[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 07 DECEMBER 2018

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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 07 DECEMBER 2018

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Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States
and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies
constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.


General Studies – 1


Topic– The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.

1) Explain how the Justice Party in Madras became the stepping stone for political empowerment of non-Brahmins?(250 words)

The hindu

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first highlight the lack of political empowerment of non Brahmins and thereafter, examine the role of Justice party in political empowerment of non Brahmins in Madras.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that even as India was fighting British, there was another India fighting for liberation from perhaps an equally vicious hegemony within in South India.

Body

  • Highlight the poor literacy, political representation etc of the non Brahmins in Madras presidency. fighting the humiliation of not being allowed entry into public spaces including buses and hotels. It was fighting for its rightful space in administrative services and other job opportunities. It was fighting to find its voice in a political climate dominated by Brahmins. The opposition to Brahmin hegemony perhaps became more organized as a movement and later a political party for the first time in Tamil Nadu, in the form of Justice party and Justice movement.
  • Explain that in 1916, around 30 prominent non-Brahmin leaders including Dr Natesa Mudaliyar, Sir PT Theyagaraya Chetty, TM Nair and a woman Alamelu Mangai Thayarammal came together to form South Indian Liberation Federation (SILF) which would popularly be called as Justice Party after the ‘Justice’ newspaper it launched to propagate the ideals of the movement.
  • Explain how they helped in political empowerment
    • Justice Party released its non-Brahmin manifesto in December 1916. The manifesto became an important document that would shape the rise of Dravidian movement later. But at the time of its release, it received widespread criticism
    • Tamil Nadu’s legacy of social justice owes its existence to the formative years of Justice Party in power. The party introduced what is called as communal G.O to legislate reservations. Incidentally, Periyar quit the Congress after the party failed to pass the communal G.O. Women were given voting rights and noon-meal scheme was introduced when Justice Party was in power.
    • party also played a vital role in allowing women to contest elections paving way for Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddy to become the first woman legislator in India. The pioneering efforts of Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddy saw the abolition of Devadasi system when the Justice party was in power. Etc

Conclusion – Comment on the significance of the impact of the movement.


General Studies – 2


Topic – Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States
and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies
constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections

2) Discuss the various constitutional safeguards for protection of women and schemes introduced by the government to empower women?(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to list out the constitutional provisions related to empowerment of women, the various schemes launched for women’s empowerment. Thereafter we need to discuss the impact of such measures and what more needs to be done.

Directive word

Discuss – In your discussion, you need to answer the key demand of the question

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Discuss the status quo of women and why they are considered as vulnerable section.

Body

  • Explain the constitutional safeguards for women such as Art. 15(3), Art. 23, Art. 39: Guarantees equal pay to women for equal work. In the case of Randhir Singh vs Union of India, SC held that the concept of equal pay for equal work is indeed a constitutional goal and is capable of being enforced through constitutional remedies under Art. 32, art 40, art 42, art 44 etc
  • Discuss some of the welfare schemes for employment of women, literacy of women, pregnancy  support etc
  • Discuss that the schemes have evolved over the years from treating women as passive recipients of state generosity to active participants of the development process.

Conclusion – Discuss  the impact of these schemes and what more needs  to be done.


Topic:  Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s
interests, Indian Diaspora.

3) Money has been central to many a fight at the climate negotiations. Discuss the issues surrounding climate finance that are dominating headlines before COP24?(250 words) 

Indian express

Why this question

Prior to COP24, one of the major issues of contention between developed and developing countries has been the issue of climate finance and framing rules for the same. The article discusses the major points of contentions and would help you enhance your understanding of the subject matter.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain about GCF, discuss the issues in climate finance and how those issues are attempted to be resolved at COP24.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that the GCF was set up in 2010 under the UNFCCC’s financial mechanism to channel funding from developed countries to developing countries to allow them to mitigate climate change and also adapt to disruptions arising from a changing climate.

Body

  • Explain the macro issue – For many years, the fight was to get the developed countries to commit themselves, in writing, to providing this money. Written commitment has not ended the fight, and has not assured developing countries a steady supply of at least $100 billion from 2020.
  • Discuss the issues involved
    • Framing the rulebook means agreeing on such things as common standards to measure emissions, processes for monitoring, reporting and verification (‘MRV’ in climate jargon) of the various actions being taken by individual countries, and guidelines and institutions to facilitate diffusion of appropriate technologies to countries and regions that need them. It also means putting in place clear and transparent accounting mechanisms to measure and verify flows of climate finance.
    • track record of the developed countries in fulfilling their finance commitments has been disappointing. They have often been accused by developing countries of double-counting, inflating claims, re-packaging existing aid money as climate finance, and ignoring the requirements of adaptation activities. Developing countries insist that climate finance must be “new and additional” and must be provided for mitigation as well as adaptation efforts as mentioned in the Paris Agreement. Etc
  • Explain how the issue is attempted to be resolved at COP24 and what the next course of action should be

Conclusion – Emphasize on the necessity of coming to an agreement as soon as possible for mitigating and adapting to climate change.


