Topic– Political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.
2) Why did Stalin enforce the collectivization of agriculture in USSR. Also discuss the impact it had on USSR.(250 words)
Mastering World History by Norman Lowe; Communism- Rise and Decline.
Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.
Key demand of the question.
The question wants us to bring out the reasons as to why Stalin launched collectivization of agriculture in USSR. It also wants us to discuss the impact of this decision on the USSR society and economy of that time.
Structure of the answer
Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the rise of Stalin to power in USSR and mention his decision to collectivize agriculture.
- Discuss the reasons behind this decision. E.g The existing system of small farms was inefficient, and seemed unable to satisfy the increasing demand for food, especially in the growing industrial cities. However, large farms, under state direction, and using tractors and combine harvesters, would vastly increase grain production, or so the theory went; Stalin wanted to eliminate the class of prosperous peasants (kulaks), which NEP had encouraged, because, he claimed, they were standing in the way of progress etc.
- Discuss the impact it had on USSR. e.g It proved to be a disaster, and it took Russia at least half a century to recover. There was no problem in collectivizing landless labourers, but all peasants who owned any property at all, whether they were kulaks or not, were hostile to the plan, and had to be forced to join by armies of party members, who urged poorer peasants to seize cattle and machinery from the kulaks to be handed over to the collectives. Kulaks often reacted by slaughtering cattle and burning crops rather than allow the state to take them. Peasants who refused to join collective farms were arrested and taken to labour camps, or shot; it allowed greater mechanization, which did achieve a substantial increase in production in 1937. The amount of grain taken by the state increased impressively and so did grain exports: 1930 and 1931 were excellent years for exports, and although the amounts fell sharply after that, they were still far higher than before collectivization. On the other hand, so many animals had been slaughtered that it was 1953 before livestock production recovered to the 1928 figure, and the cost in human life and suffering was enormous etc.
Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.