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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 29 OCTOBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 29 OCTOBER 2018

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Tomorrow’s Static Topic:Role of Women and Women’s organization(click here)


General Studies – 1


Topic – Part of static series under the heading – “Effect of globalisation on Indian society”

1) Evaluate whether globalisation has helped India in dealing with one of the most significant socio economic challenge which is poverty?(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to examine how far globalisation and the resultant impact on economy and society has helped us in dealing with the problem of poverty, whether globalisation has helped in mitigating the issue or accentuating it.

Directive word

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Discuss the most significant impact of globalisation has been seen in the sphere of Liberalization of economy which has had several impacts including on poverty

Body

  • Mention that India was main mover of globalization. The government of India made major modifications in its economic policy in 1991 by which it allowed direct foreign investments in the country. As a result of this, globalization of the Indian Industry occurred at large scale.
  • Discuss how globalisation resulted in reduction of poverty – Creation of jobs through growth in services sector, due to the liberalization policies, India has become a consumer oriented market where the changes are brought by the demand and supply forces. Due to the high demand and the supply chains, there has been significant growth in the market. As such, more and more job opportunities are being created in different sectors. This has increased the per capita income considerably which has improved the poverty level to a great extent, technological changes taking place due to globalisation, gender equality in access to working opportunities which has positively impacted females etc
  • Discuss issues which have led to worsening of poverty – issues such as MSP under dispute at WTO, the problem of jobless growth, greater incorporation of technology which was ill suited for Indian labour market etc

Conclusion – give your view on whether globalisation has really helped in reducing poverty and how should the impact of globalisation be improved.


Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “Effect of globalisation on Indian society”

2) Discuss the impact of globalisation on Indian family system?(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question is quite straightforward in its demand. The question expects us to highlight how globalisation has affected the Indian family structure and its values.

Directive word

Discuss – Here your discussion should list out the nature and impact of changes as a result of globalisation on Indian families.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – The different aspects of globalisation – economic, political, social and cultural have important implications for human life, including the family life.

Body – discuss the impact of globalisation on structure and values of Indian families

  • Increasing mobility of younger generation in search of new employment and educational opportunities allegedly weakened the family relations.
  • Another striking impact is a gradual change took place in the family structure from joint / extended families to nuclear family pattern.
  • traditional authority structure i.e. head of the family i.e. father / grandfather/karta started losing his authority to the breadwinner of the family.
  • Even within the nuclear family one can witness the changing marital roles and distributions of power. Total subordination of women to men and strict disciplinarian / hitlarian role of father towards children are also changing.
  • Younger generation, particularly those with higher education and jobs, no longer believe in total surrender of their individual interests to family interest. The individualism is increasing even within the family structure. The increasing costs of education, health services and new job opportunities opened up for the women outside the house once again brought the role of family into question

Conclusion – give your view on the changes that have taken place as a result of globalisation on Indian families.


General Studies – 2


Topic – India and its bilateral relations

3) The signing of an internal security agreement by India and China signals that the two countries are quite capable of handling their differences through dialogue and discussion. Analyze.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

A lot of developments keep on taking place in India’s relationship with china which along with USA, forms one of the most important bilateral relationship. The article discusses the new internal security agreement signed between India and China, and what it implies for the status and future of this bilateral relationship. This question will help you update your notes on India China bilateral relationship.

Key demand of the question

The question expects you to discuss the signing of an internal security agreement , the contents of it, the background and the context in which the agreement has been signed, and what it indicates about the nature and future of Sino India relationship.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention about the signing of the recent internal security agreement between India and China and how it marks a change in the state of affairs post Doklam.

Body

  • Discuss the content of the internal security agreement – pact focuses on terrorism, narcotics and human trafficking, intelligence sharing and disaster management, signed by high level ministers on both sides which underlines the changes taking place in the relationship post Wuhan
  • Comment on the overall developments of India China relationship from Doklam to Wuhan and now. Discuss how the two nations have managed to realise the stakes in the game and have resorted to diplomacy to settle any ruffled feathers.
  • Discuss how the two nations have common concerns such as terrorism, climate change, disaster management and are cooperating at several bilateral and multilateral fora and what it speaks about the relationship

Conclusion – comment on the significance of the agreement and way forward for the relationship.


