[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 08 DECEMBER 2018

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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 08 DECEMBER 2018

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States
and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies
constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.


General Studies – 1


Topic– Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

1) Critically analyze the impact that social media platforms such as Facebook have had on society?(250 words)

The hindu

 

Why this question

Social media is omnipresent in our lives and has a huge bearing on society and individuals. This article attempts to examine this and provides a good perspective on the impact of social media which will be useful for paper 1 as well as essay.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain how social media is omnipresent in our lives, and explain the pros and cons of the impact of social media on society.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that about 1.49 billion people on average log onto Facebook daily; every second, on average, around 6,000 tweets are tweeted on Twitter; and since its inception, over 40 billion photographs have been posted on Instagram. This is evidence of the huge presence of social media in our lives.

Body – Discuss the pros and cons of the impact of social media on society. Eg social media and the Internet have drifted from their promise of closing distances and exposing us to the views of those who existed beyond our personal networks. Instead, we find ourselves to be more rigid versions of our former selves; the problems associated with fake news; the role of social media in instigating violence etc. Also discuss the positives such as the fact that social media has become an echo chamber of the society, helped in creating awareness about several issues eg the fight for LGBTQ rights etc

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced opinion about the impact of social media.


Topic – Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

2) Gandhi’s political strategy achieved much more success in comparison to his attempts at constructive work. Critically examine.(250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

The article discusses the achievements of Gandhi in doing political as well as constructive work and discusses the impact of these work. This article provides an important commentary on the contribution of Gandhi to freedom struggle and uplifting Indian society, and hence this question.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the impact of the political work and the constructive work done by Gandhi and analyze whether the impact of his political work was much more than his constructive work. Finally, we need to provide a fair and balanced conclusion about the impact of Gandhi.

Directive word

Critically examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that Throughout his public life in India (1915-48), Gandhi devoted his energies to both the political campaign for India’s freedom as well as a range of socio-economic interventions that were clubbed under the rubric of constructive work. Such activities included communal harmony, the removal of untouchability, sanitation, khadi, village industries and basic education or Nai Talim

Body

  • Explain the nature of constructive and political work done by Gandhi.
    • Subsequent to the Poona Pact, in 1933-34, Gandhi undertook a countrywide campaign against untouchability. His experiences and thinking in that period deeply informed the shape of constructive work in the 1930s.
    • Gandhi’s conception of poorna swaraj or complete independence went beyond the removal of colonialism. He argued that it encompassed political, social and economic freedoms, indeed “freedom in every sense of the term”.
    • in order to devote himself to addressing the economic needs of rural India, Gandhi resigned from the Congress in 1934, founded the All-India Village Industries Association (AIVIA) and eventually moved to Sevagram. Crucially, Gandhi mandated that the AIVIA be run “unaffected by and independent of the political activities of the Congress”. Moreover, its workers had to sign a pledge refraining from any form of political activity. These measures were designed to carve out an autonomous sphere for constructive work etc
  • Discuss the impact of Gandhi’s political and constructive work. Gandhian constructive workers helped “people in their everyday needs”, thereby gaining “the sympathy of the masses”. However also highlight that the constructive work was attempted not just to gain sympathy for the freedom struggle but also to establish a Ram Rajya or Gandhi’s version of a perfect society.

Conclusion – Mention that While Gandhi met with lesser success in his constructive work compared with his political campaigns, he saw them as an indivisible whole.


Topic: Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.

3) Discuss the various schemes introduced by India for socio-economic empowerment of women.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the various schemes introduced by the government of India in order to empower women socially and economically.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  issues faced by Indian women. E.g illiteracy, female foeticide, poor representation in workforce, sexual harassment and violence , patriarchal mindset etc.

Body-

Discuss in points and briefly describe the schemes and programmes launched by the government of India to empower women socially and economically. E.g

  1. Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Scheme
  2. One Stop Centre Scheme
  3. Women Helpline Scheme
  4. UJJAWALA : A Comprehensive Scheme for Prevention of trafficking and Rescue, Rehabilitation and Re-integration of Victims of Trafficking and Commercial Sexual Exploitation
  5. Working Women Hostel
  6. SWADHAR Greh (A Scheme for Women in Difficult Circumstances)
  7. Support to Training and Employment Programme for Women (STEP)
  8. NARI SHAKTI PURASKAR
  9. Mahila police Volunteers
  10. Mahila E-Haat
  11. Mahila Shakti Kendras (MSK)
  12. NIRBHAYA

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic: Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.

4) Discuss the problems faced by transgender persons in India. How far do you think the Transgender Persons bill, 2016 will address those issues. Comment.(250 words)

Reference

Reference

Why this question

Transgender persons are one of the most neglected and marginalised section of Indian society, facing neglect from the family as well as the government. It is therefore important to discuss about the problems faced by the community and also look into the the Transgender Bill, 2016 and bring out to what extent it will solve their issues.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the problems faced by transgenders in India. It also wants us to look into the Transgender Persons bill and express our opinion as to what extent the bill will resolve the issues faced by the community.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  Transgender persons in India- their population etc. e.g According to the 2011 Census, the number of persons who do not identify as ‘male’ or ‘female’ but as ‘other’ stands at 4,87,803 (0.04% of the total population).