General Studies – 3


Topic –  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

4) India and most of the developing world face a twin challenge—closing the infrastructure financing gap and changing the composition of financing. Critically Analyze.(250 words)

Livemint

Directive word

Critically analyze-  here we have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary. based on our discussion we have to form a concluding opinion on the issue.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to delve deeper into the infrastructure and infrastructure needs of India and describe the twin challenges it faces. On the bases of our discussion we have to form an opinion on the issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  infrastructure needs of India. E.g It is estimated that infrastructure investments needed in energy, transport, telecommunications, water and sanitation, education, and health projects will amount to more than 5% of gross domestic product (GDP) in developing countries.

Body-

  1. Discuss the twin challenges faced by developing economies like India. E.g Meeting the financing gap needed for infrastructure services will be one of the biggest challenges in development. Unlike in the UK and the US, in developing economies, nearly 70% of the funding for infrastructure projects comes from the government budget, 20% from private players, and 10% from multilateral development banks; Commercial banks have dominated the financing of infrastructure projects. This amounts to the government transferring a huge amount of risk from public to the private sector. With the structure of financing such that there is heavy reliance of private financing on the public sector and with heavy termination clauses included in PPP contracts, the government is potentially exposed to fiscal risks; Given rising global macroeconomic and trade concerns, changing the composition of financing is as important as maximizing infrastructure capital. Changing the composition of capital flow also has the potential to increase the efficiency and sustainability of public finance and infrastructure projects etc.
  2. Bring out the need for multiple sources of financing development projects. E.g While commercial banks will continue to be an important source of infrastructure finance, capital markets need to play a bigger role, given the increased demand for long-term sources of finance for infrastructure projects. Bond markets, especially local currency bond markets, will be critical to filling the infrastructure-investment gap etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic – Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints;

5) Discuss how the recently released agriculture export policy is a welcome step in the direction of doubling  farmers’ income by 2022.(250 words) 

Indian express

Why this question

Doubling farmers’ income by 2022 is not an easy task but at the same time is absolutely essential, given the precarious condition of most of the farmers in India. In this context it is important to discuss the agriculture export policy which has been recently released in line with the government’s commitment to double the farmers’ income by 2022.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the recently released agriculture export policy, its salient provisions and how it is a positive step in the direction of doubling  farmers’ income by 2022.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  New agriculture export policy. E.g It will boost exports of agricultural commodities such as tea, coffee and rice and increase the country’s share in global agri-trade etc.

Body-

Discuss about the salient provisions of the policy and how it will help in doubling farmers’ income by 2022. E.g The policy would focus on all aspects of agricultural exports including modernising infrastructure, standardisation of products, streamlining regulations, curtailing knee-jerk decisions, and focusing on research and development activities;It will also seek to remove all kinds of export restrictions on organic products, the implementation of the policy will have an estimated financial implication of over Rs 1,400 crore etc

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue


Topic – challenges to internal security

6) Mob violence in India is an indicator of the dysfunctional criminal justice system. Comment.(250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

India has witnessed a series of mob violence related incidents with the killing of the SHO in UP being the latest one. In this context it is essential to evaluate the inefficiencies of the criminal justice system in India and how it is related to mob violence.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to look into the mob violence related incidents in the country and bring out how they do/ don’t indicate the dysfunctional criminal justice system in India.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  spate of mob violence related incidents in India e.g a full-fledged SHO of Uttar Pradesh police, Inspector Subodh Kumar Singh, was shot dead, allegedly by a mob of cow vigilantes etc.

Body

Discuss the various ills affecting the Indian criminal justice system and bring out their relationship to mob violence. E.g The fundamental link between crime and punishment, that is the foundation of the rule of law, has been broken in affected areas for a while now. Trials take decades. Conviction rates are abysmal. Witnesses turn hostile as a matter of routine with no adverse consequences. Forensic facilities are negligible. Prisons are overcrowded and more often than not, they serve as safe havens for well-connected gangsters to run their empires from; there simply aren’t enough policemen to police states;the belief cutting across party lines, that the police are simply the bounden servants of the government of the day. Their primarily role is not to serve the public or uphold the rule of law, but to further the cause of the ruling party and strike terror in the heart of its political opponents etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue


General Studies – 4


Topic– Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

7) “The good for man is an activity of the soul in accordance with virtue, or if there are more kinds of virtue than one, in accordance with the best and most perfect kind.” Comment.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding of the goodness of the virtues for a man and its relation to his happiness and success.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  meaning of a virtue (according to the Aristotle/ virtue ethics).

Body

Discuss further about the relationship of being virtuous with happiness and a good living. E.g the good for man is an activity.” The word activity translates from the Greek energeia, which signifies not only physical activity but also mental activity as seemingly inactive as contemplation or daydreaming. The point is that the good life is not an end state that we achieve but rather a way of life that we live; virtues are dispositions to behave in the correct way. They are not themselves activities, but they ensure that our activities will be of the right kind. To live “in accordance with virtue,” then, is to live in such a way that our activities flow naturally from a virtuous disposition etc.

conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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