[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 12 DECEMBER 2018

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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 12 DECEMBER 2018

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Issues related to poverty and hunger.


General Studies – 2


Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

1) Instead of surveillance technologies there is a need to rescue TB patients by providing rights-based interventions. Analyze.(250 words) 

The hindu

Why this question

India has the highest burden of TB patients in the world despite the fact that TB is a completely curable disease. The disease inflicts heavy economic and  health costs on the poor patients. In this context it is important to analyze why there is a need for a rights based interventions to rescue TB patients.

Directive word

Analyze-here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to delve deep into the TB disease burden in India, bring out the inefficiencies of the surveillance based strategies in tackling the disease and discuss how a rights based approach would be the right approach in this direction.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the United Nations Declaration of September 2018 titled “United to End Tuberculosis: An Urgent Global Response to a Global Epidemic”, where heads of state and government have “reaffirmed their commitment to end the global TB epidemic by 2030”.

Body-

  1. Bring out the limitations of the surveillance based approaches and technologies in handling the disease. E.g There are also seemingly endless technological tweaks to the Directly Observed Treatment, short course (DOTS) strategy, which requires patients to report every day to a health authority, who watches them swallow their tablets. Now, governments use, or plan to soon use, a strategy of video, tablets, phones and drones to carry the old DOTS strategy into the technology era; This thinking envisions a TB response that is not with and for people who have TB but rather against suspects who must be targeted, tracked, traced and, above all, never trusted etc.
  2. Discuss the advantages/ need for a rights based approach in this direction. E.g Such an approach focuses on creating health systems that foster trust, partnership and dignity. This approach regards people with TB not as subjects to be controlled but as people to be partnered with. It assumes that people with TB have dignity, intelligence and empathy that motivate them to act in the best interests of themselves and their communities when empowered to do so. We cannot beat TB through a response rooted in control and coercion etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic – Part of static series under the heading – “Issues related to poverty and hunger”

2) Analyse the reasons for rising hunger and discuss how this trend can be reversed to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal 2 of Zero Hunger?(250 words)

Reference

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the various reasons that cause hunger as well as hidden hunger and the steps that are necessary to reverse hunger.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that hunger and hidden hunger is still one of the major social deprivation that the world grapples with. Give statistics.

Body

  • Explain the reasons why hunger persists
    • Rising inequalities leading to extreme forms of poverty.
    • Lack of investment in agriculture – Too many developing countries lack the roads, warehouses and irrigation systems that would help them overcome hunger.
    • Climate and weather – Natural disasters such as floods, tropical storms and long periods of drought are on the increase — with calamitous consequences for the hungry poor in developing countries.
      War and displacement – Across the globe, conflicts consistently disrupt farming and food production.
    • Unstable markets – Rising food prices make it difficult for the poorest people to get nutritious food consistently – which is exactly what they need to do.
    • Food wastage – One third of all food produced (1.3 billion tons) is never consumed. This food wastage represents a missed opportunity to improve global food security in a world where 1 in 8 is hungry.
  • Discuss ways to reverse the problem
    • Increase food production through better agricultural technologies.
    • Designing better public distribution systems.
    • Fortification of foods.
    • Addressing poverty through better socio economic policies. Etc

Conclusion – Give your view on how to tackle the problem and discuss way forward.


Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “Issues relating to poverty and hunger”

3) “An essential condition to eradicate poverty is to liberate the poor from deprivation”. Comment. (250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain how poverty is a result of deprivations of different kind and for tackling poverty the key is to tackle those deprivations which cause it.

Directive word

Comment – When you are asked to comment, you have to pick main points and give your ‘opinion’ on them based on evidences or arguments stemming from your wide reading. Your opinion may be for or against, but you must back your argument with evidences.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that Poverty and deprivation are related in the context of pursuing choices.When allowed to pursue choices with deprivation kept at bay,poverty may be slowly eradicate poverty.

