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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 08 OCTOBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 08 OCTOBER 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)


General Studies – 1


Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “Natural vegetation of India”

1)Tropical Deciduous Forests are most widely distributed in India. Explain the different types of tropical deciduous forest in India and their characteristics?(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the different kinds of tropical deciduous forests found in India and explain their characteristics such as geographical location, major trees, rainfall requirement etc

Structure of the answer

Introduction – explain what tropical deciduous forests are and the type of such forests found in India – dry and moist

Body – Explain the main characteristics of tropical dry and moist deciduous forests. Explain the climatic conditions, main characteristics such as the kind of trees, vegetation etc and the distribution of such forests in India.


General Studies – 2


Topic – Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

2) Consumption of poor quality medicines could be accelerating drug resistance in India. Examine the issue with an eye on what needs to be done.(250 words)

The Hindu

Why this question

The article highlights the growing risk of AMR developing in India on account of the spurious quality of drugs manufactured and consumed in India. It also examines the associated issues such as the nature of regulations in India along with the likely impact on the pharmacy of the world. Questions related to pharma sector are often asked in UPSC including in this year’s paper and thus it would be prudent to prepare this issue.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what AMR is and its linkage to the problem of low quality medicines, along with data on the extent of the problem. Next, we need to bring out the regulations related to checking the usage of such low quality medicines and the role of CDSCO in this regard. Finally, we need to suggest steps on what needs to be done to keep the issue in check.

Directive word

Examine

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that India has an unusually high rate of AMR primarily on account of two reasons – improper course of antibiotics and low quality for antibiotics. Highlight that The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that one in 10 medical products sold in low- and middle-income countries such as India are either substandard or falsified

Body

  • Explain the issues arising out of such a situation both in terms of health outcomes for India and the loss of reputation.
  • Next, bring out the causes why such a situation exists – standards set by CDSCO which prescribe  that medicines can be short of up to 30% of the active ingredient before they are considered seriously sub-standard — that’s three times the shortfall generally allowed for most anti-infective medicines in the British or U.S. pharmacopeia, poor overseeing and monitoring of pharma manufacturers, lack of engagement etc
  • Discuss what steps can be taken to check the menace – government improving its procurement and regulatory infrastructure, creating awareness etc

Conclusion – Emphasize on the necessity to address this problem on an urgent basis and discuss way forward.


Topic–  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources; Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

3) Discuss the challenges faced by India in eradicating Tuberculosis. (250 words)

epw

Why this question

TB is an important infectious disease affecting millions of people worldwide. India harbours the highest TB burden in the world. In this context, it is important to analyze as to what prevents India from eradicating tuberculosis.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the challenges faced by India in eradicating TB.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- Write a few introductory lines about the burden of tuberculosis across the world and particularly in India. e.g The global burden of tuberculosis is in decline. However, with an estimated 10 million new cases of tuberculosis and 1.6 million dying from the disease globally in 2017, we still have a long way to go; India, which accounts for 27% of the world’s tuberculosis burden, had set its own target at the End-TB Summit in Delhi earlier this year: TB Free India by 2025.

Body-

Discussion points/ paragraphs the factors responsible for impeding India’s efforts to dedicate TB. e.g The under-reporting of tuberculosis cases has been a perpetual issue hampering efforts at estimating, controlling and treating the disease. Though the number of reported cases from India has seen a jump since 2013, largely attributed to increased reporting from the private health sector, the underreporting of tuberculosis cases that have been detected and the under-diagnosis of the disease itself make a treatable and curable disease like tuberculosis deadly and rampant; In 2012, when it declared tuberculosis a notifiable disease, India had set up “Nikshay,” an online tuberculosis reporting system for medical practitioners and clinical establishments, with the aim to increase the reporting of tuberculosis, especially from the private sector. In the years since it was launched, Nikshay has faced many roadblocks on the ground, such as unawareness of the system, unwillingness to report due to misconceptions about it, inconsistency in reporting, and lack of incentives for those reporting cases etc. Of the five risk factors for tuberculosis mentioned in the World Health Organization’s Global Tuberculosis Report 2018—alcohol, smoking, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and undernutrition—it is undernutrition that poses the gravest risk in India, as it does in other poor, developing nations, especially among children. The prevention and successful treatment of tuberculosis are closely linked with the overall improvement in nutrition and health indicators, poverty, and access to healthcare etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources. Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

4) What do you think are the pros and cons of living in a slum for the urban poor(slum dwellers). Analyze.(250 words)

epw

Why this question

Slums are a harsh reality of most of the Indian cities and the government has launched various initiatives to promote affordable housing for the urban poor. In this context, it is important to analyze the pros and cons of living in a slum area so that better policy interventions can be made in this regard.

