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5) Despite the law banning manual scavenging, it is a harsh reality that the practice still exists in India. Critically examine.(250 words) 

Topic – Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

5) Despite the law banning manual scavenging, it is a harsh reality that the practice still exists in India. Critically examine.(250 words) 

Reference

Why this question

Manual scavenging is responsible for hundreds of deaths every year. It is a harsh reality that the inhuman practice still exists in India. In this connection it is important to understand the reasons behind this.

Directive word

Critically examine- Here we have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any. Based on our discussion we have to form a concluding opinion on the issue.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to explain why the practice of manual scavenging still exists in India despite the law strictly banning it. We have to form an opinion on the issue based on our discussion.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the manual scavenging in India- present some statistics about the number of people involved and mention the Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act, 1993;  ‘Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act.

Body-

  • Discuss the reasons as to why the practice still exists in India. E.g mention the insanitary latrines; Septic tanks are designed badly. They have engineering defects which means that after a point, a machine cannot clean it; Under the Swachh Bharat Mission, millions of septic tanks are being built in rural India. By 2019, some 30 million septic tanks and pits would have been dug along the Ganga. If the Central, state and local sanitation programmes do not take up faecal sludge management as a priority, the onus will shift to the lowest rung of the society to clean millions of dry toilets built with tearing hurry; open drains which badly designed, allowing people to dump solid waste into them, which accentuates the problem. Improper disposal of condoms, sanitary napkins and diapers clog the drains, which machines cannot clear etc.

Conclusion– form an opinion as to what should be done in this regard. E.g using technology and machines for the scavenging work etc.