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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 15 SEPTEMBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 15 SEPTEMBER 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)

 


General Studies – 2


Topic– Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

1) The concept of general education and specialised education proceeding together needs to be widely adopted in India. Analyze.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

Education is a key to understand ourselves as well as our environment. It is also essential for gainful employment in today’s world. However the later role has sidelined the primary role of education. It is essential to analyze, why there is a need for a holistic education system upto a certain level.

Directive word

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to discuss why the concept of general education and specialised education proceeding together needs to be widely adopted in India. What are the benefits and what is the need.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines about increasing GER in higher education in India.

Body

  • Discuss why such an integrated education system is essential. E.g Without all-round general (including liberal) education, one could not be expected to play roles expected of a citizen outside one’s immediate professional sphere; The development of general ability for independent thinking and judgement should always be placed foremost, not the acquisition of special knowledge. If a person masters the fundamentals of his subject and has learned to think and work independently, he will surely find his way; the purpose of higher education is to prepare graduates for work and life, as well as active and engaged citizenship — achieved only through the acquisition of knowledge, skills and competencies related to the profession they chose to specialise in and also written and oral communication skills, ability to work as a team, ethical decision making, critical thinking, and ability to apply knowledge in real world settings etc.
  • Discuss the state of Indian education system in this regard. E.g HEIs are far from integrated. Several engineering, and science education and research institutes have embedded general education programmes at the undergraduate level. Such programmes are missing in most university-affiliated science colleges. Rather, there are institutions that cater to a single stream which precludes the possibility of even an informal interaction between students and faculty with different specialisations etc.

ConclusionBased on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic- Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

2) India is still a long way away from the goal of predominantly having electric vehicles on Indian roads by 2030. Analyze whether a national policy on electric vehicles would enable us to accelerate towards this aim?(250 words) 

Hindustantimes

Why this question

The article discusses the impact that the absence of a policy regarding electric vehicles has had, the immense potential that Indian market offers to the companies working in the field of electric vehicles and the need for India to promote electric vehicles. The government has recently indicated its aim of having 30% electric vehicles on road and the issue is important from GS2 and GS3 perspective.

Key demand of the question

The key focus of the question is on establishing the necessity of a policy regarding promoting electric vehicles in terms of achieving the stated aim, the requirement of promoting electric vehicles, as well as the impact having a policy would have on promotion of electric vehicles.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Discuss the stated aim of achieving 40% electric vehicles on roads by 2030, the efforts made by the government in introducing FAME.

Body

  • Bring out the status of electric vehicles in India – In 2017 alone, 24.5 million conventionally powered automobiles were sold in India and these are likely to grow to 84. 53 million by 2030, according to the Niti Aayog. By comparison, only about 2000 battery electric cars were sold last year, an International Energy Agency (IEA) report said. More than 12 million cars will be added to Indian roads between 2017 and 2030, per Niti Aayog data.
  • Discuss the need of promoting electric vehicles in the country from an environmental perspective. Highlight the problem of carbon emissions, international obligations, huge market of two wheelers and four wheelers in India etc to establish that electric vehicles indeed need to be promoted
  • Examine the issues in the current regulatory architecture that hinders achievement of the stated aim – lack of charging infrastructure, India’s Electricity Act does not allow entities other than licensed discoms to sell power etc
  • Discuss how a national policy would enable faster achievement of targets relating to electric vehicles – the international precedents where a policy helped, how a policy would get rid of the current inadequacies, the issues with the current emission standards etc

Conclusion – Give your view on the need for a policy and highlight the way forward.

 


Topic – Indian polity : Issues

3) Right to be forgotten as envisaged by draft data protection Bill will lead to compromises with transparency, freedom of speech and freedom of press. Critically analyze. (250 words) 

Indian express

Why this question

The draft data protection Bill recommended by SriKrishna committee has raised several important debates. The article discusses the provisions related to right to be forgotten, and the challenges that the provisions might pose to press freedom, freedom of speech and transparency. The question will help you prepare the provisions related to right to be forgotten in the draft Bill and its critical analysis.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the provisions related to right to be forgotten in the draft bill, and analyze the impact of it in on press freedom, freedom of speech and transparency. The key focus should be on making reasoned arguments from both sides to finally reach to what we think should be the way forward.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what right to be forgotten is and highlight that Srikrishna Committee has made recommendations related to right to be forgotten which needs to be debated.

Body

  • Explain the recommendations of the committee related to right to be forgotten
  • Provisions related to the adjudicating authority
  • Section 27(2) which vests power in the adjudicating authority to decide on the question of disclosure
  • Conditions listed in the subsection regarding the factors that have to be considered
  • Highlight the provisions of review enshrined in the draft Bill
  • Discuss the pros in relation to the usefulness of right to be forgotten – highlight that it is a part of right to privacy, discuss the cases in India where judiciary has favoured the right to be forgotten etc
  • Discuss the issues with the Bill in its present form – highlight the provisions of section 27 which grants power to data principal to prevent data fiduciary from using data in certain cases, discuss the challenges that it poses in terms of freedom of press and transparency etc

Conclusion – Give your view on the provision related to right to be forgotten in the draft Bill and discuss the way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


Topic– Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

4) It has been cautioned that the next crisis in India’s banking sector could come from MUDRA loans, and credit extended through the Kisan credit card scheme. Critically examine.(250 words)

The hindu

The hindu

Why this question

India is already facing an NPA crisis and any further liability could lead to a serious banking or even economic crisis. So it is important to examine how loans under the two schemes can be a source of India’s next banking crisis.

