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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 13 SEPTEMBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 13 SEPTEMBER 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)

 


General Studies – 2


Topic– Indian Constitution- historical evolution

1) Analyze the reasons given by the supreme court in overturning its earlier judgment in Naz foundation case 2013?(250 words)

Financial express

Why this question

The article discusses the verdict of SC in section 377 case in detail. This is an iconic case in the evolution of constitution with several remarks made by the justices helping us understand the scope of rights enjoyed us. This article would help us in preparing the verdict of SC in Section 377 case in detail.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the reasons given by SC in Naz foundation case, examine the reasons why a 5 bench constitutional bench overturned the earlier verdict of the honourable SC. Finally, we need to highlight the implications of the verdict and how it has enriched our understanding of the constitution.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the recent turn of events where SC overturned it’s verdict in Naz foundation case and declared section 377 ultra vire to the constitution.

Body

  • Discuss the rationale given by SC in Naz foundation case to overturn the verdict of Delhi HC – rights of miniscule minority too small to merit any constitutional protection, prerogative of the legislature etc
  • Explain the rationale of SC in the current verdict –  the focus on constitutional morality, primacy of the individual, constitution as a living document etc. Quote the significant portions of the verdict to embellish your answer
  • Highlight the impact of the verdict – changing social prejudices, expanded the scope of rights enjoyed under article 14, 19 and 21 etc

Conclusion – give your view on the role played by judiciary and its significance for Indian polity, as well as the way forward to ensure the SC verdict is implemented in words as well as spirit.


Topic-Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

2) Implementation of the HIV/ AIDS [Prevention and Control] Act is  a positive and a much-awaited development. Discuss.(250 words) 

The hindu

Pib

Why this question

The Union Health Ministry has issued a notification to bring in force from Monday the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (Prevention and Control) Act, 2017. It is therefore important to discuss the provisions of the act and critically examine their implications.

Directive word

Discuss- This is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail as to what would be the positive implications of implementation of the HIV and AIDS act; how this is a positive development.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory  lines about the HIV and AIDS act. E.g The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has issued a notification for bringing the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (Prevention and Control) Act, 2017 in force.

Body-

Discuss in detail about the notification of the act and how they are a positive development. E.g Provisions of the Act address HIV-related discrimination, strengthen existing programme by bringing in legal accountability, and establish formal mechanisms for inquiring into complaints and redressing grievances; The Act lists various grounds on which discrimination against HIV positive persons and those living with them is prohibited- denial, termination, discontinuation or unfair treatment with regard to: (i) employment, (ii) educational establishments, (iii) health care services, (iv) residing or renting property, (v) standing for public or private office, and (vi) provision of insurance (unless based on actuarial studies). The requirement for HIV testing as a prerequisite for obtaining employment or accessing health care or education is also prohibited.

Every HIV infected or affected person below the age of 18 years has the right to reside in a shared household and enjoy the facilities of the household. The Act also prohibits any individual from publishing information or advocating feelings of hatred against HIV positive persons and those living with them etc.

Conclusion– sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.

 


Topic – Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

3) Discuss the structure and functioning of the International Criminal Court. Also discuss the criticism faced by the organization.(250 words) 

The hindu

Wikipedia

Why this question

ICC has been recently in news over ts several verdicts and also due to the US threatening the organization over its decision to prosecute Americans and its allies for war-crimes in Afghanistan. In this context it is essential to know about the organization- its structure and how it functions as well as what is the criticism faced by it.

Directive word

Discuss- This is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

the question wants us to write in detail about the organizational structure of the ICC, how it works and also discuss in detail about the accusations/ criticism faced by it.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Write a few introductory lines about ICC e.g ICC is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that has the jurisdiction to prosecute individuals for the international crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. The Rome Statute is a multilateral treaty which serves as the ICC’s foundational and governing document. Currently, there are 123 states which are party to the Rome Statute and therefore members of the ICC.

Body-

  • Discuss the organizational structure of ICC. Here instead of explaining things you should draw a tree diagram to illustrate the structure and also explain each entity briefly. E.g Mention and illustrate 1)State parties -Assembly of States Parties; 2) Organs of the Court-Presidency,Judicial Divisions, Office of the Prosecutor.
  • Discuss how the ICC functions. E.g The ICC is intended to complement, not to replace, national criminal systems; it prosecutes cases only when States do not are unwilling or unable to do so genuinely; ICC does not have its own police force or enforcement body; thus, it relies on cooperation with countries worldwide for support, particularly for making arrests, transferring arrested persons to the ICC detention centre etc; the Court has a cooperation agreement with the United Nations. Highlight the stages of investigation- Preliminary examinations-Investigations-Pre-Trial stage-Trial stage-Appeals stage- Enforcement of sentence.
  • Discuss the criticism faced by ICC. e.g African Accusations of Western imperialism; African Union (AU) withdrawal proposal; OPCD; Limitations in demanding attendance and forcing orders etc.

