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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 04 January 2019

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 04 January 2019

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic:  Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems;
ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations
and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance;
strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international
relations and funding; corporate governance.


General Studies – 1


Topic–  Events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization,

1) Why do you think the League of Nations failed to preserve world peace. Discuss.(250 words)

Norman Lowe; WORLD HISTORY; League of Nations

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the League of Nations (LoN) and bring out the reasons as to why it failed to preserve world peace and another world war.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  LoN. e.g It was formed in 1920 on the same day as the treaty of Versailles was signed. Its aim was to settle international disputes before they got out of hand, and so prevent war from ever breaking out again.

Body-

Discuss the reasons as to why the LoN failed to preserve world peace and prevent another war. E.g

  • It was too closely linked with the Versailles Treaties.
  • It was rejected by the USA
  • Germany was not allowed to join until 1926 and the USSR only became a member in 1934 (when Germany left). So for the first few years of its existence the League was deprived of three of the world’s most important powers.
  • The gathering of leading ambassadors was only intended to function until the League machinery was up and running, but it lingered on, and on several occasions it took precedence over the League.
  • The world economic crisis began in 1929.
  • Japan’s invasion of Manchuria etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization,

2) What led to the Yom-Kippur war of 1973 and what were the outcomes of the war. Discuss.(250 words)

Norman Lowe; WORLD HISTORY; Conflict in Middle-East

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the Yom-Kippur war. We have to discuss at length about the factors that led to the war and also what were the outcomes of the war.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  Yom Kippur war. E.g the Yom Kippur war began was fought in 1973 between Arab states- Egypt and Syria on one side and Israel on the other. Mention the earlier wars of 1948, 1956, 1967 fought between Israel and several Arab states.

Body-

  1. Discuss the factors that led to the war. E.g
  • Pressure was brought to bear on the Arab states by the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) under its leader Yasser Arafat, for some further action. When very little happened, a more extreme group within the PLO, called the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), embarked on a series of terrorist attacks to draw world attention to the grave injustice being done to the Arabs of Palestine.
  • Anwar Sadat, the president of Egypt since Nasser’s death in 1970, hoped to win American support for the Arabs, so that the Americans would persuade the Israelis to agree to a peace settlement. However, the Americans refused to get involved.
  • Sadat, together with Syria, decided to attack Israel again, hoping that this would force the Americans to act as mediators.

 

  1. Discuss the outcomes of the war. E.g
  • After some early Arab successes, the Israelis, using mainly American weapons, were able to turn the tables and was successful in in hanging on to all the territory they had captured in 1967 and even crossed the Suez Canal into Egypt.
  • Both the USA and the USSR decided it was time to intervene to try to bring about a peace settlement. Acting with UN cooperation, they organized a ceasefire, which both sides accepted.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.

3) The form of capitalism practised in the last 50 years is no longer tenable. Discuss.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The article discusses the issues with the practice of capitalism in the current era where the contradictions highlighted by Marx in capitalist society is coming to the fore. As a result there is a need to have a discussion and form an opinion on the form of capitalism being practiced.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to debate the nature of capitalism in our modern world, examine its pros and cons, discuss its impact and give our view on its future.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Give an overview of the major issues arising out of capitalism such as concentration of wealth, destruction of forests etc and suggest that in this light, tenability of capitalism seems doubtful.

Body

  • Explain the form of capitalism being practiced in the world today where the dominating strand is neoliberalism with states taking a back seat.
  • Highlight the issues with this model
    • Concentration of wealth and glaring inequality
    • Scant regard for the needs of the environment
    • Pursuit of wealth sole motive etc
  • Discuss what sort of course correction is required

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss way forward.


General Studies – 2


Topic – Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

4) The amendments proposed by the government in relation to POCSO act, 2012, will undermine the right to life enshrined in the Indian constitution. Discuss.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

The Cabinet of the central government has recently given its nod to introduce certain amendments to the POCSO Act, 2012. POCSO act is a stringent act aimed to address child sex abuse and the proposed amendments have made it more so. However, the amendments have been criticized on various fronts by several activists and other people.

Directive Word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question

The question wants us to write in detail about the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012 (POCSO), its proposed amendments  and it also want us to bring out how these amendments would affect the right to life as manifested in the constitution.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the recent amendments to the POCSO act. E.g The Union Cabinet has approved amending the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012 (POCSO), to introduce the death penalty as a punishment for certain offences.

Body-

  1. Discuss the recently proposed amendments in the POCSO act. E.g
  • Death penalty has been prescribed for offences of penetrative sexual assault and aggravated penetrative sexual assault (Sections 4, 5 and 6).
  • Cases of sexual assault by police officers, members of the armed forces, public servants, gang-penetrative sexual assault, and relatives are treated as “aggravated” cases, as are cases where the survivor is less than 12 years old.
  1. Discuss how the amendments would affect the right to life as enshrined in the constitution. E.g
  • POCSO is already a stringent act. Under POCSO there is a presumption that a person who is prosecuted for an offence has actually committed the offence, unless the contrary is proved (Section 29).
  • It is especially difficult for the poor or disadvantaged groups to overturn these presumptions.
  • Under Article 21 of the Constitution, a person can only be deprived of their life or liberty in accordance with the procedure established by law. This procedure must be just, fair and reasonable.
  • Without quality legal representation, it is virtually impossible for an accused to overcome the presumption of guilt. Imposing death penalty in an offence with a presumption of guilt cannot be a just or fair procedure etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic – mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

