Print Friendly, PDF & Email

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 28 DECEMBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 28 DECEMBER 2018

Click on EACH question to post/upload you answers.

How to Follow Secure Initiative?

How to Self-evaluate your answer? 

INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic:  Disaster and disaster management.


General Studies – 1


Topic – poverty and developmental issues, Effects of globalization on Indian society.

1) What do you understand by impact investing? Comment on how technology is playing a key role in bringing a measurable social change? Discuss the lessons that India should learn from its experience of impact investing so far?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The article discusses the positive social change brought about by impact investing, and the lessons that can be learnt from India’s experience in impact investing. Such entrepreneurial spirit had developed in the society which is bringing about a positive change and needs to be prepared for sociology section of paper 1.

Key demand  of the question

The question expects us to explain what impact investing is, examine the role of technology in ensuring that the impact of such changes are far and wide and finally, discuss lessons that can be learnt from India’s experience with the same.

Directive word

Comment – When you are asked to comment, you have to pick main points and give your ‘opinion’ on them based on evidences or arguments stemming from your wide reading. Your opinion may be for or against, but you must back your argument with evidences.

Discuss – here your discussion should bring out the various lessons that India should learn from the experience of impact investors so far.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what impact investing is – Impact investing refers to investments “made into companies, organizations, and funds with the intention to generate a measurable, beneficial social or environmental impact alongside a financial return

Body

  • Explain the role of technology such as mobile phones, internet etc in facilitating impact investing. mobile phone is one of the biggest drivers of social impact in India. As smartphones become ubiquitous and data costs decline, both businesses and governments can easily reach populations that they could not before. Many of these people have previously been excluded or underserved.
  • Discuss the lessons that India must learn from the experience of impact investors
    • Failure rates in early stage investments will inevitably be high. Investments can be written off due to a variety of reasons and several investments will not have the intended social impact. it is important to ensure that failures don’t inhibit us from making the bold bets that are needed to drive disruptive and positive social impact.
    • funding quality research can inspire change in many ways. It can sensitize entrepreneurs to new opportunities. Research can also bring valuable data and insights to inform policy decisions and debates. Etc

Conclusion – Give your view on the importance of impact investing for bringing about change and discuss way forward.


General Studies – 2


Topic – India and its bilateral relations.

2) India must shed its zero-sum style foreign policy-making, and work towards South Asian integration. Critically Analyze.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

Several episodes of misdirected diplomacy and heightened tensions with the neighbours has highlighted the case of India’s foreign policy vis a vis its neighbours. Besides. South Asia still remains one of the least connected regions in the world. In this context it is important to analyze our foreign policy and deliberate upon its shortcomings and revisions if any needed.

Directive word

Critically analyze-  here we have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary. based on our discussion we have to form a concluding opinion on the issue.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to look deeply into India’s foreign policy towards its neighbors and bring out as to why there is a need to change the stance and pursue south Asian integration.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about India’s neighbourhood e.g mention the key countries surrounding India and regional associations catering to the needs of the region.

Body-

  1. Discuss the flaws in the present policy stance of India. E.g , the most significant flaw is New Delhi’s ideational disinclination towards its neighbourhood; Successive regimes have considered the neighbourhood as an irritant and challenge, not an opportunity; India has been more transactional, impatient and small-minded towards  neighbourhood which has, as a result, restricted the space for manoeuvre in the regional geopolitical scheme of things etc.
  2. Discuss briefly the need to change the situation. E.g some of our past policies have ensured a steady decline in its influence and goodwill in the region;  the persistent absence of a coherent and well-planned regional policy most definitely ensure that it eventually slips out of India’s sphere of influence; India’s foreign policy planners therefore need to reimagine the country’s neighbourhood policy before it is too late.
  3. Discuss how should India pursue its foreign policy. E.g deal with tricky situations with far more diplomatic subtlety ;it must be kept in mind that meddling in the domestic politics of neighbour countries is a recipe for disaster;  New Delhi must not fail to follow up on its promises to its neighbours; India does not have the political, material or financial wherewithal to outdo China in building infrastructure. Hence India must invest where China falls short, especially at the level of institution-building and the use of soft power.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


Topic– Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3) NITI Aayog’s ‘Strategy for New India @ 75’ contains the blueprint for India’s future development. Critically examine. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article discusses the suggestions made by Niti ayog’s document regarding the reforms required for taking the country forward. It is important to understand and remember what these suggestions are and also do a critical examination of the recommendations from the point of view of how beneficial or relevant the reforms are going to be for India.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the details of the report by Niti Ayog and explain the pros and cons of the recommendations for India. Finally, we need to provide a fair and balanced view regarding the impact of the reforms and discuss way forward.