Topic– Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

4) Critically analyze India’s involvement in the Shanghai Cooperation organisation and Indo-pacific quadipateralt group at the same time. (250 words)

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Why this question

India is presently a member of SCO as well as an important member of the India Pacific quad group. Both these groups represent different aspirations and dual membership of India creates several issues. The article beautifully discusses Indian interests with respect to both the groups.

Directive word

Critically analyze-  here we have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary. based on our discussion we have to form a concluding opinion on the issue.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the issue and identify and deliberate upon the pros and cons of India’s involvement in both the groups. Based on our discussion we have to form a personal opinion on the issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about India’s involvement in the two groups. E.g India is presently a member state of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the largest transnational body in the Eurasian region and an important link in the emerging Quadrilateral (Quad) alliance between the US, Japan, Australia, and India.

Body-

  1. Discuss the pros and cons of being a part of quad group. E.g -countering Chinese aggression; Keeping vital sea lanes safe; countering terrorism.  Currently, India is in no position to shape geopolitics because it has neither the capacity to be a sea power, nor the money to be a land power. Its peculiar geography, however, gives it a huge advantage but the larger role at the moment is limited to playing second fiddle to the US, supporting the empire in stemming its decline etc.
  2. Discuss the pros and cons of progress as being a member of SCO. e.g – The 21st-century power dynamics are different with the rise of China, a continental power that is willing to partake in the oceanic order designed by the West, but is insistent on reviving land routes for continental connectivity; India can ill afford to ignore the developments the Eurasian landmass, where Pakistan is fast emerging as the “zipper of pan Eurasian integration”; India cannot imagine itself being left out of these continental connectivity initiatives in its neighbourhood etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue. Try to put forward a balanced viewpoint taking all the facets and complexities in mind.


Topic – Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

5) Do you agree that global hunger is not being given the due attention globally. Comment.(250 words)

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Why this question

The article discusses the global nutrition scenario at present and attempts to bring out the deficiencies on part of the neoliberal and other states in eradicating hunger and malnutrition.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our opinion as to whether global hunger is not being given the due attention by the world. Our opinion is to be based on a proper discussion and presentation of valid arguments and facts.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  state of global hunger today. E.g The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) report on the State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2018 finds global hunger to have risen for three consecutive years since 2015, to reach 82.1 crore people or 11% of the global population in 2017.

Body-

Discuss the shortcomings and deficiencies on part of the world, which has been responsible for the prevalence of under nutrition and hunger in the world. E.g 29 out of the 37 countries identified by the FAO to be in need of external food assistance due to conflicts/displacement/weather shocks, are in Africa. While the (lack of) internal governance drives localised food insecurity, the widespread lack of access galvanises attention towards the modalities of international assistance to mitigate starvation;  Immediate assistance saves lives, but inadvertently generates the risk of policy impasse to ameliorate “chronic” hunger in the long run; entrenched commercial interests in the export of surpluses (from donor countries)/in-kind food aid have denigrated/impeded local/triangular purchases of food aid; Discuss the deficiencies in India’s food programme and mention the recent cases of starvation death from various Indian states etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 3


Topic Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.

6) Despite a huge domestic market for palm oil, India has not been able to increase its domestic production. Critically examine.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

India is one of the largest  consumer as well as importer of palm oil. In this context it is important to examine the reasons behind as to why domestic production of palm oil has not increased.

Directive word

Critically examine- here we have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any. based on our discussion we have to form a concluding opinion on the issue.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the issue and bring out the reasons as to why India has not been able to increase its palm oil production despite a growing and sustained demand in the domestic market.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about India’s palm oil consumption and import. E.g India’s vegetable oil economy is the fourth-largest.Yet the country relies on imports to meet over 70 percent of its vegetable oil requirements; almost 60 percent of the requirement is met through palm oil.

