SECURE SYNOPSIS: 20 NOVEMBER 2018

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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 20 NOVEMBER 2018


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.

General Studies – 1


Topic –  Indian art and culture

1) The Pallava era witnesses a transition from rock cut to free-standing temples. Comment. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article discusses the news that Mamallapuram stone sculpture got the GI tag. Tamil Nadu in its application stated that sculptures from Mamallapuram are known to be carved in stone with characteristics of intricate designing chiselled finely, keeping with the spirit of the surrounding Pallava art and architecture, which brings the focus on Pallava art and architecture, and hence this question.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the transformation in Pallava architecture from rock cut to stone built temples. We need to highlight how the two were different from each other along with examples.

Directive word

Comment – When you are asked to comment, you have to pick main points and give your ‘opinion’ on them based on evidences or arguments stemming from your wide reading. Your opinion may be for or against, but you must back your argument with evidences.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that the Pallavas introduced the art of excavating temples from the rock. In fact, the Dravidian style of temple architecture began with the Pallava rule.

Body

  • Discuss about the four stages of temple development and explain how they evolved from rock cut structure to stone built temples.
  • Explain the main points of differences between the two architectural styles under pallava dynasty such as the evolution of the pillars that were used etc

Conclusion – Comment on how the temple architecture evolved during the Pallava rule and how the design and construction became more elaborate.

Background:-

  • The Pallava dynasty existed between the 3rd and 9th centuries CE, ruling a portion of what is today Andhra Pradesh (early Pallavas) and Tamil Nadu (later Pallavas).The tradition of direct patronization of the temples began with the Pallavas.
  • Starting with rock cuttemples, Pallava sculptors later graduated to free-standing structural shrines which inspired Chola temples of a later age.

Architecture of pallavas:-

  • Pallava architecture can be now sub-divided into two phases – the rock cut phase and the structural phase.
  • Rock cut phase:-
    • The rock cut phase lasted from the 610 to 668 AD and consisted of two groups of monuments – the Mahendra group and the Mamalla group.
    • The Mahendra group is the name given to monuments constructed during the reign of Mahendravarman I
      • Characteristics:-
        • The monuments of this group are invariably pillared halls hewn out of mountain faces. These pillared halls or mandapas follow the prototype of Jain temples of the period.
      • The best examples of Mahendra group of monuments are the cave temples at Mandagapattu, Pallavaram and Mamandur.
    • The second group of rock cut monuments belong to the Mamalla group .
      • During this period free-standing monolithic shrines called rathas were constructed alongside pillared halls.
      • Some of the best examples of this style are the Pancha Rathas and Arjuna’s Penanceat Mahabalipuram.
    • Free standing temples:-
      • The second phase of Pallava architecture is the structural phase when free-standing shrines were constructed with stone and mortar brought in for the purpose.
      • Monuments of this phase are of two groups – the Rajasimha group and the Nandivarman group
      • The Rajasimha group encompasses the early structural temples of the Pallavas when a lot of experimentation was carried out.
        • The best examples of this period are the Shore Temple at Mahabalipuram and the Kanchi Kailasanathar Templeat Kanchipuram both constructed by Narasimhavarman II who was known as Rajasimha.
      • The best example of the Nandivarman group of monuments is the Vaikunta Perumal Templeat Kanchipuram.
      • During this period, Pallava architecture attained full maturity and provided the models upon which the massive Brihadeeswarar Temple of the Cholas at Thanjavur and Gangaikonda Cholapuram and various other architectural works of note were constructed.

General Studies – 3


Topic – Indian Economy and issues relating to mobilization of resources

2) Private sector investment in infrastructure is facing several headwinds. Analyze and also suggest solutions to pick up private sector investment?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The article discusses the contribution made by private sector, both in terms of capital and enterprise, in boosting India’s infrastructure sector. Thereafter, it delves into the problems plaguing private investment and potential solutions. At a time when economy is struggling to pick up the pace of private sector investment, the role of private sector capital in developing infrastructure needs attention.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first discuss the role played by private sector in developing India’s infrastructure, and highlight the headwind in the form of challenges they are facing. Basically we need to explain why very few bids have come from private sector in PPP projects and discuss potential solutions and way forward.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – bring out the status quo that private sector contributed an estimated ₹20 trillion, or a third of India’s ₹60 trillion infrastructure investment, between fiscals 2008 and 2017. However, it has declined sharply in recent years in terms of share of investment, from 37-38% to below 25% in fiscal 2018.

