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1) Analyze the reasons behind the extra cold winters in parts of north India this year.(250 words)

Topic – changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes

1) Analyze the reasons behind the extra cold winters in parts of north India this year.(250 words)



Why this question

This year has witnessed some of the lowest temperatures recorded in last two decades. India has seen severe cold in its northern states. It is therefore essential to examine the reasons behind the same.

Directive word

Analyze-here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the record low temperatures witnessed in the winter of this year across the northern states of India and bring out the reasons behind it, and any related phenomena.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Write a few introductory lines about some of the lowest temperatures recorded this year’s winters.


Discuss as to why the temperatures are so low this time. E.g

  • Cold wave conditions form due to lack of western disturbances which are are extratropical storms that mostly appear during the winter months. They are called extratropical storms because they originate outside the tropics. They originate somewhere near the mediterranean sea and the Atlantic Ocean and are laden with moisture. Western disturbances create precipitation and bring down day temperatures, but night temperatures remain steady.
  • They change the wind patterns in the northern parts of India. Presence of an active western disturbance cold winds from the Himalayas continue to blow in to the northern parts of India thereby allowing the prevailing cold conditions to continue and intensify.
  • Once the western disturbances pass, day temperatures increase but night temperatures dip significantly.   Parts of the plains of north-west, central and west India encounter cold wave, fog and ground frost conditions etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.