent phenomenon of announcing farm loan waivers and thereafter discuss the pros and cons of it. We need to highlight whether if loan waivers can work in certain situations rather than unconditional loan waivers. Finally we need to provide a fair and balanced view and discuss the way forward.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the slew of loan waivers resorted to by political class as a quick win for farmers.

Body

  • Highlight why such unconditional loan waivers are problematic
    • They cause a moral hazard
    • Lead to lead to debt overhang (essentially stagnated investments due to any new income being used largely for paying back old debts)
    • Lead to vicious cycle of debt that sometimes characterizes farm households in India. Etc
  • Analyze what are the situations where a loan waiver might prove beneficial
    • monitoring of debt and ensuring appropriate governance mechanisms for new loans or targeted benefits. Although this may involve additional enforcement costs for the government, it will likely be far lower than the huge fiscal burden associated with debt relief schemes.
  • Discuss the contour of such a scheme

Conclusion – give your view on unconditional loan waivers and whether directed financial help that reduce farmers vulnerability might help.


Topic– recent developments in science and technology.

3) The soft landing on the dark side of the moon by China will greatly expand our knowledge. Examine.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

Chinese spacecraft Chang’e-4, successfully made a landing on the dark side of the moon and we need to be aware why this landing is important.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain why the landing of Chang’s e-4 on the dark side of the moon is important and how it will expand our knowledge.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that Chinese spacecraft recently landed on the dark side of the moon

Body

  • Explain about the dark side of the moon
  • Explain why this mission is important
    • Considering that earth is right next door to the moon, we know precious little about it. The mission will help us in planetary studies, and help in understanding exoplanets.
    • the far side is a quiet place and a haven for earthly aspirations to set up a radio telescope that could reveal astronomical mysteries, such as the structure of the universe shortly after the Big Bang.

Conclusion – Emphasize on the importance of such missions in expanding our knowledge about the solar system and beyond.


General Studies – 4


Topic- Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration:

4) What are key ethical issues faced by health organizations and systems? Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about various kinds of ethical issues faced by health organizations, in their functioning.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  relationship between health and ethics. E.g Ethical questions related to health, health care, and public health cover topics as diverse as moral issues around reproduction, state obligations in the provision of health care services, and appropriate measures to control infectious disease. Scholars and health care professionals have debated ethical questions related to health and health care since the earliest days of medicine.

Body-

Discuss in points the ethical issues faced by health organizations. E.g

  1. Resource allocation across health services and programmes.
  2. Corporate partnerships and philanthropic fundraising.
  3. Workplace ethics
  4. Equitable access.
  5. Individual versus population health.
  6. Public accountability.

 

Discuss and elaborate each ethical problem stated above, in brief detail.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic – Part of static series under the heading – “laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance”

5) Explain how do laws, rules, regulations and conscience differ as sources of ethical guidance?(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain how laws, rules, regulations and conscience act as sources of ethical guidance and how they differ from each other.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain why ethical guidance is required when we are faced with situations of ethical dilemmas.

Body

  • Explain how laws , rules, regulations and conscience serve as sources of ethical guidance
    • Laws – Laws set out standards, procedures and principles that must be followed. A law is enforceable by the judicial system, i.e. those responsible for breaking them can be prosecuted in court.
    • Rules – rules are more pliable than laws and serve to make our living in society more organised and ordered.
    • Regulations – Regulation creates, limits, constraints a right, creates or limits a duty, or allocates a responsibility.
    • Conscience – conscience aims to make moral decisions in ‘overwhelming forces of inescapable situations’ despite the risk of adverse consequences. If conscience goes, then everything collapses, conscience is central to our identity and it is as component in the moral decisions making process
  • Explain how they are different and how they prove useful in situations of ethical dilemmas

Conclusion – Give your view on the relative importance of laws, rules, regulations and conscience.


Topic– Ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions;

6) What are the various kinds of dilemmas faced by a public servant. Discuss with examples.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about various kinds of ethical dilemmas faced by a public servant. We also have to give examples for each such kind of dilemma, in order to bring clarity to our answer.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  meaning of an ethical dilemma. E.g briefly write about what is an ethical dilemma.

Body-

Discuss the various kinds of ethical dilemmas faced by a public servant. E.g

  1. Dilemmas Involving Fairness- What matters potentially influence your ability to work in the public interest and represent all constituents equally and fairly?
  2. Dilemmas Involving Conflicts between Personal Interests and the Public’s Interest- Do you have personal interests that conflict with your duty of loyalty to the public you have been elected to serve?
  3. Dilemmas Involving the Faithful Execution of your Official Duties- Can you competently fulfill the responsibilities of your office?
  4. Dilemmas Involving Acting with Integrity- Do you conduct yourself honestly and with the integrity expected from public officials?
  5. Dilemmas Involving Accountability- To maintain the public trust do you act in a manner that is transparent and is accountable to your constituents?

 

Give examples of each such kind of ethical dilemmas.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; accountability and ethical governance.

7) Discuss how the principle of ALIR help in solving ethical dilemmas faced by public servants.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the ALIR principles and bring out at length as to how they help in solving ethical dilemmas in public services.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  ethical dilemma. E.g A dilemma is something wider and more demanding than a problem, however difficult or complex the latter may be (Rapoport, 1960). The reason is that dilemmas, unlike problems, cannot be solved in the terms in which they are initially presented to the decision-maker.

Body-

Discuss in detail the ALIR principles and how they can be applied to solve ethical dilemmas in public services. E.g

  1. The imperative for accountability
  • Since it is ministers who are accountable to Parliament, not civil servants, it follows that the latter are obliged to execute the orders of the former even if the disagree with their content, provided that they originate from a legitimate source of authority in the institutional hierarchy, and that authority insists on being executed despite the remonstrances put forward by officials.
  1. The imperative for legality
  • Respect for and application of the principle of legality entails a particular type of control on administrative action that aims to see that public administration operates within the context of the law established by the legislature (Parliament). Since the source of all power is ultimately the people, according to the fundamental constitutional principle of popular sovereignty that is enshrined in most democracies nowadays, it follows that all power must be exercised in the name and to the general interest of the people.
  1. The imperative for integrity
  • The imperative for integrity constitutes a source of internal self-control in administrative conduct based on ethical standards and criteria shared and respected by the corps of professional administrators. Avoiding, for instance, corruption and exhibiting integrity would then be for them a matter of personal and professional honour and prestige in a culture of ethics, and not simply an externally imposed obligation.”
  1. The imperative for responsiveness
  • the imperative for responsiveness to civil society calls for an increased awareness and readiness to adapt to changing values and conditions in society at large, and stresses the need for an overall ‘external’ or societal accountability of state authorities and administration.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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