Body

  • Bring out the role played by private sector in developing airports, roads etc. Explain how this was done through PPP model
  • Thereafter bring the headwinds in front of private sector – cost and time overruns leading to NPA problem, issues with risk sharing in the previous model of PPP etc
  • Discuss potential solutions such as the introduction of hybrid annuity model etc. Bring out potential risks as well.

Conclusion – Give your view on the role and need of private sector in infrastructure sector and discuss the way forward.

Background:-

  • Private sector contributed to a third of India’s infrastructure investment, between fiscals 2008 and 2017.
  • However, it has declined sharply in recent years in terms of share of investment, from 37-38% to below 25% in fiscal 2018.

Why private participation is considered better:-

  • Private sector participation in infrastructure delivery helps deliver tangible benefits.
  • Creative:-
    • In highways, airports, ports and renewables, the private sector’s role has been landscape altering.
  • Efficiency:-
    • The private sector has also delivered efficiently both on project execution as well as operations.
  • Private participation enhances public accountability.
    • PPPs bring back trust in public utilities that execute them, improve service delivery, bridge resource gaps, and help wean away dependence on unsustainable coping solutions which the poor can ill afford.

Why private sector investment in infrastructure is facing problems:-

  • Private investments in thermal generation are already in deep trouble with stranded capacities, stressed loans and weak demand.
  • In railways, and urban infrastructure, private investments are negligible
  • Roads:-
    • Recently, the sector has faced debt repayment issues and project fund constraints. It is noted that a few projects are undergoing debt restructuring processes with lenders, leading to delays in project completion.
    • Further, traffic figures of the government tend to be optimistic, leading to the need for independent traffic projections by the private sector causing delays in financial closure.
  • Ports:-
    • Some of the challenges dampening the progress of PPPs in the port sector include Inadequate cargo handling equipment and navigational aids and information technology systems, insufficient dredging capacity, tariff regulatory risk arising from the Tariff Authority for Major Ports policy, and a lack of technical expertise, all of which have lowered the efficiency of Indian ports.
  • Airports:-
    • Land acquisition is a major roadblock in the development of airport projects under the PPP mode. Lack of information for bidders and obtaining statutory approvals are some other issues.
    • While airports, ports and power transmission have robust engagement models, new investment activity is tepid.
  • Energy:-
    • Issues such as obtaining environmental clearances, the absence of a dispute resolution facility, the lack of fuel supply and private sector liquidity limits have hampered PPP progress in the energy sector (power, oil and gas). 
  • High costs:-
    • Estimated project costs have significantly escalated in the case of toll projects, hitting the project economics.
  • Toll projects are not sufficiently ready at the time of bidding, hinting at insufficient planning. This results in the private sector assuming or handling much of the pre-development phase risks such as clearances, land acquisition, and so on, leading to increases in cost overruns. 
  • Large number of stalled projects are blocking infrastructure projects and at the same time adding to NPAs of the banking system.
  • HAM model:-
    • The hybrid annuity model (HAM) for highway construction is not sustainable, particularly given the already existing stress in the sector.
    • Reason behind the HAM being not sustainable was that developers today didn’t have the deep pockets they had 10 years back.
    • Funding is becoming a challenging task for road developers.

Solutions :-

  • Capable creditworthy public institutions are an essential prerequisite to attract private investment.
  • Expediting creation of a PPP think-tank institution as recommended by the Kelkar committee could help.
  • Create supply-side enablers to deepen the infrastructure financing ecosystem
    • Stalled projects need to be dealt with steadfastly to nurse private developers and financial institutions to health. Building certainty and capacity to implement the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code will be crucial.
    • Allied guarantee instruments to strengthen bond markets and expeditious deployment of capital under the National Investment and Infrastructure Fund are facilitations that can help.
  • Transparency and effective policies will be crucial. Project-wise analysis is required to determine as to who is better placed to take care of the three essential components of each project, i.e., Build, Operate and Finance.
  • Credit ratings must reflect the embedded credit risk to enable the higher flow of credit into the sector.
    • For instance, a rating should ideally move through downgrades and upgrades in notches to reflect the gradual re-pricing of credit risk.
    • Such credit systems provide the investor base with greater confidence in both the rating system and the credit quality of the underlying market

Topic– Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation.

