[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 13 DECEMBER 2018

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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 13 DECEMBER 2018

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Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Issues related to poverty and hunger.


General Studies – 2


Topic:  Issues related to health

1) Critically examine whether a generics only model is the panacea for India’s disease burden?(250 words) 

Financial express

Why this question

The government off late has been focussing on the role of generics as a way to reduce health costs and ensuring better health outcomes. The article examines the role of generics as a panacea for India’s disease burden and thus needs to be discussed.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the role of generic in reducing the disease burden , bring out the obstacles in this and discuss the way forward.

Directive word

Critically examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that the government, in its efforts to cut down on out-of-pocket expenditure and make affordable healthcare a reality, is relying on a generics-only model. The push for generics witnessed a boom under Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Jan Aushadhi Pariyojana.

Body

  • Explain the advantages offered by generics in reducing disease burden – low cost, enhanced availability etc
  • Discuss the obstacles in promoting generics as the panacea for alleviating disease burden – spurious drugs, reduced effectiveness etc
  • Thereafter, discuss the enablers in promoting generics – government’s push for the generics-only model by introducing Jan Aushadhi stores nationwide has bolstered the hold of generics in India.

Conclusion – Discuss the role of generics in acting as a panacea for disease and burden and discuss way forward.


Topic – Part of static series under the heading – “Issues related to poverty and hunger”

2) It is quite apparent that poverty in India is more concentrated in certain geographical areas and overall progress in fight against poverty and hunger has been uneven. While elucidating the reasons, suggest appropriate policy measures towards achieving Goals 1 and 2 of United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the reasons behind unequal distribution of poverty and hunger. Thereafter, it expects us to suggest certain measures  to eradicate poverty and hunger.

Structure of the answer

  • Explain the reasons behind unequal distribution of poverty and hunger
    • Climatic factors- Areas which are hot makes it difficult for people to work and therefore their capacity to work reduces. This is the usual case in rural areas. Besides that, flood, famine, earthquake and cyclone cause heavy damage to agriculture.
    • Rapid growth of population- There is an increased rate of population with no adequate means of livelihood. This aggravates the problem of poverty.
    • Size of family- In rural areas, the size of the family is also an issue. The per capita income is low and the families are huge.
    • Low agricultural productivity- Some areas are not blessed with good productivity maybe due to bad location or climate or soil. This reduces the agricultural productivity and results into poverty. Etc
  • Suggest some measures to eliminate poverty and hunger
    • Co-operative Federalism- The states and the centre need to work together to achieve the goals.
    • Better implementation and coverage of schemes like MGNREGA.
    • Career Counselling programs especially for women. In this way, women can also be active bread earners to the family.
    • Effective implementation of Skill India programme in order improve the skills and enable employment to all which in turn will end poverty.
    • With respect to Zero Hunger, better implementation of schemes such as MDM in schools, TPDS, better functioning of anganwadis systems, better co-ordination between anganwadis and municipalities for better functioning of Integrated Child Development Scheme and increase in the number of healthcare facilities to arrest the issues of malnutrition especially in rural areas.

Conclusion – Emphasize on the importance of tackling this issue and suggest way forward.


Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “Issues relating to poverty and hunger”

3) According to World Bank report 22% of Indians live below poverty line. With such a large population unable to support themselves, does targeted basic income make sense? Critically examine.(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first highlight the statistics on poverty, and thereafter use it as an argument in favour of targeted basic income. We need to critically examine the pros and cons of the same and thereafter discuss the way forward.

Directive word

Critically examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight facts and figures related to poverty in India to explain that a sizeable section of population is poor.

Body

  • Explain the premise of TBI. TBI is premised on the idea that each poor individual needs guaranteed minimum income which they can count on and also provide the necessary material foundation for a life with access to basic goods and a life of dignity . It must ensure that every poor person should have right to basic income to cover their needs just by virtue of being citizens.
  • Examine the merits and demerits of TBI. There are several merits of TBI such as  Social justice by reducing inequality; assured poverty reduction; insurance against health, income and other shocks; Improving financial inclusion by direct benefit transfer system; psychological benefits by reducing the pressure of finding a basic living on a daily basis and administration efficiency.
  • Examine whether TBI concept would work in India.  You can give your view by making arguments such as conspicuous spending especially by male beneficiaries; Moral hazard that tt can make people lazy and opt out of the labor market and cause labor market distortion; gender disparity induced by cash where men are likely to exercise control over spending of TBI, which is not always in the case with other kind transfer like PDS; stress on banking system for delivery of TBI and high fiscal costs involved.

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced view and discuss the way forward.


