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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 06 NOVEMBER 2018

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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 06 NOVEMBER 2018

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Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of
various Constitutional Bodies.

 


General Studies – 2


Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary

1) Even after declared unconstitutional,  several laws still prevail in the Indian legal and police circle. Critically examine. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article discusses the reasons behind the  prevalence of several laws in Indian police circle and even the judiciary, although the laws have been declared unconstitutional by the SC.

Directive word

Critically examine- here we have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any. based on our discussion we have to form a concluding opinion on the issue.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the issue and bring out the reasons as to why several laws prevail in Indian police and judicial circles, even though they have been declared unconstitutional by the highest court of the land.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  powers of the SC to declare a law ultra vires and unconstitutional.

Body

Discuss the reasons behind the prevalence of such laws. E.g primary reason for poor enforcement of judicial declarations of unconstitutionality is signal failures between different branches of government; monitoring function is one that the court can perform while a litigation is pending, it cannot do so after finally deciding a case, even after directions for compliance are issued. Instead, it needs help from the legislature and executive to ensure its final decisions are enforced; there exists no official method for sharing information about such decisions, even those of constitutional import etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic- Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.

2) Discuss the key issues and constraints faced by CIC in implementing the RTI act effectively.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

The CIC has been in news recently for issuing a show cause notice to RBI governor. The article discusses well the problems on part of CIC in implementing the RTI act.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the issues and constraints faced by CIC in terms of implementing the RTI act effectively.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  role of CIC vis a vis the RTI act.

Body-

Discuss the issues and constraints faced by CIC in implementing the RTI act. E.g There is no centralised database of RTI applicants at the centre/ state level, thus resulting in decreased accuracy of the annual RTI reports submitted by CIC; There is a general public perception that CIC has been lenient towards the unaccountable PIOs; lack of monitoring and review mechanisms in CIC to make public officers comply with the provisions of the RTI act; High pendency of cases and delayed appointments in CIC etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of
various Constitutional Bodies”

3) Election commission of India had played a stellar role in ensuring free and fair elections in India.

Analyse the evolution of the Election Commission of India and its effectiveness in ensuring inclusiveness, rule of law, efficiency, and accountability of the election process.(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the evolution of ECI where we have to explain how the nature of challenges for ECI has varied over the ages and how ECI has responded to these challenges. In doing so, we have to examine the mechanisms through ECI has ensured rule of law in election process along with criticism of its role.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Give a brief introduction about ECI – its constitutional statis, role etc.

Body

  • First discuss how the role of ECI has evolved over the ages
    • Phase 1 (1950-1967) when ECI had to deal with challenges such as illiteracy, creating awareness etc
    • Phase 2( 1967-1975) when ECI had to deal with challenges such as aggressive single party system, electoral offences such as booth capturing etc
    • Phase 3 (1977-1990) where the challenges were money power in elections
    • Phase 4 (1990-2002) – photo id cards, model code of conduct, EVMs
    • Phase 5 (2002 – current) VVPATs, criminalization of politics etc
  • Analyze how ECI through its functioning and structure has maintained its independence and ensured free and fair elections, ensured implementation of MCC to ensure rule of law elections etc
  • Discuss criticism of ECI’s role – reforms not implemented, questions over its independence in recent times etc

Conclusion – Suggest reforms for ECI and give your view on ECI’s effectiveness and fairness.


Topic– Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests,

4) Oil prices are not only subject to the economics of demand and supply but also to the subjective wishes of the leaders of oil producing countries. Critically analyze in the light of India’s energy security.(250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

In spate of the recent international events, which have the ability to lead to a increase in oil prices, it is important to discuss the factors which affect oil prices and its relevance for India.

Directive word

Critically analyze-  here we have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary. based on our discussion we have to form a concluding opinion on the issue.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the issue and bring out the effect of subjective wishes of oil producing countries along with the effect of demand and supply on oil prices. It wants us to discuss the issue in the context of India’s energy security needs and how India should respond in such situations.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  India’s energy needs and its dependence on oil imports.

Body-

  1. Discuss the effect of demand and supply on oil prices. E.g discuss how a decline in supply from the oil producing countries leads to spike in oil prices or how a decreased global demand for oil results in reduction of oil prices.
  2. Discuss how subjective wishes of leaders of oil producing nations affects oil prices. E.g discuss the diplomatic tensions between countries like US and Iran, which are constructed out of subjective assessments of the leaders leads to spike or reduction in oil prices. Similarly give the example of US Iraq war and the recent Saudi Arabia and Egypt tussle etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue. E.g mention that India needs to invest in renewable sources, diversify oil sources and enter into long term supply contracts with oil producing countries etc.