3) The looming threat of water crisis is intensified due to its inefficient usage in energy sector. Analyze.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

Niti Ayog has painted a bleak picture of water scenario in India. Planning and preparation must be in place to tackle this situation. The article discusses the issue of inefficient usage of water in energy sector and suggests steps on how it can be addressed. Hence this question

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first discuss the precarious situation with respect to water that India faces, as highlighted by Niti Ayog. Next, we need to bring out the inefficiencies of water usage in energy sector and why this needs a quick fix. Finally, we need to provide suggestions and way forward.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Bring out the result of CWMI by Niti Ayog to highlight the precarious situation with respect to water in India and why it needs to be addressed.

Body

  • Explain that the issue gains importance because about 1498 billion cubic metres (BCM) versus 744 BCM — is the gap predicted between the demand and supply of fresh water, by 2030. In the projections that the Central Water Commission (CWC) released in 2015, the sector-wise requirement of water (that is, for drinking and domestic use, industry and energy) will rise ste
  • Highlight that water use in energy sector is only expected to increase. The share of water consumed by this sector was 0.62% in 2010, which is pegged to rise up to 1.37% in 2030 and 8.98% in 2050.
  • Discuss about the issue of inefficient water use in energy sector particularly thermal energy which is the highest water guzzler and occupies greatest share in India’s energy pie. Also explain challenges relating to data collection etc
  • Discuss the potential solutions

Conclusion – Emphasize on the need for water management and discuss way forward.

Background:-

  • Composite Water Management Index (CWMI) by the NITI Aayog, shows that 600 million people face high to extreme water stress in India. The report places India at a dismal 120 among 122 countries in the water quality index.
  • It predicts that a persistent water crisis will lead to an eventual 6% loss in the country’s Gross Domestic Product by 2030.

Water crisis is intensified due to inefficient usage in energy sector:-

  • Water and energy systems are closely intertwined.
    • The scarcity of water in the age of climate change has impacted the coal-fired power plants particularly negatively. While water forms an essential component in all stages of energy production and electricity generation, energy is needed to extract, convert, purify, and deliver water for a variety of human uses, and treat wastewater for auxiliary uses.
  • The share of water consumed by this sector was 0.62% in 2010, which is pegged to rise up to 1.37% in 2030 and 8.98% in 2050.
  • Coal sector:-
    • The mining of coal is very water intensive. Once water is used in processing coal, it cannot be used due to toxic contamination.
    • The water-coal slurry is stored permanently in high rise dam impoundments that can and will leak into ground water resources. These impoundments stay in communities and destroy viable farmland.
    • The effects of climate change caused by burning fossil fuels disrupts existing water resources and supplies, displaces people and undermines their livelihoods.
  • Fuel Production:
    • Water is either an essential input or is difficult and costly to substitute; degraded water is often a waste byproduct.
  • 77% of India’s total electricity comes from thermal power plants that are dependent on freshwater sources. Of all the freshwater-cooled thermal plants, 38.9% of generation capacity is installed in areas with high or extremely high water-stress.

Way forward:-

  • Better reporting:-
    • Measuring water consumption by power plants has been a challenge for long. However, it can easily be tackled by using the existing CEA reporting mechanism for daily generation. To do so, daily water withdrawal and consumption reporting should be mandated.
  • Collection of data:-
    • Information about water stress, power plant siting (location) and so on must be shared seamlessly across departments a service that the Composite Water Management Index  could perform.
  • Factoring in the water-energy nexus linkages, especially the metrics around power plant water withdrawal and consumption, will only help make the Index better and the States better prepared to manage their water and power resource.
  • A transition need to be made from nonrenewable to renewable options, from increasing supply to a wise management of the resources available and from infrastructure development to a more balanced mix of infrastructures and ecosystems for the production of the valuable water and energy services people, the economy and the environment depends on.
  • The integration between water management and energy strategies insuring ecosystems protection.
  • Recycling and reuse of water including when water of different qualities is used in different subsequent uses (reducing stress on energy for extraction of water from the underground water table)
  • Use of renewable energies or other innovative technologies for groundwater pumping, desalination, water purification and wastewater treatment.

Topic – Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

4) Our policy needs to shift focus from universal electricity connections to upgradation of quality of supply and services. Comment. (250 words)

epw

Why this question

India has recently achieved universal electrification after electrifying the last unelectrified village of India. However, it needs to be discussed as to why electrification alone will not solve India’s problems.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue in terms of forming an opinion for or against the statement. We have to justify the need to upgrade supply and electricity services along with the need to pursue universal electricity connections.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  recent achievement of India becoming universally electrified. E.g The government launched the Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana (Saubhagya) for universal household electrification in September 2017 and subsequently announced the electrification of all Indian villages in April 2018.

