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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 27 SEPTEMBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 27 SEPTEMBER 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)


General Studies – 1


Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “Rainfall pattern”

1) Explain the distribution pattern of rainfall in India and factors affecting that distribution?(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the distribution pattern of rainfall in India – the areas where rainfall is scanty and the areas where it is in abundance. We also need to explain the factors that are responsible for such variations in rainfall patterns.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that India falls in the monsoon climatic region. Rainfall is the backbone of Indian agriculture and economic activities and thus rainfall pattern is important

Body

  • Mention that Rainfall in India mainly occurs in the months of July, August and September. The Indian rains are chiefly orographic in nature. As a result, the regions situated on the windward side receive greater rainfall than the regions located on the leeward side.Only a scant amount of rainfall is received from cyclones and convectional rainfall.
  • Discuss the areas which receive hefty, moderate, low and scanty rainfall
  • Explain the factors which control rainfall distribution in India – SW monsoon vs NE monsoon and factors such as
    • Direction of moisture laden winds
    • Pressure conditions
    • Cyclonic depression determined by pressure gradient
    • Direction of relief features

 


General Studies – 3


Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “National income – methods”

2) What is national income and why is it calculated? Explain the three main methods of computing national income?(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question is quite self explanatory its demand. First we need to explain what NI is, how computing NI is useful for economies and finally it expects us to bring out how the three main methods of computing NI.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that National Income is the total value of all final goods and services produced by the country in certain year. The growth of National Income helps to know the progress of the country.

Body

  • Explain the various advantages of calculating national income – in policy formulation, effective decision making and for making international economic comparisons etc
  • Discuss and explain the three main methods of computing national income – income method, expenditure method and output method. Also explain how the national income of India is calculated

Topic–  Indian polity : Issues

3) Discuss the verdict of Supreme Court with respect to Aadhar and the implications of the verdict?(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

Verdict of the constitutional bench of SC in Aadhar case is a landmark judgment and needs to be prepared in detail. The article gives details of the verdict as well as its implications which addresses the various debates surrounding Aadhar. This topic is going to remain in news in the near future and we have to keep an eye out for the various details and implications of the verdict.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the details of the verdict and explain how the verdict addresses the various debates surrounding Aadhar. We also need to discuss what the implications of the verdict are with respect to the beneficiaries of government subsidies, mandatory production of Aadhar for the enjoyment of various services etc.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain the background of the Aadhar case and emphasize on its significance.

Body

  • Explain the details of SC’s verdict in Aadhar case
    • Supreme Court upheld the validity of Aadhaar saying sufficient security measures are taken to protect data and it is difficult to launch surveillance on citizens on the basis of Aadhaar
    • asked the Centre to bring a robust law for data protection as soon as possible.
    • majority opinion has sought to limit the import of the scheme to aspects directly related to welfare benefits, subsidies and money spent from the Consolidated Fund of India
    • Section 57 of the Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery Of Financial And Other Subsidies, Benefits And Services) Act, 2016, has been struck down to the extent that it authorised body corporates and individuals to use the Aadhaar number to establish someone’s identity. Schools have been barred from making the submission of the Aadhaar number mandatory to enrol children. A few other provisions have been read down or clarified
  • Discuss what the verdict has to say with respect to the various debates surrounding Aadhar such as privacy, surveillance etc
  • Discuss the implications of the verdict – how the verdict would impact the usage of Aadhar for various purposes and the future of the UID project

Conclusion – Mention that the issue has been under debate for long and the verdict would go a long way in easing the issues surrounding Aadhar.


Topic – Indian polity : Issues

4) Discuss the verdict of SC in M Nagraj case 2006 and the clarification issued by SC wrt reservation in promotions?(250 words) 

Financial express

Why this question

The issue of reservation in promotions for SC/ST in public sector jobs has been a source of debate since Indra Sawhney verdict. The clarifications issued by SC yesterday on the same issue gives some clarifications wrt Nagraj verdict. The details of the verdict along with the implications it has on the issue of reservation in promotions need to be prepared in detail.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to examine the issue of reservation in promotions, give details of the verdict of SC in Nagraj case etc, and highlight the clarification issued by SC on the same issue. Finally, we need to bring out whether or not the verdict settled the debates surrounding the issue of reservation in promotions.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Give a brief background of the issue and details about the current case.

Body

  • Discuss the constitutional provisions related to reservation in promotions for SC/ST and explain what the issue is all about.
  • Discuss the verdict of SC in Nagraj case
    • five-judge constitution bench, in its 2006 verdict in the M Nagraj case, had said the states are bound to provide quantifiable data on the backwardness of SCs and STs, the facts about their inadequate representation in government jobs and the overall administrative efficiency, before providing quota in promotions to members of these communities.
    • Discuss the 3 criteria that had to be satisfied for granting reservation in promotions
  • Highlight the clarification issued by court yesterday – that data requirement is not mandatory. Highlight that the issue of administrative efficiency etc have not gotten any clarifications.
  • Discuss the implications of the verdict and what it means for the overall debate on reservations

Conclusion – Give your view on this issue and discuss the way forward.


Topic – Conservation, environmental degradation

5) Construction and demolition waste is a major environmental and health hazard. Examine and suggest sustainable solutions for dealing with C&D waste?(250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

The article gives an in depth view of the status of the problem of C&D waste, the implications of the unchecked rise of such waste and ways to deal with C&D waste. C&D waste is a major contributor to environmental pollution particularly in major cities like Delhi etc. Understanding the problem, and analyzing ways to deal with the problem is important for mains.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to highlight the magnitude of problem, the reasons why such waste is a major cause of environmental and health hazards, the reasons why the problem is difficult to manage and the sustainable solutions that can help manage this challenge.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what C&D waste is

Body

  • Explain the magnitude of this problem – discuss the lack of proper data regarding C&D waste by different agencies
  • Discuss the adverse environmental and health impact of C&D waste
  • Discuss international examples of how other countries have dealt with such waste – the example of countries like Germany
  • Examine how we deal with waste of such nature and what more can be done based on points mentioned in the article

Conclusion – emphasize on the problems caused due to lack of attention over this issue and suggest way forward.


Topic – S&T Applications

6) Gene editing has opened up new vistas of opportunity, and at the same time poses immense ethical challenges. Discuss(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article highlights the immense opportunities opened up as a result of advancements made in the field of gene editing, and also brings out the ethical challenges that it poses. Various governments have now given a go ahead for such projects, and several advancements have taken place in countries such as China. Understanding how CRISPR CAS9 helps, and the ethical challenges posed by gene editing would be useful for mains.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the advancements made in the field of gene editing, the applications arising out of CRISPR CAS9, and the various ethical challenges arising out of the technology.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that in researching how bacteria fights viral infections, a team of researchers led by Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier made a revolutionary discovery of a method of intervening in the human genome with previously unimaginable precision and efficiency.

Body

  • Explain CRISPR CAS9 – how it works and the applications. CRISPR-Cas9 has been heralded to have significant potential applications in a wide variety of areas, from agriculture to human intervention. From developing disease-resistant and pest-resistant high yield crops (without the need of environmentally harmful pesticides and herbicides) to vastly increased abilities to study the mechanisms of disease, the potential of CRISPR is such that is may have an application in every aspect of biological life.
  • Discuss the ethical issues surrounding gene editing – the problem of designer babies, lack of understanding wrt complete impact of usage of such tech etc

Conclusion – Give your view on the ethics of gene editing and discuss way forward.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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