Topic– Disaster and disaster management.
6) Critically examine the factors that led to the recent devastating floods across different cities of India.(250 words)
Why this question
Floods have become a more common phenomenon in the wake of the climate change and unorganised urban development has worsened the situation. In this light it is important to examine the factors behind the recent spate of floods across the country and form an opinion thereupon.
Critically examine- here we have to probe deeper into the topic, get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any.
Key demand of the question.
The question wants us to find out the causes behind the recent floods which paralyzed life in various cities in India. Then we have to form an opinion on the issue as to what should be the way-forward.
Structure of the answer
Introduction– mention about the recent spate of floods across the country- e.g the latest one in Kerala, in Chennai; Assam, Bihar etc. Mention that all these floods have several common factors behind them.
Discuss in points the factors responsible for these incidents of floods. E.g roads, railway lines and housing colonies being laid and built without regard for natural waterway; emergency releases from dams that were full. Despite forecasts of more rain, there were no controlled releases; Deforestation and loss of vegetation; lack of elaborate flood management plans like underground flood basins and spare riverbeds etc.
Conclusion– Discuss what should be done to prevent such situation or manage it in a better way. E.g improved hydromet systems and weather forecasts, robust modelling of catchment water flows with simulations of different climate-related scenarios, international norms for safety factors and building codes; flood management plans and infrastructure; awareness and education etc.