[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 20 NOVEMBER 2018

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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 20 NOVEMBER 2018

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Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators.

 


General Studies – 1


Topic –  Indian art and culture

1) The Pallava era witnesses a transition from rock cut to free-standing temples. Comment. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article discusses the news that Mamallapuram stone sculpture got the GI tag. Tamil Nadu in its application stated that sculptures from Mamallapuram are known to be carved in stone with characteristics of intricate designing chiselled finely, keeping with the spirit of the surrounding Pallava art and architecture, which brings the focus on Pallava art and architecture, and hence this question.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the transformation in Pallava architecture from rock cut to stone built temples. We need to highlight how the two were different from each other along with examples.

Directive word

Comment – When you are asked to comment, you have to pick main points and give your ‘opinion’ on them based on evidences or arguments stemming from your wide reading. Your opinion may be for or against, but you must back your argument with evidences.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that the Pallavas introduced the art of excavating temples from the rock. In fact, the Dravidian style of temple architecture began with the Pallava rule.

Body

  • Discuss about the four stages of temple development and explain how they evolved from rock cut structure to stone built temples.
  • Explain the main points of differences between the two architectural styles under pallava dynasty such as the evolution of the pillars that were used etc

Conclusion – Comment on how the temple architecture evolved during the Pallava rule and how the design and construction became more elaborate.


General Studies – 3


Topic – Indian Economy and issues relating to mobilization of resources

2) Private sector investment in infrastructure is facing several headwinds. Analyze and also suggest solutions to pick up private sector investment?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The article discusses the contribution made by private sector, both in terms of capital and enterprise, in boosting India’s infrastructure sector. Thereafter, it delves into the problems plaguing private investment and potential solutions. At a time when economy is struggling to pick up the pace of private sector investment, the role of private sector capital in developing infrastructure needs attention.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first discuss the role played by private sector in developing India’s infrastructure, and highlight the headwind in the form of challenges they are facing. Basically we need to explain why very few bids have come from private sector in PPP projects and discuss potential solutions and way forward.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – bring out the status quo that private sector contributed an estimated ₹20 trillion, or a third of India’s ₹60 trillion infrastructure investment, between fiscals 2008 and 2017. However, it has declined sharply in recent years in terms of share of investment, from 37-38% to below 25% in fiscal 2018.

Body

  • Bring out the role played by private sector in developing airports, roads etc. Explain how this was done through PPP model
  • Thereafter bring the headwinds in front of private sector – cost and time overruns leading to NPA problem, issues with risk sharing in the previous model of PPP etc
  • Discuss potential solutions such as the introduction of hybrid annuity model etc. Bring out potential risks as well.

Conclusion – Give your view on the role and need of private sector in infrastructure sector and discuss the way forward.


Topic– Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation.

3) The looming threat of water crisis is intensified due to its inefficient usage in energy sector. Analyze.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

Niti Ayog has painted a bleak picture of water scenario in India. Planning and preparation must be in place to tackle this situation. The article discusses the issue of inefficient usage of water in energy sector and suggests steps on how it can be addressed. Hence this question

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first discuss the precarious situation with respect to water that India faces, as highlighted by Niti Ayog. Next, we need to bring out the inefficiencies of water usage in energy sector and why this needs a quick fix. Finally, we need to provide suggestions and way forward.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Bring out the result of CWMI by Niti Ayog to highlight the precarious situation with respect to water in India and why it needs to be addressed.

Body

  • Explain that the issue gains importance because about 1498 billion cubic metres (BCM) versus 744 BCM — is the gap predicted between the demand and supply of fresh water, by 2030. In the projections that the Central Water Commission (CWC) released in 2015, the sector-wise requirement of water (that is, for drinking and domestic use, industry and energy) will rise ste
  • Highlight that water use in energy sector is only expected to increase. The share of water consumed by this sector was 0.62% in 2010, which is pegged to rise up to 1.37% in 2030 and 8.98% in 2050.
  • Discuss about the issue of inefficient water use in energy sector particularly thermal energy which is the highest water guzzler and occupies greatest share in India’s energy pie. Also explain challenges relating to data collection etc
  • Discuss the potential solutions

Conclusion – Emphasize on the need for water management and discuss way forward.


