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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 29 DECEMBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 29 DECEMBER 2018

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Tomorrow’s Static Topic:  Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service , integrity, impartiality and non-
partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion
towards the weaker sections.


General Studies – 1


Topic – Poverty and developmental issues.

1) If social inequality is the most acutely felt social problem in India, insecurity, more than poverty, is the most acutely felt economic problem. Do you agree. Comment.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

Economic insecurity is a serious problem which can lead to not only deprivation but also social unrest. Although poverty has been on the decline in India, income and economic insecurity has been on the rise. It is therefore important to discuss the problem in detail.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our opinion about economic insecurity and how it is a serious problem and what are its repercussions for Indian society.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  problem of social inequality in India and its present status.

Body-

  1. Discuss the gradual decline in poverty levels witnessed in India and also bring out the rise of economic insecurity. E.g  While most measures suggest that only around one-fifth of the population today is under the official poverty line, large sections of them even much above that line are subject to brutal economic insecurities of various kinds (due to weather or health risks, market fluctuations, job uncertainties, etc.); All this distress arises directly or indirectly from India’s singular failure in creating enough secure jobs; Mention that this unrest is channelled to fulfil nefarious objectives of politicians and criminals etc.
  2. Discuss the ways by which insecurity can be decreased. E.g creating a sufficient number of secure jobs is, of course, highly imperative. But it is a long-term project (with some exceptions like the important proposal for extending the employment guarantee scheme to urban-sector public works as well); Meanwhile extending schemes of social protection for relief of the massive economic insecurity is urgent and politically expedient; Mention UBI and income transfer to farmers like the Rythu Bandhu etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 2


Topic – Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance-
applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency &
accountability and institutional and other measures.

2) Discuss how the recently released e-commerce rules will impact the marketplace and the consumers.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

Online shopping has witnessed a very high growth rate in India and is bound to further increase in future. Indian government has recently issued some new rules for e-commerce and it is important to discuss those rules and their possible impact in detail.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the provisions of the recently

Structure of the answer

Introduction- Write a few introductory lines about the  recently released e-commerce rules. E.g the new rules stipulate  that e-commerce entities will have to maintain a level playing field, and ensure that they do not directly or indirectly influence the sale price of goods and services etc.

Body-

  1. Discuss the provisions of the rules in detail. E.g

From February 1, 2019, e-commerce companies running marketplace platforms cannot sell products through companies, and of companies, in which they hold equity stake;

Inventory of a vendor will be deemed to be controlled by e-commerce marketplace entity if more than 25% of purchases of such vendor are from the marketplace entity or its group companies etc.

  1. Discuss how consumers and e-commerce market players and other stakeholders affected. E.g the changes will have a significant impact on the business model of e-commerce majors, as most of them source goods from sellers who are related party entities; This will impact backend operations, as Group entities would have to be removed from the e-commerce value chain. The time has now come to look at franchise channels, rather than equity investments channels, to do business in India etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3) Critically analyze whether India’s laws on surveillance are a threat to privacy? (250 words)

The hindu

 

Why this question
The government has recently brought out a notification which authorizes several government agencies to intercept, monitor, and decrypt online communications and data. Besides, there have been several instances like the facebook fiasco which point out the importance of privacy in the modern times. In this context it is essential to analyze the surveillance framework in India and deliberate upon it in detail.

Directive word

Critically analyze -When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the surveillance framework in India and bring out how these rules are antithetical to the right to privacy. We need to discuss the judgement in Puttaswamy case and link how these rules are antithetical to SC judgmental. Based on our discussion we have to form a personal opinion on the issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  growing surveillance tendencies on part of the states. E.g mention the recent notification authorising 10 Central agencies to intercept, monitor, and decrypt online communications and data etc.

Body-

  • Discuss the surveillance framework in place in India today. E.g Two statutes control the field: telephone surveillance is sanctioned under the 1885 Telegraph Act (and its rules), while electronic surveillance is authorised under the 2000 Information Technology Act (and its rules); the procedural structure in both cases is broadly similar, and flows from a 1997 Supreme Court judgment: surveillance requests have to be signed off by an official who is at least at the level of a Joint Secretary etc.
  • Discuss the problems with the present regime. E.g First, it is bureaucratised. Decisions about surveillance are taken by the executive branch (including the review process), with no parliamentary or judicial supervision; Second, the surveillance regime is vague and ambiguous. Under Section 69 of the IT Act, the grounds of surveillance have been simply lifted from Article 19(2) of the Constitution, and pasted into the law; the regime is opaque. There is almost no information available about the bases on which surveillance decisions are taken, and how the legal standards are applied etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue. E.g Any impingement upon the right to privacy must be proportionate. One of the factors of the proportionality standard is that the government’s action must be the least restrictive method by which a state goal is to be realised.


Topic – Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health.

4) Out of Pocket Expenditure is one of the major challenges in improving status of healthcare in the country. Now that Ayushman Bharat has tried to address this problem, examine the issues involved and highlight the lessons that can be learnt from RSBY while implementation of Ayushman Bharat?(250 words)

Financialexpress

Why this question

Out of pocket expenditure on account of healthcare is a major reason why people are thrust into poverty in our country. With ayushman Bharat this issues is attempted to be addressed and lessons from previous health insurance scheme such as RSBY will come in handy. Hence this question.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first bring out the problems caused by out of pocket expenses. Thereafter, we need to explain how Ayushman Bharat tries to address the issue and also the problems arising because of this. We also need to explain the lessons that can be drawn from RSBY so that we are in a better position to design policies that tackle out of pocket expenditure.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the problem of OoPE in healthcare. According to the latest National Health Accounts estimates among different sources of healthcare financing, 67% of the total health expenditure comes from households’ pockets. At the national level, of the Rs 3,826 spent on healthcare per capita, Rs 2,394 is OOPE. In this manner, catastrophic health expenses push about 7% of the population below the poverty threshold every year.