Directive word

Critically examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any . When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – explain about NITI Aayog’s ‘Strategy for New India @ 75’.

Body

  • Discuss the overall sense of the nature of reforms suggested by Niti Ayog – intent to change the approach to planning from preparations of plans and budgets to the creation of a mass movement for development in which “every Indian recognises her role and experiences the tangible benefits” is laudable. The strategy affirms that “policymaking will have to be rooted in ground realities” rather than economic abstractions. It says that stakeholders have been consulted widely in preparing the strategy
  • Discuss the recommendations and also examine its impact
    • need to improve implementation of policies and service delivery on the ground, which is what matters to citizens. Its resurrection of the 15 reports of the Second Administrative Reforms Commission and recommendation that they must be implemented vigorously are welcome.
    • Employment and labour reforms, the second chapter in the strategy, have rightly been given the highest priority, which was not the case in the previous plans. Overall growth is also emphasised by NITI Aayog: “Besides having rapid growth, which reaches 9-10 per cent by 2022-23, it is also necessary to ensure that growth is inclusive, sustained, clean and formalised.” etc
  • Discuss some of the issues with regards to suggestions by Niti Ayog
    • strategy on labour laws appears pedestrian compared with the ambitious strategy of uplifting the lives of millions of Indians so that they share the fruits of economic growth. It recommends complete codification of central labour laws into four codes by 2019. While this will enable easier navigation for investors and employers through the Indian regulatory maze, what is required is a fundamental reorientation of the laws and regulations — they must fit emerging social and economic realities. Etc

Conclusion – Give your view on how effective these reforms are going to be in order to address the issues faced by the economy and discuss way forward.


General Studies – 3


Topic– Indian agriculture : issues

4) Critically examine whether loan waivers are a panacea for farm distress?(250 words)

Financial express

Why this question

The issue of loan waivers, comes in news repeatedly because most of the state governments see it as a low hanging fruit. The overall impact of the loan waivers is not judged. The article discusses these issues and indicates why waiving off farmers loans may not be the best idea in helping them.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the pros and cons of loan waivers, examine the reasons why loan waivers are resorted to by state governments, and the impact that it has.

Directive word

Critically examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any . When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the recent penchant of governments to go for loan waivers.

Body

  • Discuss the pros and cons of loan waivers with respect to alleviating issues faced by farmers
    • Farm loans may be crop loans or investment loans taken to buy equipment. Both farmers and banks reap a good harvest when all is well. But when there is a poor monsoon or natural calamity, farmers may be unable to repay loans. The rural distress in such situations often prompts States or the Centre to offer relief — reduction or complete waiver of loans.
    • Agriculture in India has been facing many issues and farmers demand for these waivers to tide over the financial distress that befalls them
  • Discuss the ill effects of such waivers
    • Undermines an honest credit culture and discipline
    • Benefit accrues to the large farmers and hardly any benefits accrue to the small and medium ones etc

Conclusion – give your view on the penchant of politicians to announce loan waivers and discuss way forward.


Topic: Disaster and disaster management

5) The disaster that struck a coal mine at Ksan in Meghalaya’s Jaintia Hills district on December 13, trapping at least 13 workers, is a shocking reminder that a fast-growing economy such as India continues to allow Dickensian mining practices. Discuss.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

This article discusses about the obsolete mining practices followed in India and the issues arising because of it. The significant risk posed to the miners which gets exposed at the time of such disasters necessitate an evaluation of the practices followed by the mining industry and the issues arising because of them.

Structure of the answer

Highlight the recent disaster in Meghalaya which has posed a risk to the lives of several miners. Bring out the issues faced by the mining industry and discuss what could be the solutions to prevent such crises from recurring. Finally, we need to provide a way forward.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the minimum g disaster in Meghalaya which our lives of so many miners at risk.

Body

  • Discuss the issues faced by the mining industry
    • unscrupulous operators of the illegal mine exploit desperate workers who were willing to work the rat hole tunnels because that is the most remunerative employment available to them. This highlights the regulatory and administrative lapses
    • Unscientific mining practices
    • Inadequate response to the mining disaster
    • Official inquiries into flooding disasters at approved mines, including Chasnala, have shown serious shortcomings in safety management.
    • There is little evidence to show that pre-mining surveys and safety protocols are incorporating such advice
  • Highlight what needs to be done to prevent such incidents from recurring
    • Act swiftly and steadily against the illegal mines operating
    • Improve the technology used in mining industry etc

Conclusion – Discuss what needs to be done to prevent such disasters.


