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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 10 OCTOBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 10 OCTOBER 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)

 


General Studies – 2


Topic – Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

1) The concept of dignity has being invoked by Supreme Court in several cases of law, but not in a uniform manner. Analyze.(250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

The SC has given several rulings like the one on section 377, Aadhar and om right to privacy etc. It has invoked the concept of dignity in these cases and therefore it is important to analyze whether the concept has been uniformly invoked or not.

Directive word

Analyze-here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the issue and discuss how the concept of dignity has been defined and elaborated by the SC in its rulings.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  importance of dignity of a person and what role it plays in his/ her life. E.g The SC’s application of dignity perhaps reflects the commitment in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The value of dignity, however, is contestable. The concept has been characterised as “culture-relative”, a “smokescreen” for the subjective preferences of judges etc.

Body-

Discuss about the various SC judgements where the concept of dignity has been invoked and bring out the differences in approach and understanding of the concept in such judgements. E.g Restricting liberty for the sake of other values is undoubtedly justified. However, grounds for restricting it on a low bar undermines liberal-democratic values. Indeed, casual recourse to dignity frequently ends conversation on the demands to balance and flesh out competing constitutional values; the SC employed dignity as a value when upholding rights of transgender persons, as a norm while rejecting challenges to criminal defamation and as the core uniting all fundamental rights in the privacy decision; Indeterminacy clouds the status of dignity. In Francis Coraile Mullin, the Court held dignity to be a part of the right to life, which implied that the limitations on the right applied to dignity. However, in other decisions, including Puttaswamy (privacy), dignity was held to be absolute. Even in the privacy decision, the court makes mysterious claims: First it held that dignity is the core of all our rights, and later that privacy is the core of dignity. The court also states that dignity cannot exist without privacy. Though one can infer the intention of these statements, clarity demands a nuanced elucidation of the relationship between constitutional values. It is conceivable that issues such as manual scavenging or caste-based humiliation concern dignity, but not privacy. Indeed, protecting dignity requires sacrificing traditional privacy protections, as in women and child rights cases etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic–  Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

2) Analyze the debate on Uniform CIvil Code in India. What do you think should be done in this regard. Discuss. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

There have been various calls for a uniform civil code in the country, right since the independence. The debate involves several issues and it is important to analyze the nature of the debate, various issues involved therein etc.

Directive word

Analyze-here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  UCC in India. E.g the Constituent Assembly debates reveal a lack of consensus on what a potential uniform civil code would entail. While many thought the UCC would coexist alongside the personal law systems, others thought that it was to replace the personal law.

Body-

Discuss the issue in detail and bring out the various issues involved therein. E.g

  1. Briefly discuss the Article 25 vs Article 44.
  2. Discuss the need for a UCC and how imposing a UCC will affect democracy and personal freedom. E.g  The debate on the UCC is centred on the argument to replace individual personal customs and practices of marriage, divorce, adoption and successions with a common code. Those in favour of one code argue that it will end discrimination in religions. Detractors contend that it will rob the nation of its religious diversity and violate the fundamental right to practise religion enshrined in Article 25 of the Constitution. In fact, they hold that a state action to introduce the UCC is against the quintessence of democracy. The secular state is, after all, an enabler of rights rather than an inhibitor in sensitive matters of religion and personal laws etc.
  3. Also discuss the opinion of the law commission in this regard. E.g the Law Commission chose codification of personal laws over the UCC as a way to end discrimination within religions. Codification of various practices and customs would make them ‘law’ under Article 13 of the Constitution. Any ‘law’ that comes under Article 13 should be consistent with the fundamental rights, the Law Commission has reasoned. This would protect the plurality of religions, too, and may be the way forward for the near future. In fact, the Law Commission has suggested in no uncertain terms that the UCC is “neither necessary nor desirable at this stage in the country etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 3


Topic:  Part of static series under the heading – “Agriculture”

3) Examine the problems related to productivity in Indian agriculture and what needs to be done to solve the problem? (250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the status of productivity in Indian agriculture, analyze the reasons why we fall behind others when it comes to productivity and give suggestions as to how productivity in Indian agriculture can be improved.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what do you understand by productivity and why it’s important for agriculture in India in light of the requirements of food security.