Body-

Discuss the other issues which are faced by India and cannot be resolved by electrification alone. Bring out the need to improve supply and services associated with electricity. E.g despite steady progress in connections, much of the works envisaged for network investment and strengthening are yet to be completed; Lack of timely network investments jeopardises the provision of reliable, affordable power supply. Evaluation of rural electrification programmes also highlighted that the distribution transformers catering to villages had the capacity to support the load of only 10% of the households and thus the instances of overloading and transformer breakdowns were significant; Many of these supply and service quality issues, crucial to the sustainability of electrification efforts, have also been identified- Billing centres, repair houses away from villages, delays in billing leading to arrears and disconnection, voltage fluctuations, inadequate electrification of public spaces, unmetered connections, supply outages and low hours of supply etc; If supply is not affordable or the quality of supply and service is poor, it is likely that consumers will get disconnected. Poor quality of supply and service can also worsen the trust deficit between newly electrified consumers and the distribution companies (DISCOMs). This, in turn, would make programme implementation, increasing tariffs and even future metering and billing reforms challenging. Thus, if adequate attention is not given, such issues could impede the progress towards meaningful access to electricity, increase the possibility of the networks being disused or consumers resorting to power theft etc

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Background:-

  • Significant progress has been made with respect to village electrification and providing electricity connections to rural households, for over a decade.
  • As per official estimates, 100% village electrification and over 90% household connections have been achieved. 
  • Today, almost all villages have been connected to the grid and around 4,500 villages with 1.62 lakh BPL households have been covered under off-grid schemes 

Universal electrification is not enough:-

  • Despite steady progress in connections, much of the works envisaged for network investment and strengthening are yet to be completed.
  • Lack of timely network investments jeopardises the provision of reliable, affordable power supply.
  • Evaluation of rural electrification programmes also highlighted that the distribution transformers catering to villages had the capacity to support the load of only 10% of the households and thus the instances of overloading and transformer breakdowns were significant.
  • Quality:-
    • There have been no concerted efforts to improve the quality of supply. While the connection challenge has been nearly addressed, supply and service quality issues still persist in the sector.
    • Poor quality of supply and service can also worsen the trust deficit between newly electrified consumers and the distribution companies (DISCOMs). This, in turn, would make programme implementation, increasing tariffs and even future metering and billing reforms challenging
  • Metering and billing issues:-
    • In rural areas, evidences of supply being given without proper meters/meters are commonplace.
    • Consistent delays in billing increase the bill amounts through build-up of arrears, making it unaffordable for many consumers. This increases the likelihood of payment defaults leading to disconnection of supply.
    • Agencies implementing and regulating major rural electrification efforts, such as the Rural Electrification Corporation (REC), have not performed well in tracking the metering and billing status for newly electrified households even though these are crucial for retaining the connections.
  • Supply outages and low hours of supply :
    • Despite India claiming to have surplus power, many homes do not have reliable power supply.
    • Ministry of power reports 12–16 hours of supply in rural areas.
    • Further, only 7%–10% rural locations receive supply during the full evening hours (5 pm to 11 pm).
  • Lack of affordable power:
    • Many regulatory commissions provide concessionary tariffs to consumers who are identified as BPL. But, poor consumers if not identified as BPL are excluded from this benefit. 
  • Safety concerns with growing connections:
    • Accidents arising from electricity shocks and fires due to electricity short-circuits have been steadily increasing over the years and reports indicate that most of these accidents happen in rural areas.
    • Poor construction and maintenance of rural distribution network is an important reason for these accidents
  • Managing growing rural consumer base:
    • In the first phase of RGGVY, rural franchisees were expected to manage distribution operations in newly electrified areas. However, most of them are not operational and DDUGJY does not envisage such franchisees.

