[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 22 NOVEMBER 2018

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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 22 NOVEMBER 2018

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators.

 


General Studies – 1


Topic – Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues

1) The recent Sabarimala controversy is a fight between socio-religious political entrepreneur and the social reformers. Comment.(250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

The article examines the recent Sabarimala controversy from a sociocultural perspective and links it with India’s freedom struggle where the same strategy worked against the British.

Directive word

comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  recent Sabarimala controversy. E.g briefly discuss the SC judgement on Sabarimala temple, one of the most important Hindu pilgrimage centre etc.

Body-

Discuss how the controversy reflects the fight between between socio-religious political entrepreneur and the social reformers. E.g Mention the two sides of the controversy- Political parties who are politicizing the issue trying to garner voter support in their favour and the women reformers, activists trying to enforce the SC judgement; Mention that reformers have always had to face opposition when they stood against socio-religious traditions.Rammohan Roy, the first Indian reformer of the modern era, had to fight conservatives for abolishing Sati. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, who fought for the remarriage of Hindu widows ; It would be wrong to assume that the people’s opposition is spontaneous, while it largely results from the instrumentalisation of traditions by ideologues; mention how the political parties have rallied behind the religious sentiments of people and mixed them with political tones in order to have selfish political gains etc.

You can also take an opposing stand and accordingly frame your answer. The purpose of the article is to refresh the knowledge of some critical ills in India’s polity.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 2


Topic – Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies

2) The relationship between central banks and government is being debated around the world and India is no different. Discuss the issues involved and suggest what needs to be done?(250 words)

Livemint

Indian express

Why this question

The article bring out the fact that around the world, there has been a rearrangement of the roles of and relationships between governments and central banks. We are seeing this happen in our country too where the RBI and government, it appears, have had some disagreement about how to manage the economy. These articles will help you understand the issue in greater depth .

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first discuss the global scenario with respect to relationship between government and central banks and explain how the situation in India is quite similar. Discuss the reason behind such tussle in the would in general and India in particular. Here we need to discuss issues surrounding independence of RBI, monetary policy framework agreement, need for accountability , issues or capital reserves. Finally, a fair and balanced opinion is to be provided as to what must be the way forward.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention about the recent board meeting of RBI and how it has blown water over the heat generated in past few days.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Body

  • Explain that the adjustment in relationship between the two entities is part of the debate happening around globally. Give examples of UK etc
  • Explain the issue in general – Central banks everywhere, from Turkey to the US, are under increasing pressure from the governments. While central bankers say that they need to be free from pressures from the governments and lobby groups to focus on their job of containing inflation and maintaining financial stability, their critics say that they are too secretive and have leaned in favour of big financial institutions over the interests of common citizens they are duty-bound to serve. Explain what is happening in India
  • Examine the micro reasons over which there is a disagreement and discuss what needs to be done to improve the situation and maintain market sentiment.

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced view and discuss way forward.


Topic –   Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.

3) Discuss the similarities and the difference between the Election Commision of India and the State Election Commissions. (250 words)

Indian express

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question

The question wants us to write in detail about the similarities between ECI and SECs. It also wants us to highlight and discuss the difference between the ECI and SECs.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  ECI and SECs. E.g Supervision and conduct of elections are entrusted with two constitutional authorities — the Election Commission (EC) of India and the State Election Commissions (SECs).

Body-

  1. Discuss the similarities between the ECI and SECs. E.g like the removal of a Chief Election Commissioner, the State Election Commissioner can only be removed via impeachment. In 2006, the Supreme Court emphasised the two constitutional authorities enjoy the same powers. In Kishan Singh Tomar vs Municipal Corporation of the City of Ahmedabad, the Supreme Court directed that state governments should abide by orders of the SECs during the conduct of the panchayat and municipal elections, just like they follow the instructions of the EC during Assembly and Parliament polls. Article 243-O of the Constitution bars interference in poll matters set in motion by the SECs; Article 329 bars interference in such matters set in motion by the EC. Only after the polls are over can the SECs’ decisions or conduct be questioned through an election petition.
  2. Discuss the differences between the two. E.g Set up in 1950, the EC is charged with the responsibility of conducting polls to the offices of the President and Vice President of India, to Parliament, and to the state Assemblies and Legislative Councils. The SECs, which were appointed in each state more than four decades after the EC was set up, supervise municipal and panchayat elections. Although the two authorities have a similar mandate, they are independent of each other and draw powers from different laws. Each SEC is governed by a separate state Act etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 3


Topic – Indian economy : Issues

4) Examine the reasons India lags behind in contract enforcement in EODB rankings? Suggest what needs to be done?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

India has recently made rapid strides in doing business ranking system. While improvement has been seen across various parameters, one aspect where India has remained stagnant is in enforcing contracts. Considering the importance contracts have for businesses, it is one aspect which needs close attention and hence this question.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the current rank of India in enforcement of contracts and explain the reasons why India has not been doing so well. Next, we need to explain in brief the impact of non enforcement of contracts for businesses and give suggestions on what can be done to improve the situation.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that while India’s overall position in doing business ranking has gone up, in contract enforcement we haven’t improved.

Body

  • Explain the reasons why contract enforcement is important for a business.
  • Explain the reasons behind poor performance on this particular metric – lack of commercial courts despite regulatory changes, Government contracts get modified or nullified post contract signing, leading to significant damage to shareholder value, bring out the issues with revision of power purchase agreements in case of electricity companies etc
  • Give suggestions as to what can be done to improve the situation – setting up commercial courts, beefing up the arbitration process etc

Conclusion – Emphasize on the importance of improving on this metric and discuss way forward.


