Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and
issues arising out of their design and implementation.
4) Examine the advantages that PHC model of healthcare has over UHC model? Discuss how these models manifest in Pradhan Mantri Jan Aarogya Yojana?(250 words)
Why this question
At a time when focus over attaining SDG has enhanced, Sustainable Development Goal (SDG-3) which pertains to healthcare and seeks to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages is important for several reasons. Also, India has introduced schemes focussing on UHC and hence the significance of these models becomes important.
Key demand of the question
The question expects us to explain what UHC and PHC model is and the advantages of one over the other. Thereafter, it expects us to explain which model is prevalent in PMJAY and analyze what it means. Finally we need to give a way forward.
Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic, get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .
Structure of the answer
Introduction – Explain what is meant by the two.
- Explain that Astana Declaration underscored the importance of Primary Health Care (PHC) as an essential complement to UHC. UHC concentrates on ensuring healthcare access through medical insurance “coverage” in order to “prevent catastrophic medical expenditures”. This was a move away from the comprehensive PHC approach that was reiterated by the WHO in 2008. The Astana declaration (2018) attempts to integrate the two approaches. “We will apply knowledge, including scientific as well as traditional knowledge, to strengthen PHC, improve health outcomes and ensure access for all people to the right care at the right time and at the most appropriate level of care, respecting their rights, needs, dignity and autonomy,
- Thereafter, explain the model in PMJAY. In India, the UHC-PHC complement is embodied in the Ayushman Bharat scheme — the Pradhan Mantri Jan Aarogya Yojana (PMJY) reflects the UHC model, while the health and wellness centres claim to reflect the PHC component at the primary level. This is a shift from the earlier strategy for strengthening public healthcare system, reflected in the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), 2005-2012 — later the National Health Mission with incorporation of the National Urban Health Mission. NRHM addressed primary and secondary levels, leading to an increase in public health expenditure,
- Examine the impact of the two models in health schemes and discuss what would be better going forward.
Conclusion – Give your view and mention the way forward.