What more needs to be done :-

  • There is a need to hold DISCOMs accountable for monitoring of supply quality and operation and maintenance efforts in rural areas in order to ensure uninterrupted supply.
  • There needs to be innovation in tariff design to encourage home-based or small enterprises in newly electrified villages. 
  • Periodic tracking of newly electrified households and villages
    • There can also be periodic state-level and third-party evaluations of the programme based on this information. Such transparent and periodic tracking would go a long way in holding DISCOMs accountable for service.
  • Harnessing technology to monitor hours of supply:
    • Independent monitoring of supply reliability, as demonstrated by efforts such as the Electricity Supply Monitoring Initiative(which monitors consumer level supply across locations in 22 states) can play a crucial role in making supply data publicly accessible and should be encouraged.
  • Holding DISCOMs accountable for the quality of rural electricity supply:
    • Disbursal of rural electrification funds can also be subject to improvements in select supply quality parameters and not just based on capitalisation related project milestones. Thus, the sustainability of past investments should be considered during future grants disbursal.
    • MoP can prepare annual reports analysing progress and ranking of DISCOMs for rural electrification and rural quality of supply.
    • Electricity Regulatory Commissions can hold public reviews to hold DISCOMs accountable for rural electrification efforts and supply and service quality in a process similar to that of tariff determination.
    • District Electricity Committees (DECs) are to be set up to monitor progress of electrification works.
    • Ground pressure is needed to ensure that DISCOMs work to provide quality rural supply. Civil society groups can also take up independent studies on the quality of supply and service of newly electrified areas, using surveys, RTI (right to information) queries and public hearings.
  • Subsidy and tariff reforms:
    • Need to explore options for providing low-cost power for rural supply such as allocation of low-cost captive coal blocks for rural households, provision of surplus power at concessional rates or the allocation of cheaper, depreciated plants.
  • Central agency to coordinate and monitor rural electrification efforts
    • There is also a need for long-term political attention and resource allocation. This should involve a transparent participatory approach with maximum inputs from the newly electrified community.

Topic – Internal security.

5) With the Arihant’s nuclear deterrence patrol, India has added immeasurably to the credibility of its nuclear deterrence. Examine.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

India’s first indigenously designed and built nuclear-powered submarine, the INS Arihant, which is equipped with nuclear-tipped ballistic missiles had just completed a nearly month-long nuclear deterrence patrol. This is a landmark development on many counts, and through this question we attempt to understand why.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain how developing INS Arihant indigenously as well as INS Arihant per se has helped us strengthen our nuclear deterrence and the impact that it will have.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the fact that India’s first indigenously designed and built nuclear-powered submarine, the INS Arihant, which is equipped with nuclear-tipped ballistic missiles had just completed a nearly month-long nuclear deterrence patrol.

Body

  • Discuss the advantages that it has for India
    • India, apart from its capability to deliver nuclear weapons both from land and from air, can now also do so from under water. It provides the ultimate credibility to nuclear deterrence as both land and air-launched nuclear weapons are much more susceptible to destruction than those launched from undersea platforms
    • sends out an unambiguous message that efforts at nuclear blackmail will not work
    • signifies India’s attainment of complete mastery over all the highly complex systems and procedures entailed in operating the sea leg of the triad etc
  • Discuss the impact that it will have on India’s nuclear doctrine, its role as a net security provider in Indian Ocean, and its ambitions in Asia Pacific.

Conclusion – Discuss the significance of indigenously developing arihant’s nuclear deterrence.

Background:-

  • India’s first indigenously designed and built nuclear-powered submarine, the INS Arihant, which is equipped with nuclear-tipped ballistic missiles had just completed a nearly month-long nuclear deterrence patrol. This is a landmark development to India.
  • India’s nuclear deterrence 20 years after the country went nuclear is now secure as it rests on a triad of land, air and undersea vectors.

How Arihant nuclear deterrence patrol adds credibility to nuclear deterrence of India:-

  • Difficult to detect:-
    • It provides the ultimate credibility to nuclear deterrence as both land and air-launched nuclear weapons are much more susceptible to destruction than those launched from undersea platforms which are difficult to detect.
  • It sends out an unambiguous message to those inimically disposed towards India that they cannot trifle with it and efforts at nuclear blackmail will not work.
  • The nuclear deterrence patrol signifies India having come off age as a mature nuclear-armed state.
    • The Arihant’s successful nuclear deterrence patrol signifies India’s attainment of complete mastery over all the highly complex systems and procedures entailed in operating the sea leg of the triad. These are much more intricate and exacting than those for land and air vectors. Unlike the latter, they entail not only nuclear-propelled platforms but also ab initio custody of fully mated nuclear weapons.
  • The Arihant is believed to be the first in a series of six submarines. These will form the core of India’s sea-based nuclear deterrent and constitute a potent and formidable weapons system which will ensure national security. With the serial production of Arihant-type submarines, there will be an even higher element of indigenisation.
  • With the Arihant’s nuclear deterrence patrol, India has added immeasurably to the credibility of its nuclear deterrence. This will obviously add to national security and will be a factor for peace.
  • Analysts said the 6,000-tonne vessel with a range of about 750km sends a powerful signal to Pakistan and China that India’s underwater nuclear deterrence is credible potent and functional.
  • Arihant propels India into a club so far dominated by the US, France, Britain, China and Russia, demonstrating India’s technological capability to design, build and operate nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines or SSBNs.
  • It helps India in gaining respect from South Asian countries and beyond where Chinese economic might is impediment to India’s influence. India is the only country having a sea-based nuclear deterrent, which is not a Permanent Member of the UN Security Council.