Body

  • Explain the various forms of deprivation that lead to poverty. Talk about economic deprivation, employment deprivation, health deprivation, resource deprivation etc and draw the linkage between such deprivation
  • Here only, you should also talk about the schemes/policies etc by the government to end such deprivations.

Conclusion – Effective implementation of schemes,subsidies reaching beneficiaries without leakages and capacity building towards creating supportive infrastructure will help reduce poverty and hunger to achieve the SDG Goals and create inclusiveness for reality.


Topic– Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

4) There is a need for India to learn from other Asian countries and move from food security to nutrition security. Analyze.(250 words)

Hindubuisnessline

Indianexpress

Reference

Why this question

Hunger affects the whole existence of a person and restricts his capacity for development. India has the world’s highest number of malnourished children and has fared poorly in tackling hunger among its citizens. In this context it is important to analyze the methods and strategies of similarly placed countries like India and learn from them.

Directive word

Analyze-here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the problem of hunger and malnourishment among the Indians and bring out why there is a need to move from food security to nutritional security, as has been successfully followed by some of the neighbors.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about India’s performance in world hunger report.e.g As the IFPRI report suggests, India contributed single-handedly to South Asia being one of the worst performers on malnutrition and child health. Though India’s immediate neighbours in South Asia do not fare all that well in the global ranking either, they are still comfortably ahead of India etc.

Body-

Discuss the need of pursuing nutrition security over food security and how India can learn from other Asian countries which have performed well. E.g Open defecation, which is exceptionally widespread in India, can account for much or all of the excess stunting in India.” The construction of toilets and improved sanitation undertaken by the NDA government as a priority, and its drive towards cleanliness through the ‘Swachh Bharat’ campaign, ought to be welcomed and deserve full support; lessons from Bangladesh- a pluralistic health system that has main stakeholders pursuing women-centred, gender-equity-oriented, highly focussed health programmes in family planning, immunisation, oral rehydration and child health, tuberculosis, vitamin A supplementation; The Vietnamese, with their intervention programmes aimed at nutrient enhancement, have managed their growth process ensuring a positive association between reduction in expenditure-based poverty and calorie-based under-nutrition, in a manner that has lessons for other high growth achievers such as India; Whereas in Bangladesh NGOs played an interventionist role in promoting universal health coverage, in Vietnam there have been several private and public initiatives to enhance food security in the 1990s

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 3


 

Topic– Indian Economy : Issues

5) The relationship between central banks and government is being debated around the world and India is no different. There should be a mechanism to make RBI and its governor accountable to the Parliament. Do you agree? Discuss .(250 words)

Insightsonindia

Financialexpress

Why this question

With the resignation of RBI governor, the focus has shifted to the relationship between RBI and the government and the need for making RBI accountable to the parliament. This article discusses in detail the issues involved and hence this question.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first discuss the global scenario with respect to relationship between government and central banks and explain how the situation in India is quite similar. Discuss the reason behind such tussle in the would in general and India in particular. Here we need to discuss issues surrounding independence of RBI, monetary policy framework agreement, need for accountability , issues or capital reserves. Finally, a fair and balanced opinion is to be provided as to what must be the way forward.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention about the resignation of RBI governor and the kind of issues that it has raised .

Body

  • Highlight that across the world government are demanding greater accountability from their central banks. Explain the issue in general – Central banks everywhere, from Turkey to the US, are under increasing pressure from the governments. While central bankers say that they need to be free from pressures from the governments and lobby groups to focus on their job of containing inflation and maintaining financial stability, their critics say that they are too secretive and have leaned in favour of big financial institutions over the interests of common citizens they are duty-bound to serve. Explain what is happening in India
  • Discuss in detail the situation in India. Bring out the issues where there is a difference in opinion between RBI and government such as monetary policy committee , inflation vs growth management etc.
  • Examine whether there is a need to make RBI more accountable to the parliament.

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced opinion and discuss the way forward.


Topic -Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country.