Topic– Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

4) PMMVY dilutes the provisions of the NFSA act and increases the hardships of the pregnant women. Examine.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

In a country like India where poverty is rampant and inequalities glare NFSA is an important legislation catering to the food security and nutritional security of the pregnant women. However PMMVY, which was introduced a few years back has diluted the provisions of the act.

Directive word

Examine- here we have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deeper into the PMMVY and the NFSA and bring out the reasons as to how the former dilutes the provisions of the later and how it has increased the hardships of the poor pregnant women.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– mention that Under the National Food Security Act (NFSA) of 2013, every pregnant woman is entitled to maternity benefits of ₹6,000, unless she is already receiving similar benefits as a government employee or under other laws.

Body-

Discuss about the PMMVY in detail and discuss how it violates the NFSA in several ways. E.g

First, the benefits have been reduced from ₹6,000 to ₹5,000 per child. Second, they are now restricted to the first living child. Third, they are further restricted to women above the age of 18 years.; The scheme largely defeats the purpose it is supposed to serve because first-order births account for only 43% of all births in India; The application process is cumbersome and exclusionary: a separate form has to be filled, signed and submitted for each of the three instalments; The compulsory linking of the applicant’s bank account with Aadhaar often causes problems; Further, the PMMVY provides little assistance to women who lose their baby, because the successive payments are made only if the corresponding conditionalities are met etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 3


 

Topic-Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

5) What do you think India needs to do to become a 5 trillion dollar economy. Discuss.(250 words)

Economictimes

Why this question

In this article, Raghuram Rajan provides insights into the conditions in India and provides suggestions as to what needs to be done by India to double the size of its economy.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the steps needed to be taken/ reforms needed to be made etc in order to make India a 5 trillion dollar economy.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  size of Indian economy and the present trends of growth.

Body-

Discuss in points, what needs to be done to make India a 5 trillion dollar economy. E.g Need for strong institutions and regulators especially in the fields of environment and finance; need for  environmentally sustainable growth; need to improve the Child nutrition and learning outcomes; Need for creating employment opportunities for the vast youth of India etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic -Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation,

6) All environmental struggles across the world are caught in sharply divided goals of popular politics and people’s right to live in a safe and sustainable environment. Do you agree. Comment.(250 words) 

The hindu

Why this question

As various scientific reports suggest, the world is not doing enough to bridle the climate change and the threats associated with environmental degradation have only increased with time. The article discusses the reasons for the failure to act as required in order to conserve our environment.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our opinion as to whether most of the environmental struggles across the world are affected by the tussle between the popular politics and the people’s right to safe environment, or not. We have to justify our opinion with proper discussion and presentation of valid arguments and facts.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– mention about some of the important environmental struggles/ movements which involved a tussle between the politics and people’s rights. E.g Narmada Bachao, Chipko movement, Niyamgiri Hills people’s struggle etc.

Body-

  1. Bring out the contest between popular politics and people’s right to safe and sustainable environment. E.g Sustainable development goals developed by UN and agreed to by all the nations  have been included in the school syllabus in India but their presence is merely nominal in the country; Policy documents include environmental concerns, but prioritise economic growth; In the context of globalisation, most countries propagate competitive nationalism etc.
  2. Discuss the role of individual people in environmental degradation- driven by materialism, increased incomes, more liberty but lack of sense of duty etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


General Studies – 4


Topic– Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships.

7) Ethics of Care adopts a different approach and differs from the other major Western ethical theories. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the ethics of care theory and bring out the differences between it and the other major Western ethical theories.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  ethics of care theory. E.g Ethics of Care, also known as Care Ethics, has developed historically from the feminist tradition of recognizing, and requiring, that we can and should respond to marginalized members of the community with care and empathy.

Body-

  1. DIscuss about the theory in further detail. E.g Carol Gilligan is credited as being the founder of the EoC. promoted the view that women tended to emphasize empathy and compassion over the notions of justice-based morality; The moral duty of care, which is at the heart of EoC theory, can be contrasted with the legal standard of care, which does not oblige a person to assist others (outside of the narrow class of persons where a legal duty is imposed); The EoC advocates a moral obligation to provide care for marginalized segments of society. Where the carer is the beneficiary of a system established upon and perpetuating historical and/or current inequality, the EoC perspective would call for a heightened duty to care for others etc.
  2. Discuss the differences between the ethics of care theory and the other major western ethical theories. E.g While deontology and utilitarianism demand impartiality above all, EoC focuses on the moral importance of relationships with families and groups, and on how individuals or societies should respond to a situation or person requiring care; EoC differs from virtue ethics because it focuses on the caring relations rather than the virtues of individuals; In this sense, EoC is a relational ethics, a framework that includes many non-Western ethical approaches such as Chinese Confucian ethics and the African ethics of Ubuntu.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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