However this single achievement does not axiomatically lead to the conclusion that India’s ‘triad’ is now complete:-

  • The classical triad is not proving to be as cost-effective as it was once perceived.
  • India is located in a very challenging weapons of mass destruction (WMD) region, and the fact that both its nuclear capable neighbours (China and Pakistan) are in a deep and covert WMD cooperation framework compounds the challenge for India. Also the Pakistan has also used its nuclear capability to shield its terrorism investment and the strategic picture becomes even more muddy.
  • The Arihant is estimated to have a missile with a range in hundreds of kms. In any case, a viable triad only comes into being when India has an Ship Submersible Ballistic Nuclear Submarine on patrol all the time.
  • Small fleet size, possibility of interception of communication lines etc.

 


General Studies – 4


Topic-Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators.

6) The state, according to Kautilya, was confined not merely to the maintenance of law and order or the protection of the people but extended to enable the individual attain the highest development. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to bring out in detail the concept of the state as developed and expounded by Kautilya. The question wants us to write in detail about the functions of the state in terms of maintenance of law and order and also attainment of highest development of the subjects.

Structure of the answer

Introduction-

write a few introductory lines about the  ancient Indian state. E.g in ancient India the state was considered as  a political instrument represented by the King etc.

Body-

Discuss the concept of the state according to the Kautilya. E.g Kautilya’s views, as stated in Arthasastra, are, indeed, vivid.Though he has not defined what the state exactly is, but he does refer to the seven elements of the state-

Swami (the king with qualities such as bravery, quickness of decision, strength of mind, easily approachable sharp intellect); Amatya (the ministers-in-charge of the entire administration); Janapada (population and land: land devoid or rocky, saline, uneven and thorny tracts and wild animals, and abound in fertile lands, timber and elephant forests); Durga (fortress, the military establishment to protect the people from natural calamities, also a kind of arsenal, a storage of military artilleries and communication);  Kosa (treasury, filled with gold, silver. precious jewels, and gems, should be able to withstand any calamity); Dando (consisting of hereditary and hired soldiers; Mitra (friendly states).

According to Kautilya states were confined not merely to the maintenance of law and order or the protection of the people. but extended to enable the individual attain the highest development. It appeared, more or less, as a welfare state of our times. There was no other greater object than the happiness of the people. He demands of the king to protect customs, religion and morality, embracing, thus the whole range of human life-social, economic cultural religious, political. The protection of Dharma remains, however. the most important function of the Kautilyan state. The order of the state,is not merely for the sake of order; it also is as Kautilya puts it, for protection, conversation, development and distribution : the state must create what is there, and distribute what has been increased etc.

Conclusion-based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Background:-

  • The Mauryan era of ancient India gave the world a significant treatise, the Arthashastra of 
  • Itoffers deep insights into political statecraft. The State in ancient India personified itself with the king; the king was, thus, the personification of the state.

Kautilya’s views on state:-

  • He has not defined what the state exactly is, but he does refer to the seven elements of the state
    • Swami is the king with qualities such as bravery, quickness of decision, strength of mind, easily approachable sharp intellect
    • Amatya – the ministers-in-charge of the entire administration
    • Janapada – population and land
    • Durga– fortress, the military establishment to protect the people from natural calamities, also a kind of arsenal, a storage of military artilleries and communication
    • Kosa – treasury, filled with gold, silver. precious jewels, and gems, should be able to withstand any calamity
    • Dando consisting of hereditary and hired soldiers,
    • Mitra – Friendly states
  • The state in Kautilya ‘s Arthasastra. is presided over by the Swami. the king. There are officials who advise him on matters relating to the administration. He rules over his territory from a fortified capital. The treasury and the army ensure stability and security while the allies help him keep the kingdom safe. This is what is the crux of the Saptanga theory.
  • The Kautilyan state is monarchical for he desired to establish a strong and powerful monarch with a view to protect the life and property of the state. And yet, he demands of the king to protect customs. religion and morality, embracing, thus the whole range of human life-social, economic. cultural. religious, political.
  • The protection of Dharma remains, however the most important function of the Kautilyan state.
  • In Kautilya’s views. the promotion of the welfare of the people is an essential task of the king personified in the institution of the state. Kautilya says the state has to possess power to promote the happiness of the people.
  • The Kautilyan state looks after the material well-being of the state. It also protects the social religious and the moral lives of the subjects. It supports the poor, the orphan, the aged, the helpless etc.
  • The order of the state is not merely for the sake of order; it also is as Kautilya puts it, for protection, conversation, development and distribution.
  • The ends of the state, according to Kautilya, were confined not merely to the maintenance of law and order or the protection of the people. but extended to enable the individual attain the highest development. It appeared, more or less, as a welfare state of present times. There was no other greater object than the happiness of the people.