Topic – Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

4) Our policy needs to shift focus from universal electricity connections to upgradation of quality of supply and services. Comment. (250 words)

epw

Why this question

India has recently achieved universal electrification after electrifying the last unelectrified village of India. However, it needs to be discussed as to why electrification alone will not solve India’s problems.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue in terms of forming an opinion for or against the statement. We have to justify the need to upgrade supply and electricity services along with the need to pursue universal electricity connections.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  recent achievement of India becoming universally electrified. E.g The government launched the Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana (Saubhagya) for universal household electrification in September 2017 and subsequently announced the electrification of all Indian villages in April 2018.

Body-

Discuss the other issues which are faced by India and cannot be resolved by electrification alone. Bring out the need to improve supply and services associated with electricity. E.g despite steady progress in connections, much of the works envisaged for network investment and strengthening are yet to be completed; Lack of timely network investments jeopardises the provision of reliable, affordable power supply. Evaluation of rural electrification programmes also highlighted that the distribution transformers catering to villages had the capacity to support the load of only 10% of the households and thus the instances of overloading and transformer breakdowns were significant; Many of these supply and service quality issues, crucial to the sustainability of electrification efforts, have also been identified- Billing centres, repair houses away from villages, delays in billing leading to arrears and disconnection, voltage fluctuations, inadequate electrification of public spaces, unmetered connections, supply outages and low hours of supply etc; If supply is not affordable or the quality of supply and service is poor, it is likely that consumers will get disconnected. Poor quality of supply and service can also worsen the trust deficit between newly electrified consumers and the distribution companies (DISCOMs). This, in turn, would make programme implementation, increasing tariffs and even future metering and billing reforms challenging. Thus, if adequate attention is not given, such issues could impede the progress towards meaningful access to electricity, increase the possibility of the networks being disused or consumers resorting to power theft etc

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic – Internal security.

5) With the Arihant’s nuclear deterrence patrol, India has added immeasurably to the credibility of its nuclear deterrence. Examine.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

India’s first indigenously designed and built nuclear-powered submarine, the INS Arihant, which is equipped with nuclear-tipped ballistic missiles had just completed a nearly month-long nuclear deterrence patrol. This is a landmark development on many counts, and through this question we attempt to understand why.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain how developing INS Arihant indigenously as well as INS Arihant per se has helped us strengthen our nuclear deterrence and the impact that it will have.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the fact that India’s first indigenously designed and built nuclear-powered submarine, the INS Arihant, which is equipped with nuclear-tipped ballistic missiles had just completed a nearly month-long nuclear deterrence patrol.

Body

  • Discuss the advantages that it has for India
    • India, apart from its capability to deliver nuclear weapons both from land and from air, can now also do so from under water. It provides the ultimate credibility to nuclear deterrence as both land and air-launched nuclear weapons are much more susceptible to destruction than those launched from undersea platforms
    • sends out an unambiguous message that efforts at nuclear blackmail will not work
    • signifies India’s attainment of complete mastery over all the highly complex systems and procedures entailed in operating the sea leg of the triad etc
  • Discuss the impact that it will have on India’s nuclear doctrine, its role as a net security provider in Indian Ocean, and its ambitions in Asia Pacific.

Conclusion – Discuss the significance of indigenously developing arihant’s nuclear deterrence.


General Studies – 4


Topic-Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators.

6) The state, according to Kautilya, was confined not merely to the maintenance of law and order or the protection of the people but extended to enable the individual attain the highest development. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to bring out in detail the concept of the state as developed and expounded by Kautilya. The question wants us to write in detail about the functions of the state in terms of maintenance of law and order and also attainment of highest development of the subjects.

Structure of the answer

Introduction-

write a few introductory lines about the  ancient Indian state. E.g in ancient India the state was considered as  a political instrument represented by the King etc.

Body-

Discuss the concept of the state according to the Kautilya. E.g Kautilya’s views, as stated in Arthasastra, are, indeed, vivid.Though he has not defined what the state exactly is, but he does refer to the seven elements of the state-

Swami (the king with qualities such as bravery, quickness of decision, strength of mind, easily approachable sharp intellect); Amatya (the ministers-in-charge of the entire administration); Janapada (population and land: land devoid or rocky, saline, uneven and thorny tracts and wild animals, and abound in fertile lands, timber and elephant forests); Durga (fortress, the military establishment to protect the people from natural calamities, also a kind of arsenal, a storage of military artilleries and communication);  Kosa (treasury, filled with gold, silver. precious jewels, and gems, should be able to withstand any calamity); Dando (consisting of hereditary and hired soldiers; Mitra (friendly states).

