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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 12 OCTOBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 12 OCTOBER 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)


General Studies – 1


Topic– Events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.

1) The Non-aligned movement adopted a soft balancing strategy aimed at challenging the superpower excesses in a normative manner. Discuss.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

NAM has been the cornerstone of free India’s foreign policy for several decades and its principles  have helped make the world a better and more peaceful place and also provided the required strategic autonomy to newly independent states, including India. It is therefore important to discuss in detail about the NAM.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the principles of NAM and how the movement adopted a soft balancing strategy aimed at challenging the superpower excesses in a normative manner.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  NAM, its founding members etc.

Body-

Discuss about the NAM and its principles and write in detail as to how the movement adopted a soft balancing strategy aimed at challenging the superpower excesses in a normative manner. E.g The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and its precursor, the Bandung Afro-Asian conference in 1955, were examples of soft balancing by weaker states towards great powers engaged in intense rivalry and conflict; Despite all its blemishes, the NAM and the Afro-Asian grouping acted as a limited soft balancing mechanism by attempting to delegitimize the threatening behaviour of the superpowers, particularly through their activism at the UN and other forums such as the Eighteen Nation Committee on Disarmament, as well as through resolutions; “Naming” and “shaming” were their operational tools. They worked as norm entrepreneurs in the areas of nuclear arms control and disarmament. They definitely deserve partial credit for ending colonialism as it was practised, especially in the 1950s and 1960s in Africa, parts of Asia and the Caribbean through their activism at the UN General Assembly which declared decolonisation as a key objective in 1960;
The non-aligned declarations on nuclear testing and nuclear non-proliferation especially helped to concretise the 1963 Partial Test Ban Treaty. They also helped create several nuclear weapon free zones as well as formulate the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 2


Topic–  Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies

2) The Protection of Human Rights (Amendment Bill), 2018 falls short of bringing out substantial changes to the NHRC. Critically analyze. (250 words)

Indian express

Reference

Why this question

NHRC of India has been facing severe criticism from many corners including the SC which has termed the organisation as a toothless tiger. In this connection it is vital to discuss the PHR bill, 2018 and analyze its reform potential as well as its shortcomings.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question

The question wants us to probe deeper into the PHR bill and bring out its positive points as well as shortcomings and them form a substantial opinion on the overall issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  NHRC, its constitutional status and mandate.

Body-

  1. Discuss the positive reforms anticipated in the PHR bill, 2018. E.g  The Bill reduces the term of office to three years or till the age of seventy years, whichever is earlier.  The Bill also allows for the reappointment of chairpersons of the NHRC and SHRC; The Act provides for two persons having knowledge of human rights to be appointed as members of the NHRC.  The Bill amends this to allow three members to be appointed, of which at least one will be a woman; The Bill provides for including the chairpersons of the National Commission for Backward Classes, the National Commission for the Protection of Child Rights, and the Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities as members of the NHRC among others.
  2. Discuss its shortcomings. E.g The selection committee tasked with appointing the chairperson and the members to the Commission is dominated by the ruling party. It consists of the prime minister, home minister, Leaders of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha, the Lok Sabha Speaker and the Deputy-Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. There is thus a need to diversify the selection committee; the bill does not seek to address NHRC’s selection process which is very obscure. Very often, the government does not publicise vacancies in the Commission. The criteria to assess candidates is also not specified. As a result, appointments to the NHRC have been fraught with disputes; long pendency of the Commission’s requests for additional funds; Police officials investigating for the NHRC are sent on deputation by their forces. Their allegiance lies with their home cadre to which they return after their tenure at the Commission is over. This conflict of interest restricts the scope of their work, as they often are charged with investigating abuse of power by law enforcement personnel. Adding officials of the Intelligence Bureau to the mix only muddies the water. The bill fails to address such issues among others.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic – India and its neighborhood- relations.

3) As SAARC loses all steam, Delhi needs to reimagine its economic and political geography. Comment.(250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

Some of the recent events highlight the growing inability of the SAARC to achieve its stated and desired objectives. It is important to examine those events and issues, and discuss the need for a realignment in the strategy on part of India.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding of the SAARC and its relevance today. Based on our discussion we have to form an opinion on the need for realignment in India’s strategy towards SAARC and the related member states.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  SAARC, its members, when it was formed etc.