Topic- Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships.

7) What do you understand by applied ethics. Discuss the factors behind the increased importance of the field of applied ethics.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the meaning and scope of applied ethics. It also wants us to write in detail about the factors that led to the growth of interest in field of applied ethics.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a simple definition of applied ethics. E.g ‘applied ethics’ refers to any use of philosophical methods to treat moral problems, practices, and policies in the professions, technology, government, and the like.

Body-

Discuss the meaning and scope of applied ethics in further detail. E.g The terms “applied ethics” and “practical ethics” are used interchangeably to indicate the application of ethics to special arenas of human activity, such as business, politics and medicine, and to particular problems, such as abortions.  As human beings, we act in different capacities and roles. Moral judgements are made and moral acts performed in different social contexts, such as health care, politics, work and school. In health care, the moral issues are related in particular to life and death and human well-being: In politics, judgements often concern value conflicts. The decision maker, for example, a politician or a civil servant, must choose an alternative that might promote one value at the expense of another: economic growth at the expense of sustainability, individual freedom at the expense of equality, etc. When we reflect on this type of decision making, we engage in applied ethics. Hence, applied ethics is concerned with crucial aspects of human life and social development.

Discuss the reasons which led to increased interest in the field of applied ethics. E.g

  1. In the early 1970s,Medicine saved the life of ethics; new and acute moral problems in medicine that had no ready-to-hand answers emerged.
  2. During the 20th century, “moral heteronomy”, whereby moral answers were provided by an authority, often the church, became “moral autonomy”, whereby individuals themselves had to formulate answers.
  3. Complementary explanation of the development of applied ethics relates to new moral problems facing society as a consequence of new technologies.
  4. Developments in the social sciences and the humanities often mirror social change. At the end of the 1960s and the beginning of 1970s, the student movement and the New Left challenged established society. Heated discussions took place on topics such as the Vietnam War, social injustices, poverty in the Third World, gender inequality and the maltreatment of animals. Many philosophers were engaged in these discussions. From this perspective, the development of applied ethics can be seen as a philosophical response to a new social environment.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Applied ethics:-

  • Applied ethics is the art or science of reflecting on moral dilemmas and moral problems in different social contexts.
  • Applied ethics is a branch of ethics devoted to the treatment of moral problems, practices, and policies in personal life, professions, technology, and government.
  • In contrast to traditional ethical theory concerned with purely theoretical problems such as, for example, the development of a general criterion of rightness applied ethics takes its point of departure in practical normative challenges.
  • Subsets of applied ethics include medical ethics, bioethics, business ethics, legal ethics, and others.

Factors behind the increased importance of the field of applied ethics:-

  • In the early 1970s,Medicine saved the life of ethics as new and acute moral problems in medicine that had no ready-to-hand answers emerged.
  • During the 20th century, the Western world experienced a period of secularisation. Fewer and fewer people attended church, and fewer and fewer people asked for moral advice from the church. So moral autonomy whereby individuals themselves had to formulate answers increased.
  • Complementary explanation of the development of applied ethics relates to new moral problems facing society as a consequence of new technologies. For example, in neonatal intensive care, the lives of extremely premature infants could be saved. The rise of applied ethics can be explained by a need to fill policy vacuums.
  • Development of applied ethics can be seen as a philosophical response to a new social environment.
    • Developments in the social sciences and the humanities often mirror social change.
    • At the end of the 1960s and the beginning of 1970s, the student movement and the New Left challenged established society. Heated discussions took place on topics such as the Vietnam War, social injustices, poverty in the Third World, gender inequality and the maltreatment of animals.
    • Many philosophers were engaged in these discussions.

 


Topic–   Role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

8) What is the role played by various institutions and individuals in imparting moral values to the children. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the role played by various important institutions and individuals associated with the life of a child in imparting moral values to him/ her.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  importance of moral values in our life.