According to Kautilya states were confined not merely to the maintenance of law and order or the protection of the people. but extended to enable the individual attain the highest development. It appeared, more or less, as a welfare state of our times. There was no other greater object than the happiness of the people. He demands of the king to protect customs, religion and morality, embracing, thus the whole range of human life-social, economic cultural religious, political. The protection of Dharma remains, however. the most important function of the Kautilyan state. The order of the state,is not merely for the sake of order; it also is as Kautilya puts it, for protection, conversation, development and distribution : the state must create what is there, and distribute what has been increased etc.

Conclusion-based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic- Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships.

7) What do you understand by applied ethics. Discuss the factors behind the increased importance of the field of applied ethics.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the meaning and scope of applied ethics. It also wants us to write in detail about the factors that led to the growth of interest in field of applied ethics.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a simple definition of applied ethics. E.g ‘applied ethics’ refers to any use of philosophical methods to treat moral problems, practices, and policies in the professions, technology, government, and the like.

Body-

Discuss the meaning and scope of applied ethics in further detail. E.g The terms “applied ethics” and “practical ethics” are used interchangeably to indicate the application of ethics to special arenas of human activity, such as business, politics and medicine, and to particular problems, such as abortions.  As human beings, we act in different capacities and roles. Moral judgements are made and moral acts performed in different social contexts, such as health care, politics, work and school. In health care, the moral issues are related in particular to life and death and human well-being: In politics, judgements often concern value conflicts. The decision maker, for example, a politician or a civil servant, must choose an alternative that might promote one value at the expense of another: economic growth at the expense of sustainability, individual freedom at the expense of equality, etc. When we reflect on this type of decision making, we engage in applied ethics. Hence, applied ethics is concerned with crucial aspects of human life and social development.

Discuss the reasons which led to increased interest in the field of applied ethics. E.g

  1. In the early 1970s,Medicine saved the life of ethics; new and acute moral problems in medicine that had no ready-to-hand answers emerged.
  2. During the 20th century, “moral heteronomy”, whereby moral answers were provided by an authority, often the church, became “moral autonomy”, whereby individuals themselves had to formulate answers.
  3. Complementary explanation of the development of applied ethics relates to new moral problems facing society as a consequence of new technologies.
  4. Developments in the social sciences and the humanities often mirror social change. At the end of the 1960s and the beginning of 1970s, the student movement and the New Left challenged established society. Heated discussions took place on topics such as the Vietnam War, social injustices, poverty in the Third World, gender inequality and the maltreatment of animals. Many philosophers were engaged in these discussions. From this perspective, the development of applied ethics can be seen as a philosophical response to a new social environment.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic–   Role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

8) What is the role played by various institutions and individuals in imparting moral values to the children. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the role played by various important institutions and individuals associated with the life of a child in imparting moral values to him/ her.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  importance of moral values in our life.

Body-

Discuss in paragraphs, the role played by various institutions (school, religion) and individuals ( family, teachers) etc in imparting moral values to the children. E.g

  • Schools are strategically placed to make children and youth with learning experiences which relate, as far as possible, to the challenges of their everyday lives and by so doing play their appropriate role as exemplars of values and moral action.  The role of school is also to provide an environment, which challenges the moral reasoning of children, and force them to see contradictions in their reasoning;The school has been identified as a vehicle of direct instruction. it is a social institution in which is embedded a rich of norms, customs and ways of thinking of which the teacher is a conveyer.
  • School teachers help children to understand character traits and values, they also model desirable character traits in the students both within the school setting and in the larger society.
  • Parents are vital in the moral development of the child because they are the first moral teachers and role models that young people have.This they do by providing the necessary affective relationship and extensive interactions that facilitates moral development. Parents‘ responses to children‘s transgressions and moral dispute and their explanations of the reasons for rules and expectations may facilitate children‘s moral development.
  • Religion is a major force in the lives of most people. Religion is above all, a meaning system, it naturally speaks to its adherents about right and wrong, good and bad. While the theological doctrines of religions differ substantially, there is a great deal of overlap in moral theologies, particularly in their everyday applications.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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