Directive word

Analyze-here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the issue, bring out the pros and cons of living in a slum from the point of view of a slum-dweller and discuss how it affects developmental efforts of the govt.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the slums and slum development programmes in India.

Body-

  1. Discuss the pros of living in a slum, for a slum dweller. E.g more floor space available in slums as compared to low-cost houses; better access to market and transport facilities as slums are usually found in/ around populous centres; While the younger men and women are at work, the children usually play in the neighbourhood under the watchful eyes of the older men and women. Their group also knows that if they require a service in the neighbourhood, such as having handpumps or street lights installed, they need to be together to convince their local parshad.
  2. Discuss the cons. E.g risky neighborhood, lack of amenities and sanitation; inability to get residence certificate and lack of access to institutional credit etc.
  3. Discuss how these factors prevent/ promote slum development and relocation.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 3


Topic: indigenization of technology and developing new technology

5) Coal to Liquid technology might prove to be an end to India’s energy crisis. Discuss. (250 words)

Reference

Why this question

The article explains what Coal to Liquid aka Coal liquefaction technology is and the advantages it holds for a country like India. At a time when the country is bearing the brunt of high crude price, the technology offers an alternative to the energy situation of India. The topic is important for SnT and Energy section of paper 3.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain what CTL technology is, and the advantages that it has for India. Thereafter, we need to bring out the challenges that India might face in utilization of this technology and provide a way forward.

Directive word

Discuss –

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain the current situation with respect to energy such as the crude oil prices, the infrastructural and other bottlenecks in case of renewable etc to establish the need of CTL.

Body

  • Explain what CTL technology is – involves gasification of coal, which in turn will produce synthetic gas (a mix of CO+H2). The synthetic gas can be liquefied to its fuel equivalent in presence of cobalt/iron-based catalysts at higher pressure and temperature. However, liquefied coal emits twice as much CO2 as burning oil. It also emits a large volume of SO2.
  • Discuss the issues and the benefits of using this technology
    • Issues – high capital cost, necessity of huge coal reserves, high emission of CO2 and SO2 etc
    • Examine whether these issues can be resolved
    • Benefits – increasing oil prices; desire for energy independence and security; and the potential for co-development of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Shed some light on how India can go ahead and adopt this technology – India had huge coal reserves, foreign companies are already looking forward to investing in Indian CTL plants etc

Conclusion – give your view on how effective this would be for India and discuss the way forward.


Topic- Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

6) Discuss the possible impacts of climate change on India’s different physiographic regions.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

Climate change is an impending threat and its manifestations are already clear. In this context, it is important to analyze how climate change will possibly impact different physiographic regions of India.

Directive word

discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail as to what could be the possible impacts of climate change on different physiographic regions of India.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  climate change and the target of restricting temperature to 1.5 degree celsius above the pre-industrial levels.

Body-

Discuss the impact of climate change on different physiographic regions of India. Illustrate your points better, with the help of maps.

E.g Coasts and Islands; The desert region; Central and peninsular India; Himalayan region; indo-Gangetic plain. Discuss the possible impacts on each of these regions.

Coasts- Increased intensity and frequency of cyclones, increased rains along the western coast etc.

Desert region- increased max temperature, increased water stress and shortage, droughts etc.

Discuss the impacts for each region.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


General Studies – 4


Topic– Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance;

7) “Political parties must evolve a consensus on the code of conduct for their members both inside the Parliament and out of it, otherwise, people might soon lose faith in our political processes and institutions.” Comment. (250 words)

Epw

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and expression and accordingly form an opinion on the need to evolve a consensus on the code of conduct for the MPs.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Write a few introductory lines highlighting the untoward and unethical conduct of the parliamentarians.

Body-

  1. Briefly discuss the ethics committee of Rajya Sabha and the permanent standing committee on ethics of Lok Sabha. Bring out the operational differences between the two and the limitations of each. e.g The Ethics Committee of Rajya Sabha consisting of nine members (later expanded to 10) was constituted in March 1997 “to oversee the moral and ethical conduct of the members and to examine the cases referred to it with reference to the ethical and other misconduct by members”; Over the years this committee has evolved a general framework of a code of conduct for members of the Rajya Sabha and a procedure for enforcing the code; Unlike the Rajya Sabha, the Lok Sabha Committee does not maintain a register of members’ interests and does not prevent a member from participating in a debate on an issue in which they have pecuniary interests. The Rajya Sabha panel acts on complaints and can take up an issue suo-motu while the Lok Sabha Committee can only act on complaints. In this context, it may be important to point out that ethics committees of the house enjoy wide powers in several countries.
  2. Bring out the need to form a code of conduct for the parliamentarians, which respects national interests over parochialism and sub partisanship. Take the help of the article attached to the question to call your answer.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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