Body-

  1. Discuss the shortcomings of the SAARC which have hampered its functioning at the required levels. E.g discuss the role of Pakistan and consequent India-Pak rivalry; India being unable to sponsor large development projects;  India’s refusal to engage Pakistan unless Islamabad addresses its concerns on cross-border terrorism etc.
  2. Discuss some of the recent issues which highlight the growing redundancy of SAARC in terms of achieving its stated objectives as well as India’s national interests. E.g Cancelling of the meet last year in Pakistan; A meeting between the foreign ministers of India and Pakistan planned recently could not take place; Sri Lanka has begun to describe itself as an Indian Ocean country. Colombo is by no means betraying South Asian regionalism. It is merely rediscovering its geographic centrality in the Indian Ocean and celebrating it. Maldives, too, has so much to gain by leveraging its Indian Ocean location rather than pin its hopes on the dystopian SAARC etc
  3. Discuss how India’s strategic and economic interests can be better realised.e.g discuss the role and importance of BBIN and BIMSTEC and discuss the need to strengthen those institutions etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 3


Topic:  Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life

4) What do you understand by geoengineering? Critically examine its relevance in current times?(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

The latest report by IPCC has brought into focus once again, the need to act fact on climate change, because the window to act is fast closing. Subsequently, there is a focus on climate engineering technology to counter the adverse impacts of anthropogenic climate change. The purpose of this question is to critically examine  the potential , application of such technology.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain what geoengineering is and give examples of such technology. Thereafter, we need to bring out the pros and cons of such technology in dealing with climate change. Finally, we need to provide our view as to whether investing in developing such technology makes sense.

Directive word

Critically examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any . When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released a new report which makes several calls for further investigating climate engineering technology known as geoengineering. The IPCC report, titled “Global Warming of 1.5 °C, an IPCC special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways”, warns that without investment into geoengineering technology the Earth’s temperature will continue to increase.

Body

  • Explain what geoengineering is – Geoengineering is the deliberate and large-scale manipulation of the weather and climate using a variety of technologies.
  • Give some examples of such technology to bring out how such technology works. Eg One popular form of geoengineering being explored by IPCC scientists is known as Solar Radiation Management (SRM), a process which involves planes spraying aerosols in the skies designed to reflect sunlight in an effort to combat “anthropogenic global warming.”
  • Discuss the pros and cons of using such technology. While the pros are more obvious, in cons one can discuss the disproportionately high investment for uncertain results etc

Conclusion – Give your opinion as to whether investing in developing such technology would make sense and discuss the way forward.

 


Topic-  Part of static series under the heading – “Green revolution”

5) Why did the Green Revolution in India virtually by-pass the eastern region despite fertile soil and good availability of water?(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the salient features of green revolution, due to which green revolution bypassed the eastern parts of the country despite conditions conducive for agriculture.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Give a brief introduction to Green Revolution.

Body – discuss the reasons such as

  • Green Revolution in India focused on areas in India that were already better placed from the agricultural point of view.
  • major goals of the Green Revolution was for India to achieve self-sufficiency, which is why the focus was on crops such as wheat which India was in dire need of in order to feed its rapidly increasing population.
  • Irrigation formed a major component of the Green Revolution, which is why Punjab, the land of the rivers, is the most successful instance of the Green revolution etc

Conclusion – Discuss the problem of unequal development that such a strategy has led to and discuss how we can address this situation.


General Studies – 4


Topic– Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service , integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections.

6) “The most important persuasion tool you have in your entire arsenal is integrity.” – Zig Ziglar. Comment on the above statement in light of the public services in India.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to form our opinion on the issue based on a proper discussion showcasing our knowledge and understanding of the issue in hand.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Give a simple and a complete definition of Integrity. You can also present a related quote here.

Body-

Discuss about the concept of integrity in detail and bring out how integrity helps build and sustain trust among people in an organisation. Illustrate your point by giving some real life examples which highlight the importance of integrity, particularly in public service today. E.g people tend to judge people based on their own values, not theirs. When they think someone lacks integrity, what they usually mean is that the observed behaviour doesn’t match with their own values; People seem to regard trust as either yes or no rather than the kaleidoscopic range of colour that it actually is and integrity is one of the most important indicators of trust in public service; Since values drive your behavioural decisions, integrity could be said to be how well you live according to your values and it helps build trust among coworkers etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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