Topic – Awareness in the fields of IT

6) The draft IT rules seek to ensure that  “unlawful” content does not feed back into social unrest. Critically analyze.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

Various forms of social media form an important part of today’s world and increasing online presence only underlines the importance of social media. While social media can be used for better purposes, it can also be used to create social unrest by vested interests. Therefore it is essential to look into the draft IT rules mooted recently and how they will affect social media and any negative repercussions that may be caused by those rules.

Directive word

Critically analyze-  here we have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary. based on our discussion we have to form a concluding opinion on the issue.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the draft IT rules released recently by Indian govt.  It wants us to discuss how those laws seek to limit distribution of unlawful content on social media and also discuss any negative repercussions of such a policy measure. Based on our discussion we have to form a personal opinion on the issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  recently mooted draft IT rules. E.g mention the stage of deliberation/ enactment and what rules they seek to supersede.

Body-

  1. Discuss the salient provisions of the draft IT rules. E.g The Information Technology [Intermediaries Guidelines (Amendment) Rules] 2018 are a set of changes in the rules used to operationalise the IT Act in March 2011. These rules are on how intermediaries, or various online platforms big and small, are to perform under Section 79. The existing rules provide immunity to these platforms for the content they transmit which is then published by end users, but they have to comply with legal requests for takedown of unlawful content and provide information on users.
  2. Discuss the problems associated with each sub rule, if any. E.g
  1. Draft Rule 3(9): it would require online platforms to become proactive arbiters of “unlawful” content via “technology-based automated tools or appropriate mechanisms”. This runs contrary to what the Shreya Singhal judgment in 2015 said while outlawing Section 66 of the Act. It had noted, “it would be very difficult for intermediaries like Google, Facebook etc. to act when millions of requests are made and the intermediary is then to judge as to which of such requests are legitimate and which are not”. The proposed change shifts the onus and duty of the state to a private party.
  2. Draft Rule 3(5): introduces the requirement of “traceability” which would break end-to-end encryption which could endanger the promise of end-to-end encryption offered by some of the larger platforms. The smaller platforms, most of which do not offer end-to-end encryption, could end up being forced to provide metadata.
  3. Draft Rule 3(8): increases the period for which data has to be retained,from 90 to 180 days. It also provides for further retention on the discretion of “government agencies”
  4. Draft Rule 3(4)- the “nanny clause”.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 4


Topic– Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.

7) “In diverse societies, bureaucracies have to be contextual, and therefore emotional. They must be designed for everyone, and not just for a few.” Comment.(250 words)

The hindu

Directive Word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding of emotional intelligence and express our opinion as to why/ why not bureaucracy has to be contextual, emotional and inclusively designed for everyone.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  difference in socio-political contexts in which bureaucracies operate and different kinds of customers/ citizens they serve.

Body-

Discuss the importance of being contextual, emotional and inclusive. E.g As opaque pieces of paper with signatures and seals take hold of our world, pain becomes linear and voiceless. Although this has worked out rather efficiently in the West it has not succeeded to the same extent in developing nations like India; When the state creates a new bureaucratic framework that trumps local networks (on which informal societies such as India are built), citizens become confused and find themselves at a loss to negotiate their space; In societies such as India, citizen-state interaction is historically built on patronage and personal relations; bureaucratic forms of engagement are recent; If the bureaucracy is not empathetic to those who are slow in responding, it will be hugely damaging to society as a whole. It will leave so many of us distressed, some of us dead, and even worse, most of us devoid of compassion etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service , integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.

8) What are the reasons that you think are responsible for the decline in empathy in the modern age. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the factors behind the decline in empathy levels among people of the modern age.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the empathy. E.g give a simple definition of what empathy means.

Body-

Discuss the reasons as to why empathy has been declined among people of the modern times. Be systemic and critical in your approach while being objective as much as possible. E.g

  • when our social milieu is indifferent to our needs and inattentive to our suffering, widespread damage is done to our psyches, causing distress, anger, and hopelessness. Such inattention and neglect lead to anxiety about our status and value, and a breakdown of trust in others;
  • This problem is greatly exaggerated by the profoundly corrosive effects of social and economic inequality. Under condition of inequality, the vulnerability of those seeking empathy is dramatically ramped up, leading to various forms of physical and psychological breakdowns;
  • The painful interaction of inequality and indifference is especially poignant and strongly felt as well by groups in our society who bear the brunt of discrimination.  
  • Time spent socializing with friends or having family dinners has similarly declined. The last five decades have witnessed stunning declines in virtually every form of social and civic participation etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

Subscribe to Blog via Email

Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.