6) Critically analyze whether it is prudent to go the GM way for solution to the hunger problem?(250 words) 

The hindu

Why this question

The article discusses the debate with respect to genetic modified crops. GM crops are intensely researched and debated and each time there is a new GM crop being introduced the debate intensifies. Hence this question would enable you to form your perspective on GM crops.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the debate with respect to GM crops, highlight the pros and cons and provide a fair and balanced opinion with respect to the future of GM crops.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Give an overview of the debate.

Body – Discuss the pros and cons of GM crops. In pros, we have to bring out facts such as increased productivity, pest resistance etc. Discuss cons such as the fact that pests develop resistance etc. Highlight the experience of India with crops such as Bt cotton, Bt brinjal etc. Discuss whether the regulatory framework in India is adequate to deal with the cons of GM crops.

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced opinion and discuss the way forward.


Topic-Disaster and disaster management.

7) There is a need to move from reactive stance to proactively prepare for natural disasters. Comment in the light of the need for insurance against natural disasters.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

Natural disasters have become more intense and more frequent and growth of population has led to increase in the potential damage caused by any natural disaster. Rebuilding and reconstruction after a natural disaster can be very expensive and thus there is a need to insure against them.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our opinion as to why there is a need to proactively prepare against natural disasters in terms of the need for insurance to rebuild the society which has suffered any natural disaster.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  Increased intensity and frequency of natural disasters.e.g In 2017, Swiss Re counted 183 natural catastrophes and 118 man-made disasters across the globe etc.

Body-

  1. Discuss the need for huge amounts of money that is needed to rebuild the society after a natural disaster. E.g We react every time there is a disaster. We band together and raise funds, help victims and volunteer time to clean up and rebuild; The cost of recovery and reconstruction in India mainly comes from disaster relief fund and allocation from state and the central govt. but there is a huge PROTECTION GAP; similarly a state levy will not sufficiently incentivize states to improve their disaster risk management etc.
  2. Discuss the need for insurance in this regard. E.g One solution is to transfer disaster risks over to the insurers or reinsurers. Immediate payouts are made through parametric solutions based on the amount of rainfall or the intensity of a drought, for example; The benefit to governments would be transparency over funding; the benefit to citizens is almost immediate payouts; the benefit to everyone affected would be food, clothes, medicines and temporary shelter without having to appeal for funds; Ratings agencies are increasingly looking at the impact of natural disasters on the financial health of a government. Both S&P and Moody’s said that mitigating the financial impact of natural disasters will improve the credit rating of a government etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 4


Topic– Part of Ethics Case studies

8) A woman died recently, after a short, unhappy life. She wanted her ashes to be scattered in the ocean near a place she lived during one of the brief happy times of her adult life. Her parents and immediate family had already passed away, so she discussed her wishes with her mother-in-law, who said she would comply with her daughter-in-law’s wishes. In her will, the woman gave control of her estate to the mother-in-law. The will stated that the woman’s ashes should be scattered in the ocean, as described above. Instead, her mother-in-law buried the ashes in a family plot near her home, because she wanted to keep the ashes close to her because of her own grief.

 

Assume that the mother-in-law is legally required to follow the wishes stated in the will, but that no one will check and it is very unlikely that the mother-in-law will have any problem with the law.

 

  1. What are the issues of integrity, ethics and law posed in the case study?
  2. What options does the mother-in-law have, and what should she do and why?(250 words)

 

Structure of the answer

Guidelines

Some of the issues raised by this case study include;

  • whether the mother-in-law is acting ethically and with integrity;
  • the relevance of her promise to her daughter-in-law, and
  • whether the promise is still relevant after the daughter-in-law dies;
  • the impact of the law on the mother-in-law, and
  • what difference it makes that the mother-in-law’s illegal activity is not likely to be discovered.

Frame your answer by the help of the guidelines provided but don’t restrict yourself. Try to incorporate the important terms related to ethics in your answer. Be critical and ethically eloquent in your approach.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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