[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 06 DECEMBER 2018

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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 06 DECEMBER 2018

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Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

 


General Studies – 2


Topic – Developmental issues, issues related to poverty and hunger.

1) Despite implementation of various programmes for eradication of poverty by the government in India, poverty is still existing.’ Explain by giving reasons.(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the status of poverty in India, the steps taken by government to address this issue, the reasons why poverty persists and suggestions for improvement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention some statistics about prevalence of poverty in India

Body

  • Briefly write about govt initiative in this regards, like MGNREGA
  • Next , discuss in detail the reasons for continuation of poverty in India –
    • Limited govt resources when compared to population
    • corruption and other issues in govt schemes implementation
    • state specific geographical disparities
    • Insurgency and violence related issues in LWE Areas and North East
    • Issues with Education system, business environment
  • Discuss what steps must be taken to improve the situation

Conclusion – Highlight that so many years after independence, continuation of poverty and deprivation of the worst kind is a poor indicator of state performance and needs redressal.


Topic:Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation

2) The draft Witness Protection Scheme, 2018, is the first attempt at the national-level to holistically provide for the protection of the witnesses, which will go a long way in eliminating secondary victimisation. Discuss. (250 words) 

The hindu

Why this question

Witness protection is of utmost importance in criminal cases and the need for the same has been long felt in India. In this context it is important to discuss the draft WPS which has been approved recently by the SC and would be soon brought out in the form of a legislation.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the draft WPS and its salient provision. We have to write in detail as to how it aims to ensure witness protection.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  draft WPS. E.g The Supreme Court on Wednesday approved after certain amendments, the Central government’s draft witness protection scheme and asked all the States to implement it till Parliament comes out with legislation;

Body-

Discuss about the draft scheme in detail. E.g The scheme, finalised in consultation with the National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) and the Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPRD), has three categories of witnesses based on the threat perception; This scheme attempts at ensuring that witnesses receive appropriate and adequate protection. This will go a long way in strengthening the criminal justice system in the country and will consequently enhance national security scenario; the protection measures are expected to be for a specific duration on need basis which is to be reviewed regularly; The scheme provides for identity protection and giving a new identity to the witness etc.

conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic- Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3) Discuss the factors determining the quality and quantity of nutrition in children. Also discuss the need to improve nutritional outcomes among Indian children.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The recently released Global Nutrition Report highlights the status of child nutrition in India. In the wake of this report it is important to discuss the factors determining the quality and quantity of nutrition and the need to improve nutritional outcomes among Indian children.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the factors which determine the quality and quantity of nutrition. It also wants us to bring out in detail the need to improve nutritional outcomes among the Indian children.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  importance of nutrition in overall child development.

Body-

  1. Discuss and elaborate in points the factors which determine the quality and quantity of nutrition. E.g maternal education, age at marriage, antenatal care, children’s diet and household size; besides political commitment, administrative efficiency, literacy and women’s empowerment also play a vital role.
  2. Bring out the need to improve nutritional outcomes among Indian children. E.g a third of the world’s stunted children under five — an estimated 46.6 million who have low height for age — live in India. A quarter of the children display wasting (that is, low weight for height) as well. As the Global Nutrition Report 2018 points out, this finding masks the wide variation in stunting levels in different parts of the country. District-level data show high and very high levels of stunting mainly in central and northern India (more than 30% and 40%, respectively), but less than 20% in almost the entire south etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– India and its bilateral relations

4) Given the structural problems in the Indo-Pakistan relationship, no corridor cutting through the Radcliffe Line seems to have the potential to ensure better relations between the two nuclear-armed neighbours. Critically examine. (250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

Opening of the Kartarpur corridor has been seen as a harbinger of better relations between India and Pakistan. However, the presence of several structural problems between India and Pakistan mean that the corridor might turn out to be another false start. Hence this question would help you assess the transformative potential of Kartarpur corridor for India Pakistan relations.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain about the corridor and examine how far the corridor would help in improving ties between India and Pakistan. Since critically is suffixed in the directive word, we need to highlight both the potential and limitation of the corridor in alleviating the structural issues between India and Pakistan.

Directive word

Critically examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any . When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about Kartarpur corridor.

Body

  • Highlight the transformative potential of the corridor – negative dynamic between the governments must be separated from the need to build bridges between the two peoples. “Religious diplomacy” — or using faith to bring people and nations together — has been very much part of Modi’s foreign policy in his outreach to the neighbouring countries in the Subcontinent and beyond. It was also framed as a priority in the joint statement issued after his talks with Pakistan Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif at Ufa in July 2015.
  • Highlight the limitations – several false starts in the past, framing rules for visa free travel , opening of Kartarpur corridor is not a window of opportunity for meaningful resumption of stalled peace process and change in India’s Pakistan policy; the Indian exercise seems designed to appease domestic audiences, primarily in the Sikh-dominated Punjab.

Conclusion – give a fair and balanced opinion on the potential of the corridor and suggest way forward.


General Studies – 3


Topic –  Part of static series under the heading – “issues related to education”

5) Our Indian Education system needs serious reforms and changes. Comment. (250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the issues in Indian education system and suggest reforms that would make education outcomes more in tune with the needs of the nation.