Directive word

Critically examine- Here we have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any. Based on our discussion we have to form a concluding opinion on the issue.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to look into MUDRA loans, and credit extended through the Kisan credit card, and find out how they could be the cause of the next crisis in India’s banking sector.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines about the importance of banking sector for the working of the modern economy.

Body-

  • Write a few introductory lines about the MUDRA and KCC scheme.
  • Discuss in points how the loans disbursed under MUDRA and KCC scheme could lead to the next banking crisis in India. E.g The disbursement under Mudra loans alone is ₹6.37 lakh crore, which is over 7% of the total outstanding bank credit. Given that these are small loans up to ₹10 lakh each, with the borrowers mostly from the informal sector, banks have to monitor them very closely. It is debatable whether banks have the resources and manpower to do this when they are chasing the bigger borrowers for business and, increasingly these days, recoveries. The risk is that these small-ticket loans will drop under the radar and build into a large credit issue in course of time. The same logic holds true for crop loans made through Kisan Credit Cards etc.

Conclusion– discuss briefly as to what should be done in this regard. E.g political parties should agree on not waiving farm loans as such waivers vitiate the credit culture and eventually reduce the flow of credit etc.


TopicIndian economy: issues

5) The GST amendment Bill passed recently has ironed out the ambiguities in the newly introduced GST. Examine. (250 words)

Financial express

Why this question

The article talks about the recent amendments made in GST Law by the GST amendment Bill and how the amendments have an impact on the indirect taxation regime in India. Since GST is one of the most important reforms brought about in recent years, and has recently completed an year in existence, the amendment is important from GS3 perspective.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the key changes made in the GST amendment Bill and how it helps in ironing out the issues in GST architecture faced in the last year. Thus we need to bring out the issues faced, and examine whether the amendments helped in ironing out those issues.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that GST is one of the most significant reforms introduced and assess its performance over the past year.

Body

  • Highlight the amendments made by the Bill – changes made in the tax regime with respect to the unregistered taxpayers, the clarification made with respect to the definition of supply etc
  • Discuss the issues faced in the GST regime over the past year – the problems faced by the unregistered taxpayers, the issues with respect to filing of returns etc.
  • Highlight whether the amendment would iron out the issues faced

Conclusion – Assess the impact of the amendments and what more needs to be done.


TopicPart of static series under the heading – “physiography”

6) Explain how the Himalayan and the Tibetan highlands play an important role in the-development of the South – West monsoon?(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the impact that Himalayas and the Tibetan plateau have on the onset, progress and retraction of south west monsoon in India.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain the geographical presence and physical features of Himalayas and Tibetan plateau.

Body

  • Discuss the impact of Himalayas on SW Monsoon – in foothills of Himalayas is location of sub-tropical high pressure(STHP) belt. In summers, pressure belts shift to north so STHP belt also move to the north, which disintegrates the jet stream(which was blowing
    originally over northern plains), thus causing a monsoonal trough (vacuum) in this region, thus sucking the SW
    monsoonal winds . In addition , Himalayas also prevent the further northward movement of the monsoons and
    hence confine them to Indian landmass

Discuss the impact of tibetan highlands- also strengthen SW monsoons by giving birth to tropical easterly jet stream. In summers, the surface of Tibetan plateau become very warm ( warm air always rise) and the warm air rising from Tibet
move south towards Indian ocean because of the precence of STHP belt north of Tibet. These currents of warm
air deflect to their right as they move due to coriolis force and hence sink over Arabian sea. This air picks up
moisture from Arabian sea and joins SW monsoonal winds.

 


General Studies – 4


Topic–  Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values

7) The project of creating value-aligned AI is perhaps one of the most important things we will ever do. Comment.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding about the need for a value-aligned AI- we have to form an opinion as to why there is/ is not such a need.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines about the growth of AI and its increased integration in our lives.

Body

  • Discuss the ethical issues posed by the AI. e.g The end goal of AI safety is to create beneficial intelligence not undirected intelligence. What beneficial exactly entails is still an open question that largely exist in the domain of ethics; AI and enabling technologies like robotics and autonomous vehicles will change lives and livelihoods. Great benefits and unprecedented wealth will be created. But with that will come waves of disruption- How do we share income and protect displaced workers? How do we share benefits of better health?How do we share access to powerful tools?How and when do we augment our intelligence? Etc.
  • Discuss how a value based AI can be created. E.g Validation: ensuring that the right system specification is provided for the core of the agent given stakeholders’ goals for the system; Security: applying cyber security paradigms and techniques to AI-specific challenges; Control: structural methods for operators to maintain control over advanced agents etc.

Conclusion- Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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