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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 24 DECEMBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 24 DECEMBER 2018

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic:  Disaster and disaster management

 


General Studies – 2


Topic– Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

1) To enact the DNA bill in its present form, therefore, would only add a new, menacing weapon to the state’s rapidly expanding surveillance mechanism. Examine.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The DNA bill which has been in the dock for since a long time, after being cleared by the cabinet has reached the parliament now and has reignited the debate regarding several issues posed by the provisions of the bill. It is important to discuss how the bill will expand the surveillance powers of the state and whether proper checks and mechanisms have been put in place to prevent the abuse of the provisions of the bill.

Directive word

Examine- here we have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep and look carefully into the provisions of the draft DNA bill which has been tabled in the Parliament recently. It wants us to bring out the reasons as to how the bill in its present form will only enhance the surveillance powers of the state.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  draft DNA bill. E.g The DNA Technology (Use and Application) Regulation Bill, 2018, is the latest version of a Bill that originated as a DNA “profiling” Bill, framed by the Department of Biotechnology. The aim of that draft legislation was to set in place an institutional mechanism to collect and deploy DNA technologies to identify persons based on samples collected from crime scenes or for identifying missing persons.

Body-

Discuss in detail about the provisions of the bill which reiterate the fact that the bill will only add to the surveillance powers of the state without bringing any significant reforms in the criminal justice system in India. E.g It not only disregards the serious ethical dilemmas that are attendant to the creation of a national DNA database, but also, contrary to established wisdom, virtually treats DNA as infallible, and as a solution to the many problems that ail the criminal justice system;  The proposed law, however, is not only decidedly vague on how it intends to maintain this DNA Bank, but it also conflates its objectives by allowing the collection of DNA evidence not only in aid of criminal investigations but also to aid the determination of civil disputes; Moreover, while consent is not required before bodily substances are drawn from a person accused and arrested for an offence punishable with either death or imprisonment for a term exceeding seven years, in all other cases a person refusing to part with genetic material can be compelled to do so if a Magistrate has reasonable cause to believe that such evidence would help establish a person’s guilt. Therefore, there’s no end to the state’s power in coercing a person to part with her DNA; the Bill potentially allows DNA evidence to be used for any other purpose that may be specified through subsequent regulations, thereby according to the state a potential power to create a “genetic panopticon,” etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 3


Topic: Indian economy : Issues

2) What do you understand by Prompt corrective action framework? critically analyze whether recapitalizing banks which are under PCA framework is a bad idea?(250 words)

Financial express

Why this question

Investment in the economy is not picking up and credit availability is a major concern. In this light, the article critically evaluates the decision of the government to recapitalize public sector banks. We need to understand the pros and cons of this move.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what PCA framework is. Thereafter, we need to discuss the decision of the government to recapitalizing banks under PCA framework and evaluate whether that is the right way forward.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight about the bad loans problem and the stressed balance sheets of the bank.

Body

  • Explain about the prompt corrective action framework and the reasons why it was undertaken.
  • Highlight the step of the government to recapitalize banks under PCA framework and discuss the pros and cons of it
  • Pros
    • Boost economic activity especially for MSME sector which hamare facing liquidity crunch
    • To avoid the contagion effect etc
  • Cons
    • lending processes at these lenders are not up to the mark and therefore, at this stage, it is better to let these banks recover fully else there could be a re-lapse.
    • Norms of financial prudence have not been observed by these banks etc

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss way forward.


Topic – Disaster and disaster management

3) Discuss the Tsunami Risk Management Guidelines issued by National Disaster Management Authority.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

The recent Tsunami disaster in Indonesia highlights the risk posed by natural disasters especially tsunamis, which are inherently unpredictive. In this context it is essential to study the guidelines given by NDMA for managing tsunami risk in the country.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the Tsunami Risk Management Guidelines issued by National Disaster Management Authority.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Mention that the 2004 tsunami  prompted NDMA to formulate Tsunami Risk Management Guidelines to outline inter-agency roles and responsibilities, tsunami risk preparedness, mitigation and response.

Body-

Discuss in points the Tsunami Risk Management Guidelines issued by National Disaster Management Authority. E.g

  • The Guidelines recommends practical and effective ways for awareness generation, capacity building, education, training and research & development for better tsunami risk management.  
  • The Guidelines explore options for effective dissemination of tsunami alert and warning messages generated by INCOIS to the concerned agencies and coastal vulnerable communities exposed to tsunamis in a coordinated manner.
  • Structural Mitigation measures, as envisaged in the Guidelines, gives a brief guidance on design and construction of new structures as well as strategies for protecting lifeline and priority structures from Tsunamis along the seafront.
  • The Guidelines urge BIS to roll out the pending construction standards entitled ‘Criteria for Tsunami-Resistant Design of Structures’.
  • It further recommends a robust techno-legal regime through efficient land use practices, bioshields, shelter belt plantation and mangrove regeneration with community involvement etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic – Part of static series under the heading – “Disaster and Disaster management”.