Body

  • Explain about Ayushman Bharat and how it tries to address this issue
  • Discuss the issues arising out of the design of this scheme
    • One, similar to the RSBY, outpatient expenditure, which forms a major part of OOPE, has been left out of the ambit of the AB-NHPM.
    • Two, relying on a single rate card for the entire country could possibly limit private sector participation.
    • Three, preparing the entire medical procedure list at the central level is a potentially suboptimal move, given the heterogeneity in healthcare needs across the country.
  • Explain what lessons can be drawn from our experience with RSBY which can help us in better targeting the problem of OoPE
    • AB-NHPM scheme, in its current form (similar to the RSBY), may not be able to account for the rising private players’ participation in the Indian healthcare sector. The increase in compensation holds value only when it is able to induce insurance coverage for healthcare services provided by the private sector. From 1996 to 2016, the participation of the private sector in providing healthcare services has been increasing at a quick rate in urban areas, while remaining more or less constant in rural areas. Etc

Conclusion – Give your view on the effectiveness of Ayushman Bharat and discuss way forward.


General Studies – 3


Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “Disaster and disaster management”

5) In India, authorities are often tasked with the task of controlling large scale protests, social unrest etc. Explain the NDMA guidelines on Crowd disaster management and bring out the issues faced by state government in implementing them?(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

Bring out the problems with respect to crowd disaster management faced by the states. Give instances to highlight the issue. Thereafter, explain NDMA guidelines and discuss issues faced by states in controlling such mobs.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that in India right to protest is a fundamental right and such protests often turn violent. Give illustration of some recent cases such as the violence in Bulandshahr, or the incident in Punjab where a Dusshera celebration turned fatal.

Body

  • Discuss the NDMA guidelines related to crowd disaster management
    • Crowd monitoring, alternative routes to release crowd pressure and accessibility of emergency exits at all times.
    • Also, Ambulance and healthcare professionals should be available round-the-clock at the venues.
    • As per guidelines event organizers should have plans to handle VIP visitors or, it is better to refuse entry to VIPs where it adds to safety concerns.
    • There should be a public address system, with loudspeakers installed at all crowded points.
    • Guidelines also list the roles and responsibilities of various stakeholders & there should be disaster management plan in coordination with others including local administration and police.
  • Examine the issues faced by state governments
    • State forces face issues of manpower crunch, also there is lack of adequate training and proper equipment.
    • This forces state governments to seek help from the Centre which, in turn, deploys the CAPFs. There is an issue of lack of coordination between center and state.
    • Sometimes the states are criticised for inaction while sometimes states are criticised for excessive force against the crowd etc

Conclusion – Give suggestions as to how such crowd can be better managed.


General Studies – 4


Topic– Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service , integrity, impartiality and non-
partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion
towards the weaker sections.

6) In the present milieu aptitude for civil services has more to do with the person’s relationship with his seniors and political masters. Do you agree. Comment.(250 words)

Economictimes

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Write a few introductory lines about the  meaning of the term aptitude. E.g An aptitude is a component of a competence to do a certain kind of work at a certain level. An aptitude may be physical or mental and it is developed through knowledge, understanding, learned or acquired abilities (skills) or attitude.

Body-

Discuss some of the positive aptitudes needed from a civil servant. E.g fit body, fit mind, ability to stay calm and patient, ability to present his/her opinion in a non-offensive but clear manner etc. Mention the Nolan committee qualities- Leadership, objectivity, openness etc.

Discuss the need for certain negative aptitudes. E.g need for  tactical circumspection of the situation at hand and not showing outright defiance and clear opposition; Keeping the boss happy etc.  Give examples of some servants who have suffered on account of the failure to inculcate those negative aptitudes.

DIscuss the importance of aptitude in defining his performance within an organization.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems;
ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations
and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance;
strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international
relations and funding; corporate governance.

7) There is a need to be impartial and demonstrate impartiality in public service.Discuss.(250 words)

 

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  meaning and scope of impartiality.

Body-

Discuss the importance of  impartiality. E.g a public servant is the agent of the government and works ultimately to fulfill the ideals and aspirations  of the constitution. A public servant possess control of public resources and an act of favoritism or bias may lead to undue advantages to one person/ entity and even corruption; Impartiality places objectivity above personal preferences and bias and improves efficiency of public service delivery etc.

Discuss the need to demonstrate impartiality. E.g it creates a favourable and positive image among the fellow civil servants and citizens, thereby enhancing capacity to make decisions and implement them; it prevents employee dissatisfaction with you and the  organization etc.

Discuss how to demonstrate impartiality. E.g

making decisions and providing advice on merit and without bias, caprice, favouritism or self-interest;

acting fairly by objectively considering all relevant facts and fair criteria;

implementing  Government policies and programs equitably.

Not accepting gifts and favours, except of small economic value offered as courtesy etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.  



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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