Conclusion– Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


General Studies – 3


Topic– Inclusive Growth and issues related to it

4) The progress on sustainable development goal impacting child malnutrition has been tardy across the world including India. Examine and suggest how to tackle this problem?(250 words)

Financial express

Why this question

The article discusses the immense challenge posed by the issue of malnutrition, examines the problem or malnutrition in India and gives suggestions based on best examples on how India can tackle this problem. Hence this article is important both from GS2 and GS3 perspective.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the progress on achieving the SDG targets related to malnutrition, of world in general and India in particular. Thereafter, we need to bring out the nature of malnutrition in India and the reasons for the same. The impact of the aforesaid problem needs to be discussed. Finally, we need to give suggestions as to how the status quo can be improved.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what SDGs were related to malnutrition and the figures on the implementation of targets for India and the world to set up the rest of your answer

Body

  • Explain the nature of malnutrition in India – India now faces a peculiar malnutrition problem—as per the latest World Hunger Index, while the prevalence of obesity amongst children under five years of age has increased drastically, the country also has the highest number of school-age children who suffer from extreme thinness.
  • Discuss the reasons for both types of malnutrition – socio economic reasons, lack of proper sanitation, unwholesome diets and unhealthy dietary preferences due to cultural reasons etc
  • Highlight the impact of unabated malnourishment among the young population – the social and the economic impacts
  • Give suggestions as to how to improve the suggestion – focussing on MDMS, Anganwadi centres, taking cues from the policies followed by developed countries like Japan etc

Conclusion – Emphasize on the magnitude of the problem and the way forward.


TopicIndian Economy and issues relating to growth

5) The policy of inflation targeting in India, which RBI has persisted with for quite some time now is the reason why capital intensive industries in India are suffering. Critically analyze. (250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

The article talks about the persistent policy of inflation targeting, which the author alleges has been at the altar of growth. The article examines the problems being faced by the capital intensive sector in the country and associates the causes of the woes to the policy of inflation targeting. This is a very important conceptual article which will compel you to revisit the basic concepts of macroeconomics.

Key demand of the question

The key issue that needs deeper analysis in this question is whether focussing merely on inflation has stymied growth particularly in capital intensive sectors of the economy which has led to creation of bad loans. In your answer, you must explain the capital intensive sector is under stress. Next, we need to mention the pros and cons of strict inflation targeting done by RBI and whether that has impacted growth. Post this, we need to explain what are the comprehensive n set of factors that has caused this situation, and end with a way forward.

Directive word

Critically analyse – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. You need to conclude with  a fair judgement, after analyzing the nature of each component part and interrelationship between them.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Start with explaining the gravity of the situation by cutting facts and figures (as done in the article) regarding the magnitude of problem in sectors such as power etc.

Body

  • Give a brief account of the policy of inflation targeting adopted by the RBI which kept interest rates high in India over the years.
  • Explain why focussing merely on inflation might have stymied the growth of economy. Highlight that the target adopted by India have been largely based on European experiences. Explain the central argument made by author that some inflation has to accompany industrialisation because it requires the diversion of a part of the income of the economy from producing consumer goods to capital goods. Give example of south East Asian countries.
  • Next, highlight how focussing on inflation has had several socio economic benefits for the country, apart from his obvious political utility.
  • Post that, explain the comprehensive set of factors that have caused the issues in capital intensive sector of the economy. Here , Raghuram Rajan’s report to the standing committee would be quite helpful.

Conclusion – Give your view on the policy of inflation targeting followed by RBI and discuss way forward.


Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “Ocean deposits”

6) Discuss the major resources that can be obtained from ocean deposits and the reasons why their extraction is limited?(250 words)

Reference

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the major types of resources that can be obtained from ocean deposits and the issues and impediments that make their commercial extraction difficult.

Directive word

Discuss – Here your discussion should focus on explaining the major resources that can be obtained from ocean deposits and challenges faced in their commercial extraction

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what ocean deposits are. Mention that ocean beds are rich in potential mineral and organic resources. Much of these resources, however, are not easily accessible, so their recovery involves technological challenges and high cost.

Body

  • Highlight the major types of ocean deposits found – energy, sand and gravel, evaporative salts and manganese modules and crust. Explain them wherever needed
  • Mention that Increasing world demand for minerals, plus technological advances, have combined to make deep-sea mineral extraction a possibility right now.
  • Discuss the issues involved in their extraction – ecological challenges, lack of consolidated deposits, need for detailed site-specific and broader regional information about directions and strengths of current flow, and about where the new biological recruits come from (the source populations) and where they go (the sink populations). Because vent sites may act like “stepping stones” for dispersal of animals along a ridge, it is crucially important to understand the impact of mining activity at each site, the issues involved in issuance of licenses by International seabed authority etc

Conclusion – Highlight the immense economic potential of this resource but also the need to proceed with caution.

 


General Studies – 4


Topic–  Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

7) It would be difficult, if not impossible, to count the number of political attitudes that a person develops throughout his lifetime. Comment.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding about political attitudes express over opinion on,” whether or not, there are a number of political attitudes that a person develops throughout his lifetime. We have to support our answer by presenting valid and proper facts/ arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few lines about political attitude. For example political attitudes can be broadly defined as the opinions and values individuals hold about political issues, events, and personalities.

Body-

Write in detail about political attitudes and discuss how  there are many political attitudes. E.g discuss how political attitudes are formed and reformed- due to ideology or shift in ideology; values and change in values/ value system; political figures, groups, government policies and policy proposals etc.

Discuss the influence of values on political attitude. Discuss about the old politics values vs the new politics values.

Take the help of the articles provided with the question to frame your answer.

Conclusion– Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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