General Studies – 3


Topic– Indian economy – Issues

5) Discuss the factors influencing global oil prices in brief with emphasis on role leaders play in shaping oil prices? How should India respond to these price vagaries in oil?(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

The article discusses the various factors at play in determining oil prices with a special emphasis on personality factor in determining prices. In light of the uncertainty regarding oil prices which affects India in myriad ways, we need to prepare this question.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the various factors which have a role in determining oil prices with an emphasis on the role played by personality factor in determining oil prices. Thereafter, we need to discuss a series of steps in short term and long term through which India can secure itself against such variance in oil prices.

Directive word

Discuss – Your discussion should bring out the different factors which have a role to play in determining oil prices with an emphasis on the role played by personality factor.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – explain the current situation where rising oil prices have given a macroeconomic shock to India. Highlight that this is a regular occurrence.

Body

  • Discuss the factors affecting oil prices – drivers of demand, supply and inventories have often been scrambled by the intangibles of Wall Street speculators and geopolitics.
  • Discuss in detail the impact of personality of leaders in determining oil prices. Give instances where personality factor played a major role in oil prices determination
  • Explain how should India respond to such a situation in short term and long term. Examine using taxes as a recourse in short term to alleviate the issues faced as a result of oil prices. In the long term explore the rise of renewables, strategic oil reserves etc as ideas which can help India deal with such variations.

Conclusion – Discuss the way forward for India.


Topic – Indian economy : Issues

6) Discuss the various factors that led to meteoric rise in India’s Ease of doing business ranking and critically analyze the impact of such improvement?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

This article discusses the various reform measures which helped India in securing a huge jump in its EODB rankings. The article also examines what India’s improvement in EODB metric actually indicates. Doing business ranking has been in the news recently and requires detailed preparation.

Key demand of the question

The question is divided into two parts. In the first part we need to discuss the various reform measures which enabled India to secure an improvement in rankings. Thereafter we need to critically examine whether the improvement in rankings actually translate to a change in ground level situation or is it merely a surface level change.

Directive word

Discuss – Here your discussion should list out the various reforms which have brought about an improvement in India’s Doing Business ranking.

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the improvement in India’s ranking in Doing Business report.

Body

  • Discuss about the reforms in various areas which have helped India improve its score on metrics such as getting construction permit, trading across boundaries etc. Also discuss the reforms in areas where India registered an improvement in doing business metric.
  • Discuss the advantages that this improvement would have on improving business metrics such as the perceived improvement in business sentiment, attracting FDI, taking the economy on the pathway of reforms etc
  • Discuss the limitations of an approach that gives too much importance to improving India’s ranking such as the criticism that the rankings are not reflective of actual ground situation and represents a miniscule sample space etc

Conclusion – Give your view on India’s improvement on the EODB rankings and what it means for the Indian economy and the next steps that should be on India’s reforms agenda.


Topic – indigenization of technology and developing new technology

7) What were the objectives of the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO)? Comment on the recent NGT decision to grant clearance for this project?(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

The article discusses the recent NGT decision to grant approval to Indian National Observatory Project. INO is a project that would have immense advantages for science research but unfortunately the project has been in a state of limbo owing to public grievances, questions over its environmental impact etc. Now that clearance has been given to the project it is important to revise INO.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the objectives of INO in the first part. Thereafter, it expects us to comment on NGT’s decision to grant approval to this project, which means we have to first explain the controversy surrounding this project and discuss the impact of NGT’s decision to grant clearance to this project.

Directive word

Comment – When you are asked to comment, you have to pick main points and give your ‘opinion’ on them based on evidences or arguments stemming from your wide reading. Your opinion may be for or against, but you must back your argument with evidences.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about INO project

Body

  • Discuss the objectives of INO such as Use in the study of neutrino produced by cosmic rays in the earth’s atmosphere and having mass or not for measurement and experiment purposes, in the development of detector technology etc
  • Bring out the controversies surrounding INO – like environmental issues and safety issues
  • Comment on the impact of the NGT verdict as to how completion of the project would enable India to be at the forefront of research

Conclusion – Give your view on the decision and mention the way forward for the project.


General Studies – 4


Topic– Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

8) “Satisfaction lies in the effort, not in the attainment. Full effort is full victory.” ― Mohandas Gandhi. Comment in the context of the public services in India.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our opinion on the importance of efforts and not the results, in order to attain satisfaction out of work. We have to form our opinion while relating it to the public services in India.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  types of efforts- objective effort and subjective effort.

Body-

  1. Bring out the difference between the two kinds of efforts.
  2. Discuss in detail as to why efforts are important as far as ethics are concerned.
  3. Discuss how genuine efforts are required in Indian public services. Discuss how sometimes it could not be possible to get results out of an act of public service but still giving efforts towards the objectives and goals of the organisation can be a good strategy.

Take the help of the article attached to the question to frame your answer.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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