4) National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP), 2016 is the first ever national plan prepared in the country for disaster management. Discuss.(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain about the NDMP, bring out its shortcomings or its strength and discuss the importance of NDMP in improving disaster management in the country.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that NDMP 2016 is the first comprehensive disaster management plan prepared by India in consonance with Sendai framework.

Body

  • Highlight the structure of disaster management planning in the country such as
    • National Disaster Management Act, 2005 – Provided the legal basis for disaster management.
    • National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) – Coordinates activities of disaster management.
    • National Policy on Disaster Management (NPDM), 2009 – Institutional mechanisms.
    • National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP), 2016 – Aligned with Sendai Framework
  • Discuss the aim of the plan – make India disaster resilient and significantly reduce the loss of lives and assets.
  • Discuss details of the plan
    • How it incorporates the principles of Sendai framework
    • NDMP spells out roles and responsibilities of all levels of Government right up to Panchayat and Urban Local Body level in a matrix format
    • provides for horizontal and vertical integration among all the agencies and departments of the Government. Etc
  • Discuss any shortcomings with the plan and suggest improvement

Conclusion – Give your view on NDMP and discuss the importance of it.


Topic: Part of static series under the heading – “Disaster and Disaster management”

5) There are several states in India which suffer on account of floods each year. Discuss the process of flood management in India and evaluate whether we are prepared to deal with flooding? (250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the steps taken for flood management in India and thereafter examine whether these steps are sufficient to deal with the scourge of floods annually. We also need to provide alternatives.

Directive word

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that each year north eastern states, Bihar etc suffer from floods. With climate change, states such as Rajasthan etc have also seen instances of flooding. Urban floods have become quite common.

Body

  • Discuss the steps taken by the government for flood management. Divide the answer into stages of disaster management such as in terms of planning, response and rehabilitation.
    • Construction of embankments along banks
    • government’s response to floods has been focused on massive structural interventions like dams, dredging of rivers, and porcupine structures to combat erosion.
    • providing central assistance to the State Governments for effective flood management in critical areas based on the recommendations of the Task Force 2004 on Flood Management/Erosion Control. Etc
  • Analyze these steps for their effectiveness and suggest whether these steps are sufficient for flood management.
  • Suggest steps for improvement such as by Task Force 2004 on Flood Management/ Erosion Control
    • total investment for plan/flood Management may be to at least 1% of the total plan outlay.
    • Strengthening of the Ganga Flood Control Commission by the addition of a Member (Works) and appropriate field formation for investigation and execution of critical flood management works. Etc

Conclusion – Give your view on the effectiveness of flood management in India and what needs to done.


Topic– Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life

6) To properly harness digitisation, we now have the challenge of developing and prioritising institutions of governance to protect users. Comment.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

Digitisation and its growing penetration among the masses has huge implications for the society. In the wake of controversies regarding privacy- like the Cambridge analytica episode of the facebook, it is pertinent to look into the need for privacy protection online and the need for systemic interventions in this respect.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding of the pitfalls of digitisation and then express our opinion on the need to develop institutions of governance which aim at protecting user privacy from being misused.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines highlighting the privacy concerns posed by increasing digitisation e.g mention the Facebook and two back to back privacy issues of Cambridge Analytica and now sharing of data including personal data with other companies etc.

Body-

Discuss the need for developing institutions of governance to protect user privacy. E.g  At present, despite having the second highest number of Internet users in the world, India has little to show as a country in investigatory outcomes, measured regulatory responses or parliamentary processes which safeguard users; While we should continue focussing scrutiny on large platforms such as Facebook, it cannot be done just by the smarts and technical negotiations of everyday users;  We also must not forget that digitisation and social media despite its unethical conduct, is of enduring value to millions of Indians; To properly harness digitisation, we now have the challenge of developing and prioritising institutions of governance to protect users; This must start immediately with a strong, rights-protecting, comprehensive privacy law etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 4


Topic– corporate governance.

7) Corporate morality and ethics are now merely a question of exploiting loopholes in legal framework. Examine the statement in the framework of corporate governance.(250 words)

Livemint

Directive word

Examine- here we have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to look deeply into the issue of corporate governance and bring out the reasons as to why Corporate morality and ethics are now merely a question of exploiting loopholes in legal framework.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines highlighting some of the recent corporate frauds and misadventures. E.g McKinsey scandal, Goldman Sachs, ICICI bank, IL&FS etc.

Body-

Bring out the reasons as to why Corporate morality and ethics are now merely a question of exploiting loopholes in legal framework. E.g Companies across the world regularly engage in activities that are seriously flawed; Even as governments across the world have sought deregulation as a panacea for their economic woes, the role of private corporations has increased and, in its wake, rent seeking and corruption have followed; With commercial considerations now the overriding motive for large corporations, it is safe to say that the era of companies setting standards of good conduct is well and truly over; global corporations exude enormous power that makes them impossible to control. With their batteries of lawyers and flacks, as well as analysts and raters who are equally complicit, they control access to information about their dealings etc

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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