5) There is scant focus on improving the situation with respect to bonded labour in India despite it being unconstitutional. Analyze.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

Close to 80 years since the constitution came into being, the prevalence of bonded labour is a stark reminder that we still need to get rid of many such socially inappropriate practices. This question would enable you to discuss the magnitude of the problem and think of ways of handling such problem.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the status of bonded labour in India, discuss the legal framework to curb bonded labour, explain the reasons why bonded labour in India still continues and discuss the way forward.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what is meant by bonded labour

Body

  • Discuss the status quo with respect to bonded labour in India – The Global Slavery Index 2016 estimated there to be 1.8 crore Indians in modern slavery, including bondedness, while the International Labour Organisation said there were 1.17 crore bonded labourers in 2014.
  • Explain the legal and constitutional protections against bonded labour – practice was abolished under the Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976 etc
  • Discuss the reason why bonded labour still persists – government relies on rescue and rehabilitation only, a multi pronged approach focussing on conducting a survey and enforcement of the law is required

Conclusion – Highlight that continuation of bonded labour reflects poorly on India’s track record on social justice and discuss way forward.


Topic– Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the
performance of these schemes.

6) Ujjwala scheme is a novel initiative which needs to iron out its implementation issues. Discuss(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The article does a critical analysis of the achievements and limitations of Ujjwala scheme and will enable you to develop your perspective on the achievements made under the scheme.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the Ujjwala initiative, highlight the achievements of the scheme, bring out the critical implementation gaps that serve as a hindrance. Finally, we need to give our view on the success of Ujjwala scheme and discuss way forward.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about Ujjwala scheme.

Body

  • Discuss the achievements made under the scheme
    • The program has gained traction and its ambit expanded to include 80 million poor families from the earlier target of 50 million families with an additional allocation of ₹4,800 crore.
    • The clean fuel protects users from inhaling smoke and also helps the poor avoid going to unsafe areas to collect firewood.
    • LPG coverage has touched 90%, with a significant increase in eastern states, with 48% of the beneficiaries being SC/STs
  • Explain the concerns in implementation of the scheme
    • There have been a lacklustre approach of people towards refilling of cylinders
    • logistics of issuing the connections also have kinks that require ironing out.
    • Aadhar seeding also faces issues caused by data discrepancies, especially where the spelling of names is concerned as a result of which applicants can find themselves unable to register for the scheme.
  • Discuss how the government is dealing with such implementation challenges

Conclusion – Give your opinion on the success of the scheme and discuss way forward.


Topic– India and its neighbourhood.

7) The new electricity guidelines released by Ministry of power are a first step towards creating a true regional market in South Asia. Analyze.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

Regional integration in South Asia has never taken off. Bhutan in the past had rued issues with pricing of electricity. The new guidelines would do well to alleviate such issues and also lead to greater connectivity at least for BBIN nations.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the recent electricity guidelines of the ministry and explain how it would boost the regional market in South Asia and discuss the benefits that it would pass on to India in terms of economic benefits and better relations with neighborhood.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Discuss about the lack of integration in South Asia.

Body

  • Explain the recent guidelines by the ministry
  • Discuss the benefits that will be accrued as a result of these guidelines
    • Bhutan and Nepal were coaxing India to relax the non tariff barriers and these guidelines would lead to better relations
    • Highlight that a vision to ensure connectivity in electricity sector of South Asia was dreamt with SAARC Framework Agreement for Energy Cooperation , however the issues with SAARC came in the way
    • Discuss how it would be economically beneficial for India and also from the point of view of electricity security

Conclusion – Give your view on why these guidelines would help in building greater connectivity in the region and discuss way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic– Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

8) As India transitions to renewable energy, it needs to articulate a credible economic future for the coal belt. Critically analyze.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

India is one of the largest CO2 emitting nations in the world and this trend is going to increase for a certain period of time. Coal is a cheap and fairly abundant source of energy but it has its own problems which call for phasing out its production and use. However, the coal belt of India is highly dependent on coal and there is a need to chalk out a strategy for this coal belt in anticipation of phasing out coal in India.

Directive Word

Critically analyze-  here we have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary. based on our discussion we have to form a concluding opinion on the issue.

Key demand of the question

The question wants us to dig deep into the issue and bring out the reasons as to why there is a need to enhance the coal quality & economic future of the country.Based on our discussion we have to form a personal opinion on the issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  growth of renewable energy in India. E.g mention a few key statistics presenting India’s current energy mix and renewable energy installed capacity etc.

Body-

  1. Discuss the problems associated with coal and the need to phase it out of the energy mix. E.g Pollution; costly imports of higher grade coal; pressure from international and domestic environmental organizations to phase out coal etc.
  2. Discuss the need to bring out a credible economic future of the coal belt of India. E.g
  • Roughly 15-20 million people in the coal belt are dependent on the coal industry, either directly or indirectly, for their livelihood.
  • While companies like Coal India face no immediate threat to either coal demand or their market power, in a multi-decadal time-frame both these concerns will become real.
  • Not surprisingly, many coal-bearing states are also in the bottom third by income per capita (Jharkhand, MP, Odisha, Chhattisgarh and West Bengal in ascending order). But one of the big benefits of public investments is that they can be guided.
  • PSUs like Coal India have built up considerable social and political capital in these regions and this social and political capital be used to pivot towards other activities etc.
  1. Discuss the strategy envisaged by you. E.g Ultimately, an Indian “coal commission” needs to be formed which should articulate a credible economic future for the coal belt and the companies that exist there.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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