Topic – Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

5) Discuss the problems faced by small towns in India. Do you think they have gained enough attention from various urban development programmes. Comment.(250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

While various urban development programmes have been launched across the country, Indian towns in which about one-fourth of Indian population resides have not been able to develop at par with big cities. The article discusses the economic dilemma and problems faced by such towns and their importance in various urban development programmes.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the problems faced by small Indian towns. It then wants us to express our opinion as to what extent have the various urban development programmes helped the small towns of India.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the Indian population living in small towns. E.g One-fourth of the urban population lives in small towns (20,000 to 1,00,000 population).

Body-

  1. Discuss the problems faced such small towns. E.g Small towns in India are something of an oxymoron. They are far removed from cities in character and appearance and are constantly struggling to establish. Every small town in India has its unique story and significance but their problems are similar — lack of basic services, dilapidated infrastructure, overcrowded spaces and dwindling job opportunities.They have private schools and clinics, a variety of fast-food eateries, modern tailoring shops and mobile and electronic stores. Such entrepreneurial energy says something about the growing small-town population which desires better services and an improved quality of life. But this is relatively unrecognised by the government.

 

  1. Discuss the various urban development programmes and their contribution towards development of small towns in India. E.g The UPA government’s urban development programme, the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), covered both big cities and small towns but gave financial preference to the former.JNNURM was replaced by the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) that focuses on infrastructural development for Class I cities (those with a population of one lakh and above). The Smart Cities Mission (SCM) was launched to address our growing fascination with world-class cities that use technology to improve their services etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

6) Explain the advantages of additive manufacturing? Discuss what advantages it would bring to indian manufacturing sector?(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article explains in a very Lucie manner what advantages are offered by 3d printing for manufacturing process and how it can benefit economies. It also examines the potential of India in appropriating the usage of additive manufacturing. This is a technology which has immense potential and hence this question is important for mains.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain what additive manufacturing is and the advantages of it. Next, we need to discuss the advantages offered by this technology to optimize the manufacturing process in India, the industries where this can prove beneficial as well as discuss India’s readiness for this technology.

Directive word

Discuss  – here in your discussion, you need to bring out the advantages that such technology would bring to India and also explain the drivers that make India ready for accepting such a technological shift.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what additive manufacturing is.

Body

  • Discuss the advantages offered by additive manufacturing as explained in the article – bring down cost, decentralize manufacturing etc
  • Discuss the advantages that it can have for India – eliminates large capital outlays. Machines are cheaper, inventories can be small and space requirements are not large. Thus, jump-starting manufacturing does not face the massive hurdle of large capital requirement and the traditional small and medium enterprises can easily be adapted and retooled towards high technology manufacturing, Indian expertise in software sector etc
  • Explain what makes India ready to take this technological leap – programs such as digital India, digital penetration etc

Conclusion – Summarize the advantages of adopting additive manufacturing and way forward.


General Studies – 4


Topic-Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships.

7) What do you understand by empathy? How does it differ from forgiveness? Analyze whether cultivating empathy would rid the world of acrimony?(250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

The article discusses the role empathy plays in human actions and discusses the other attitudes which compliment it. This question would help you understand the concept to empathy in significant detail.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to to first explain what empathy is. Next we need to bring out the difference between empathy and forgiveness and how the motive and manner of these two differ. Finally, we need to explain whether empathy alone would rid the world of all acrimony and make it more peaceful or whether it works in combination with other attitudes.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that these form a part of our attitude.

Body

  • Explain what empathy is – imaginative exercise in which one sees the world from the other person or group’s viewpoint. Empathy, so defined, is morally neutral.
  • Discuss how empathy differs from forgiveness – forgiveness is the waiving of angry feelings toward someone as the result of a process in which the offender confesses, apologises, and promises not to offend again. The process standardly involves significant abasement and even humiliation. All this is deeply built into the idea of forgiveness
  • While answering the third part you can divide your answer in 3 parts. The thesis will be that empathy alone would help us in understanding the motivations of other and make the world more peaceful. The antithesis will be that empathy alone is not sufficient where you can discuss the example of criminals. Finally, the synthesis will be the combination of attitudes with empathy that would make the world less acrimonious.

Conclusion – reiterate the arguments behind your synthesis discussed above.


Topic-    Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

8) One of the underlying assumptions about the link between attitudes and behavior is that of consistency. Comment.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding of the linkage between attitude and behaviour. We have to discuss to what extent can attitude determine the behaviour of a person.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Write a few introductory lines about the  meaning of attitude. E.g An attitude is “a relatively enduring organization of beliefs, feelings, and behavioral tendencies towards socially significant objects, groups, events or symbols”.

Body-

  1. Discuss the principle of consistency. E.g One of the underlying assumptions about the link between attitudes and behavior is that of consistency. This means that we often or usually expect the behavior of a person to be consistent with the attitudes that they hold. This is called the principle of consistency; The principle of consistency reflects the idea that people are rational and attempt to behave rationally at all times and that a person’s behavior should be consistent with their attitude(s).
    Whilst this principle may be a sound one, it is clear that people do not always follow it, sometimes behaving in seemingly quite illogical ways; for example, smoking cigarettes and knowing that smoking causes lung cancer and heart disease.
  2. Discuss about the strength of an attitude and its influence on behaviour. E.g The strength with which an attitude is held is often a good predictor of behavior.Attitude strength involves:Importance / personal relevance refers to how significant the attitude is for the person and relates to self-interest, social identification and value.If an attitude has a high self-interest for a person (i.e. it is held by a group the person is a member of or would like to be a member of, and is related to a person’s values), it is going to be extremely important.As a consequence, the attitude will have a very strong influence upon a person’s behavior. By contrast, an attitude will not be important to a person if it does not relate in any way to their life.The knowledge aspect of attitude strength covers how much a person knows about the attitude object.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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