Body-

Discuss why India has not been able to increase the domestic production of palm oil. E.g By 2012, the government had identified 2 million ha across the country for oil palm cultivation and decided to implement the National Mission on Oilseeds and Oil Palm (NMOOP) under the 12th Five Year Plan (2012-17). Though the Mission received an initial enthusiasm, the targets have been routinely missed; Like other perennial tree crops, oil palm requires regular pruning of fronds, weeding and watering, which is manually quite expensive;Oil palm is not economical for small landholders and tenant farmers as there is practically no income in the first few years. Besides, it is susceptible to market and seasonal fluctuations; market trends show prices have risen and fallen by up to 50 per cent over the past 15 years. Agricultural returns are also cyclical in nature. Farmers harvest almost 65 per cent of the annual yield between June and September and earnings remain low during the lean winter months etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic –  Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

7) The decentralisation of Environment Impact Assessment processes has improved the enforcement of environmental regulations and been successful in reducing polluting activities in India. Discuss. (250 words)

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Why this question

Any programme, intervention that helps in better environmental management per se is an important issue as far as the health of the planet and UPSC exams are concerned. Therefore it is important to discuss how decentralisation of Environment Impact Assessment processes has improved the enforcement of environmental regulations and been successful in reducing polluting activities in India.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the decentralised EIA process and how it has helped in enforcement of environmental regulations and reduced pollution.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  decentralized Environmental Impact Assessment process.

Body-

  1. Discuss how decentralization of EIA has happened.
  2. Discuss the advantages of the decentralised EIA and how it has helped in better environmental regulations enforcement and reduced pollution. E.g  It helps to promote more transparent and efficient use of natural resources, as well as to increase local participation based on the homogeneity of common goals and priorities; the decentralisation process has led to an increase in the average regulatory stringency and has been successful in reducing the number of polluting activities. The effects are varied between states, wherein the majority of the high-enforcement states have accrued environmental benefits, while more needs to be done in other states etc.
  3. Discuss the cons/ limitations. E.g the decentralised powers could be futile if state governments intend to actively pursue industrialisation for their respective state, or be ineffective if state authorities lack technical and financial capacity.

 


Topic – Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation

8) Around the world marine habitats are in extreme danger including in India. Examine and comment on the way forward for India when it comes to kickstarting Blue economy?(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

The article highlights the growing issues with marine habitats and how India should alter it’s blue economy strategy to make it in line with socio economic goals. The issue of dead zones was asked in this year’s mains as well. Hence this is a growing concern which needs smart tackling on part of India so that the mistakes of past are not repeated in the new developmental paradigm.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the problems plaguing marine ecosystem around the world and thereafter, highlight how and why is it affecting India. Thereafter, we need to discuss the blue economy goals of Indian government, the nature of it and how it should be modified to take into account the sustainability aspect as well.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that the status of marine habitats is in danger and mention reports which highlight the same.

Body

  • Discuss the status of marine economy
    • Highlight the prominence of dead zones and what it means for marine habitats
    • Discuss the impact of fishing on world’s oceans
  • Highlight the magnitude of problem plaguing India – complicating factor has been its inability to rein in the fisheries subsidies program,
  • Discuss the government’s aim to kick-start Blue economy , seabed mining etc
  • Discuss what shape should such a program take –
    • broader need for inclusive social development, environmental balance and ecological security should not be subservient to the driving imperative of financial expansion and industrial growth
    • improve the lives of coastal communities. For this, the political leadership needs to impose limitations on technology-based economic development, pushing the industry to meet its social obligations for the protection and conservation of coastal and marine ecosystems. The challenge is to get industry interested in a social model of blue growth that does not focus exclusively on pecuniary gains.

Conclusion – Emphasize on the need to address this soon and Summarize based on arguments made above, what needs to be done.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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