Body-

Discuss in paragraphs, the role played by various institutions (school, religion) and individuals ( family, teachers) etc in imparting moral values to the children. E.g

  • Schools are strategically placed to make children and youth with learning experiences which relate, as far as possible, to the challenges of their everyday lives and by so doing play their appropriate role as exemplars of values and moral action.  The role of school is also to provide an environment, which challenges the moral reasoning of children, and force them to see contradictions in their reasoning;The school has been identified as a vehicle of direct instruction. it is a social institution in which is embedded a rich of norms, customs and ways of thinking of which the teacher is a conveyer.
  • School teachers help children to understand character traits and values, they also model desirable character traits in the students both within the school setting and in the larger society.
  • Parents are vital in the moral development of the child because they are the first moral teachers and role models that young people have.This they do by providing the necessary affective relationship and extensive interactions that facilitates moral development. Parents‘ responses to children‘s transgressions and moral dispute and their explanations of the reasons for rules and expectations may facilitate children‘s moral development.
  • Religion is a major force in the lives of most people. Religion is above all, a meaning system, it naturally speaks to its adherents about right and wrong, good and bad. While the theological doctrines of religions differ substantially, there is a great deal of overlap in moral theologies, particularly in their everyday applications.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Background:-

  • Value education is always essential to shape one’s life and to give one an opportunity of performing on the global stage. The need for value education among the parents, children, teachers etc, is constantly increasing as we continue to witness increasing violent activities, behavioural disorders and lack of unity in the society etc.

Institutions and individuals imparting moral values in children:-

  1. Family:-

Family is the foundation on which values are built. Moral values like truthfulness, happiness, peace, justice are instilled in children’s thoughts, feelings and actions and they function as ideals and standards that govern their actions in their life.

  • The value system practised in the family becomes automatic to the young family members if they are taught moral values systematically. The family, shapes the child’s attitude towards people and society, and helps in mental growth in the child and supports his ambitions and values. Blissful and cheerful atmosphere in the family will develop the love, affection, tolerance, and generosity.
  • A child learns his behaviour by modelling what he/she sees around him/her Family plays a major role in helping a child socialize and has great influence and bearing on the emotional and physical progress of the child.
  • Joint family system, the presence of elders in the family plays the effective role in social and moral development of the children. It also helps young generation of the family to imbibe human values and eradicate their negative mental tendencies when they are among elders.
  • The behavioural problems are set correct only by the involvement of family in the child’s life as they spend most of their time in adolescence with the parents. Family is the first social organisation that provides the immediate proximity from which the child can learn his behaviour.
  • Customs And Traditions followed and taught by the family leads a disciplined and organized life. Families values helps the child to stand strong on his views despite others efforts to break through with opposing beliefs. In addition,

Thus, family is important in developing the moral values of child. There is a close contact between the parents and children, which determine the personality of child. 

  1. Role of society:-
  • Society inculcates values through its various institutions and tools.
  • Next to family, it is the society that teaches children about social values. It is the society through which young children start getting social acceptance from friends.
  • The society also provides a place for social disapproval for anti-social conduct. But it is less structured than the schools.
  • The role of society is very important for the social development of child.
  • Individuals who get more opportunities to take up social roles and responsibilities are better equipped to take moral decisions in their life
  1. Role of educational institutions:-
  • Education in its aims, curriculum and methods is linked with values. It is through education that society seeks to preserve and promote its cherished values.
  • Whatever is learnt and imbibed will determine to how students will live out their lives in future.
  • Educational institutions provide a structured environment where children learn values of cooperation, hard work etc.
  1. Role of teachers:-
  • In order to impart value education, we need teachers at all levels of education system who can effective in molding the minds of the students for understanding and practice of values.
  • In order to intensify the establishment of an integrated education system, on the basis of peace, human rights and democracy, training of teachers in value education becomes essential. • The personality of the teacher must be the embodiment of values. The teacher must possess qualities of head and heart.
  • There is great need to infuse civic consciousness, patriotism and discipline among the students. In higher education the teacher is the central figure in whom the university sees its past glory and around him it builds its future dignity.
  1. Role of religion:-
    • Religion is a major force in the lives of most people. Religion is above all, a meaning system, it naturally speaks to its adherents about right and wrong, good and bad.
    • While the theological doctrines of religions differ substantially, there is a great deal of overlap in moral theologies, particularly in their everyday applications.