Directive word

Comment – When you are asked to comment, you have to pick main points and give your ‘opinion’ on them based on evidences or arguments stemming from your wide reading. Your opinion may be for or against, but you must back your argument with evidences.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that to reap the demographic dividend, education and skilling should be two main focus area.

Body

  • Discuss the various issues in education sector such as
    • Lack of hands on knowledge and emphasis on theoretical knowledge and rote learning
    • Indian education and social arrangements are very inflexible on kids and completely ignore their feelings, thoughts and ambitions.
    • one of the lowest public expenditure rates on education per student, especially compared to other Asian countries like China.
    • Education in most schools is one dimensional, with an obsessive focus on marks. Added to this is the lack of availability of trained teachers at all levels. Quality teachers are the missing link in the Indian education system.
  • Discuss the impact of such issues with the education system
  • Suggest reforms which would enable India to improve the education outcomes

Conclusion – It is time that India began viewing school education as a critical strategic investment and gave it the status of a vital infrastructure project. As all in-country efforts have failed, we should go in for a radical overhaul of our educational infrastructure with the help of countries that have an amazing record in providing quality school education — Finland, for instance.


Topic – Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints;

6) Discuss the measures that can help address the agrarian distress in the country. (250 words) 

Indian express

Why this question

Farmers suicides and increasing frequency of protests aptly highlights the situation of agriculture in India. There is a dire need to ameliorate the economic conditions of nearly 50% of the Indian workforce. In this context it is important to discuss the ways to ameliorate the agricultural distress in India.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the measures that need to be taken in order to help address the farming distress in the country.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  agriculture’s contribution to GDP and the workforce employed by it.

Body-

Discuss in points the steps that need to be taken to address the farming distress in the country. E.g

  1. Improvement in agricultural extension.
  2. Trade bans on agricultural exports must be removed and interstate trade simplified
  3. Popularisation of KCC
  4. Faster implementation of PMKSY
  5. Income and farm diversification through livestock and animal husbandry etc
  6. Basic Minimum Income
  7. Improved agricultural credit facilities etc

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic – Climate Change

7) In the wake of the recent scientific reports on Climate change, it is imperative to finalise the rule book by 2018. Comment.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

Accounting procedures, regarding the flow of climate finance, has become one of the most controversial issues being debated at Katowice, Poland where countries have gathered to agree upon a ‘Rule Book’ to implement the Paris Agreement of 2015, that commits countries to ensure the earth doesn’t warm 2 degree C beyond pre-industrial levels. In light of COP 24, this issue becomes important.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first highlight the urgency of the situation with respect to climate change and the need to act decisively and act quickly. Thereafter, it expects us to discuss the various issues which require finalization so that action can be taken accordingly. We need to provide a forward looking view regarding what can be done to finalize the rule book by 2018.

Directive word

Comment – When you are asked to comment, you have to pick main points and give your ‘opinion’ on them based on evidences or arguments stemming from your wide reading. Your opinion may be for or against, but you must back your argument with evidences.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that COP 24 in Poland will strive to iron out a “rule book” to implement the Paris framework.

Body

  • Highlight the urgency of the situation by pointing out various reports which have emphasized on the need to act fast and act decisively. The world has already warmed by 1°C since pre-industrial levels, and is likely to reach 1.5°C between 2030 and 2052, in a business-as-usual scenario. That is the level at which significant climate impacts begin to hit large swaths of humanity, particularly climate-vulnerable countries such as India, Bangladesh and the Maldives.
  • Highlight the major issues which need finalization – the issue of climate finance , lack of consensus on climate action among the developing and developed countries, technology transfer, guidelines for implementation of the Paris Agreement adopted in 2016.
  • Discuss each of these issues in detail detailing what is the hindrance in finalization of the rule book and what more needs to be done

Conclusion – Emphasize on the need to act quickly and discuss the way forward.


General Studies – 4


Topic– Work culture, Quality of service delivery

8) Work ethics include not only how one feels about their job, career or vocation, but also how one does his/her job or responsibilities. Comment.(250 words)

Reference

Reference

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding of the concept of work ethics and form an opinion as to how work ethics is about how one feels towards his job and also how one attends to his responsibilities.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  Work ethics. E.g Workplace ethics are nothing but the rules and procedures that should be carried out in an office by the employer and the employees to maintain a professional company culture and to build a better relationship with their customers by providing better services.

Body-

Discuss the importance of work ethics and mention the most important characteristics of a strong work ethics- character, accountability, motivation, integrity, team work etc. E.g

Body

Express your knowledge and understanding of the issue and bring out the importance of work ethics. E.g involves attitude, behavior, respect, communication, and interaction; how one gets along with others. Work ethics demonstrate many things about whom and how a person is; Work ethics involve such characteristics as honesty and accountability; strong work ethics builds confidence that employees will do what it takes to complete assigned tasks in a timely manner; It illustrates a dedication to one’s employer and its goals, a commitment to organizational values, and a determination to get things done and get it done rightly; A strong work ethic creates an environment of dependability and accountability.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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