Body-

  1. Discuss in points the problems faced by them. E.g The transgender communities are discriminated at all levels; rejected by society as well as the family; Apart from begging, the entire community is forced into sex work. The one reason for being forced into sex work is because unavailability of livelihood resources; constant denial of housing in housing societies and other areas leading them to being housed in slums; susceptibility to various sexual diseases, violence and discrimination; negligible political participation etc.
  2. Discuss the pros and limitations of the Transgender Persons bill. E.g it provides a modified definition of transgender persons in line with international norms; mandatory for any organisation employing transgender persons to designate an official to examine complaints of discrimination and other grievances; comprehensive definition of discrimination;  The Bill prohibits discrimination against a transgender person in areas such as education, employment, and healthcare. It directs the central and state governments to provide welfare schemes in these areas etc; cons- section 377, which has been put down by the SC however; issues of reservation in jobs and politics have not been resolved by the bill etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 2


Topic – Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities
of various Constitutional Bodies.

5) National Commission for Women needs to be given more powers in order to handle complaints more effectively. Comment.(250 words)

Reference

Reference

Reference

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding of the NCW and express our opinion as to whether it needs/ needs not to be given more powers to handle the complaints filed by the aggrieved women more effectively.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  NCW- e.g when it was established and what are its objectives.

Body-

Discuss the powers that need to be given or enhanced so that NCW could function more effectively with regards to complaint redressal. E.g mention that NCW is a statutory body which needs to be given constitutional status; mention the inadequate no of members of the commission and delays in appointment; absence of the powers of the civil court etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

6) Discuss the key features of agricultural export policy 2018 and it’s likely impact?(250 words) 

Economictimes

Why this question

The Union cabinet Thursday approved an export policy for agriculture, lifting all restrictions on organic and processed food, to help the government’s efforts to double farmers’ income by 2022. Hence we need to know about the details of the policy and it’s likely impact.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the objective and the design of the policy. Thereafter, we need to discuss the impact that the policy is likely to have. In case we feel there are certain areas where the policy could have been slightly different needs to be brought out. Finally, we need to provide a conclusion where we give our view on the policy and discuss way forward.

Directive word

Discuss – Here in your discussion you need to bring out the details of the policy and debate the impact of it.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that The Union cabinet Thursday approved an export policy for agriculture, lifting all restrictions on organic and processed food, to help the government’s efforts to double farmers’ income by 2022.

Body

  • Discuss the objectives of the policy
    • To double agricultural exports from present US$ 30+ Billion to US$ 60+ Billion by 2022 and reach US$ 100 Billion in the next few years thereafter, with a stable trade policy regime.
    • To diversify our export basket, destinations and boost high value and value added agricultural exports including focus on perishables.
    • To promote novel, indigenous, organic, ethnic, traditional and non-traditional Agri products exports.
    • To provide an institutional mechanism for pursing market access, tackling barriers and deal with sanitary and phyto-sanitary issues.
    • To strive to double India’s share in world agri exports by integrating with global value chain at the earliest.
      Enable farmers to get benefit of export opportunities in overseas market.
  • Analyze how the policy plans to achieve these objectives
    • Dedicated clusters could be set up for mangoes, pomegranate, bananas, grapes, tea, coffee, turmeric, and marine products
    • set up ‘Brand India’ to promote exports and establish as strong quality regime for exports, and states will be extensively involved.
    • attract private investment into production and processing. Etc
  • Discuss the issues facing agricultural exports etc and examine how the policy will help in addressing those issues.

Conclusion – Give your view on the policy and discuss the way forward.


General Studies – 3


Topic – climate change

7) Tackling climate change requires all countries to iron out the issues in framing the rulebook to implement pledges that were made by various countries at the Paris Climate Conference in 2015. Examine. (250 words) 

The hindu

Why this question

The framing of the rulebook for tackling climate change in COP 24 is an important step being undertaken to tackle climate change. Hence we need to know the issues involved therein.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain about the major issues that are impeding the framing of the rulebook and what needs to be done.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that the world is in deep trouble. Average global temperatures have crossed a degree Celsius above preindustrial levels and such concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (410 ppm) has never been seen by humans before. The 24th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP-24) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Katowice, Poland (December 3-14) is meant to take forward steps to address this threat of climate change.

Body

  • Explain the macro issue – The purpose of the meeting is to set guidelines, or agree on a rulebook, to implement pledges that were made by various countries at the Paris Climate Conference in 2015. In the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), planned ahead of the Paris COP-21, each country described the actions it would take and the levels to which greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions would be reduced (mitigation). Many of them also described what they would do to improve their capacity to live in a warmer world (adaptation), and the extent to which these goals required support in the form of finance or technology transfer. Framing these rules has several issues involved.
  • Discuss the issues involved
    • Framing the rulebook means agreeing on such things as common standards to measure emissions, processes for monitoring, reporting and verification (‘MRV’ in climate jargon) of the various actions being taken by individual countries, and guidelines and institutions to facilitate diffusion of appropriate technologies to countries and regions that need them. It also means putting in place clear and transparent accounting mechanisms to measure and verify flows of climate finance.
    • track record of the developed countries in fulfilling their finance commitments has been disappointing. They have often been accused by developing countries of double-counting, inflating claims, re-packaging existing aid money as climate finance, and ignoring the requirements of adaptation activities. Developing countries insist that climate finance must be “new and additional” and must be provided for mitigation as well as adaptation efforts as mentioned in the Paris Agreement.
    • Countries with average income exceeding $15,000 typically have the capacity and finance and technology to reduce their emissions dramatically. They must also alter their lifestyles considerably, which is required for the transformational change that the 1.5 Degree Report calls for.
    • separate stream referred to as “loss and damage” needs attention. This is a provision for support to poor countries experiencing economic and non-economic losses and destruction from climate change events. There has not been much progress on this issue by the task force set up to advance it.
  • Explain how the issue is attempted to be resolved at COP24 and what the next course of action should be

Conclusion – Emphasize on the necessity of coming to an agreement as soon as possible for mitigating and adapting to climate change.

 



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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