Body

  • Explain the status quo of agricultural productivity in India.
  • Discuss the reasons why productivity in Indian agriculture lags behind – small farm holdings, poor irrigation, lack of forward and backward linkages, ill designed subsidy regime etc
  • Discuss what steps are being taken to improve productivity such as Soil Health Card etc. Discuss what more needs to be done to boost productivity in agriculture

Conclusion – Give your view on how urgent it is for India to improve agricultural productivity. Also bring out that improving productivity through input intensive methods is not good as it ultimately degrades the quality of soil.

 


Topic-  Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

4) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has made projections for how the rise in global average temperatures can be restricted within 1.5°C of pre-industrial times. Discuss. (250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

IPCC has recently submitted its report on climate change and it has forwarded its findings/ estimates as to how the global temperatures can be restricted within 1.5 degree celsius of the pre-industrial times. It is therefore important to discuss the issue, given the immeasurable effect climate change will have on life on earth.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the recent IPCC findings and how it suggests to restrict the global temperatures within 1.5 degrees celsius of the pre-industrial times.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  recent IPCC report and the impending climate change crisis.

Body-

Discuss about the report in detail and explain how has suggested to restrict the global temperatures. E.g

Discuss the four pathways forwarded by the IPCC to restrict global temperatures within 1.5 degree celsius. Mention that in each pathway, the global average temperature is projected to overshoot the 1.5°C target by some amount before returning to that level by the end of this century. Each looks at a different scenario of the global energy demand;

  1. P1: A scenario in which social, business, and technological innovations result in lower energy demand up to 2050 while living standards rise, especially in the global South.
  2. P2: A scenario with a broad focus on sustainability including energy intensity, human development, economic convergence and international cooperation, as well as shifts towards sustainable and healthy consumption patterns, low-carbon technology innovation, and well-managed land systems with limited societal acceptability for BECCS.
  3. P3: A middle-of-the-road scenario in which societal as well as technological development follows historical patterns.
  4. Similarly discuss the 4th pathway.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 4


Topic– Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service , integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections.

5) “Empathy is a tool for building people into groups, for allowing us to function as more than self-obsessed individuals.” Neil Gaiman. Comment on the above statement in light of the need for empathy in public service.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to form an opinion on the importance of empathy in public service and explain the meaning of the given quotation accordingly.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  meaning of empathy. E.g

Body-

Discuss in detail about the concept and discuss at length about the importance of having empathy in public service. E.g The civil service exists to help politicians get things done: our stated aim is to ‘help the government of the day develop and implement its policies’; In order to do our jobs well, the policies we develop must have certain attributes. They must be affordable; operationally viable; and politically & societally acceptable; we must be able to understand and accurately predict how policy will affect people’s behaviour. We must be able to understand other humans’ motivation to change, to walk in their shoes, and that’s where empathy comes in; So empathy — or lack of it — can make or break how good a policy is. If we don’t predict the effects of our ideas accurately our policies and services will fail to do what we intended: we’ll waste time and money, and let people down; For this reason, the ability to understand people’s motivations and feelings when they interact with the state should be considered a core skill in our sector. Civil servants should become experts in the practice of empathy etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic – Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions

6) #Metoo movement in India reflects the patriarchy that is deep rooted in Indian culture. Critically Analyze.(250 words)

Financial express

Why this question

#Metoo movement in India has raised several debates over constitutes acceptable behaviour for men, the level of sexual misconduct and bias in society against women, the normalisation of patriarchy by the society. The article analyzes these issues and the issue is important to be prepared.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the #Metoo movement in India – what it stands for, what it tells us about the society in India in particular and against women in general. Next we need to discuss the reasons why a #metoo movement is the need of the hour for a country like India. Finally, we need to highlight the lessons that we all should take out of it.

Directive word

Critically Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain the context and the background of the #metoo debate.

Body

  • Explain what the #metoo movement is all about and what it tells about the nature of society for women that we have and the fact that sexual misconduct, the unequal relationship between the sexes are a problem in India.
  • Discuss why it’s high time that the issue comes into prominence so as to debate and settle the grievances that one gender feels. In order to critically analyze, we also need to bring out whether it is an opportune time for India to have the #metoo debate or have we jumped stages.
  • Next , explain the reasons why so many incidents are being reported – talk about the patriarchy which is prevalent in our society and the normalisation of patriarchy done through our actions. Discuss that the institutional and legal mechanism put into place for dealing with such issues are not working

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced opinion on this debate and discuss way forward.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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