SECURE SYNOPSIS: 04 AUGUST 2018

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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 04 AUGUST 2018


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 2


Topic– India and its neighborhood- relations.

1) Domestic factors play a huge role in shaping India Pakistan bilateral ties. In this context, discuss the implications of political developments in Pakistan on the bilateral ties? (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

With the formation of a new government in Islamabad, focus is again on India Pakistan ties. The relationship has gone through tumultuous times off late and examining the impact of new government formation in Pakistan is important while preparing for the bilateral relationship between the two countries for IR portion of GS2

Key demand of the question

The first part of the question expects us to explain the impact of domestic politics on India Pakistan relationship. Your answer can be substantiated with illustrations. In the next part, the focus is on explaining how the dynamics of civil military relationship has changed in Pakistan with the formation of the new government and how will this impact bilateral relationship.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the changes taking place in internal politics of Pakistan, and mention that this is likely to have an impact on India Pakistan relationship.

Body

  • Mention that foreign policy is shaped by the internal needs of the country and projection of internal policies. Differences in states capabilities to act are constrained by the characteristics of states, or national attributes. The domestic constraints and challenges add much more complexity and unpredictability to the foreign policy process. Discuss in brief the impact of societal, cultural, economic, political factors on foreign policy with examples
  • Examine how the government change in Pakistan will affect civil military relationship there and the impact it is likely to have on its relations with India. Discuss the statements and views proposed by leaders from both countries and whether it portends a calm future. In addition, also discuss the structural and security constraints that limit any hopes of a drastic progress in relationship.

Conclusion – Give your view on the progress of bilateral relations and way forward.

Background :-

  • The recent victory of Imran Khan’s Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) in the recent general elections in Pakistan poses both challenges and opportunities for India.

Several domestic issues account for the dismal state of India-Pakistan relations:

  • The wounds of Partition:-
    • Memories of historical incidents like partition leading to riots, wars fought has instilled a sense of insecurity in the public mind.
  • The chronic Kashmir issue:-
    • The proxy war in Kashmir, infiltration of militants, terror strikes and building an anti-India hype has alienated India-Pakistan
    • Every Indian government has taken a step forward to reach out to its Pakistan counterpart, only to be pushed back by a terror strike. The Pakistan civilian government lacks control over its own army, hence chances of success remain bleak.
  • Four armed conflicts
  • Jihadi terrorism against India:-
    • Terrorism has been a major setback for the two countries on realising economical benefits 
    • Continuing turmoil and escalating unrest inside J&K is giving Pakistan an opportunity to mobilise international opinion against India on the issue of violation of human rights.
    • Pampore, Uri and Nagrota terror attacks are examples of increased provocations from Pakistan.
    • Terror attacks on Indian targets, both military and civilian, have only increased.
  • The increasing radicalisation of Pakistani society
  • Water-related differences
  • Islamabad’s nuclear posture:-
    • Consistent rise of tension along the border and frequent cease fire violation may lead to susceptibility of use of nuclear weapons which can be catastrophic.
  • The military-civilian equation in Pakistan and the Army’s control over policymaking towards India:- 
    • Pakistan’s military is the second power centre, its political influence; anti-India stand and instability of regimes in Pakistan are not in favour of India. 
    • Pakistan Army’s support to terror outfits is a great security concern for India 
  • International Support 
    • China’s support to Pakistan and blocking India’s move to get Masood Azhar banned by UN.
    • The difference in perception remains on the involvement of other powers in Kashmir Pakistan is keen for involving other nations, including the UN in negotiations, whereas India desires only bilateral meetings based on the Shimla agreement
    • The role of world powers is slowly visible in south Asia with China actively involving in CPEC corridor, US proximity towards India etc. This again makes both sides sceptical about the outcomes.
  • China-Pakistan axis 
    • Terrorism emanating from Pakistan and the China-Pakistan axis working against India are two of the major geo-political challenges facing the country 
  • Counterfeit currency and drugs 
    • Various terrorist groups operating from Pakistan supply fake notes and illegal drugs and this has been an important security concern for India.
  • Multiple issues:-
    • India-Pakistan has unsettled territorial issues, political incompatibility, irreconcilable positions on national identity, and the absence of significant economic and trade relations between the two states which cause the rivalry to persist.

 

Implications of political developments in Pakistan on the bilateral ties :-

  • Positives:-
    • Khan’s ‘victory speech’ had several well-meaning and conciliatory references to India which, if logically followed up, could potentially yield long-term benefits for the two countries.
    • Despite concerns in India, religious parties have once again failed to convert their street power into political outcomes, which goes to highlight the sheer lack of mass base for terror outfits and their affiliates in Pakistan, and the moderate nature of its polity.
    • Khan has vowed to improve trade with India, increase the ease of doing business
  • Negatives:-
    • Khan’s Afghanistan policy can be expected to put Islamabad even more at odds with India’s interests there.
      • A serious move to expand trade ties will inevitably bring in issues of India’s connectivity to Afghanistan and Central Asia with serious implications for Pakistan’s existing strategy to impede India’s links to that region.
    • The latest government looks to the Medina model for Pakistan’s economic well-being that shows a deep and complicating Islamic outlook.
    • The latest government is focussed primarily on resolving the Kashmir issue in accordance with UN resolutions.
    • India’s desire for peace becomes a casualty in the turf war between Pakistan’s deep state and its political establishment.
      • The central Indian concern about Mr. Khan’s victory is whether he can independently navigate a sustained policy process with India.
      • India fears that the Pakistani deep state, i.e. the army and the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), will decide the India policy, and Mr. Khan will merely carry it out. A related concern is that the Pakistani deep state is not keen on a dialogue process with India. 
    • Khan’s Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) is the largest single party but without majority by itself. So he has to depend on independents, small parties support, almost certainly Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal (MMA) which will follow military instructions. So the efficacy of his government is to be observed.
    • Khan’s willingness to hold talks with the militants, increasingly catered to religious hardliners throughout the campaign has spurred fears extremists may be emboldened under his leadership.
    • Economic crisis in Pakistan and subsequent hawkish attitude of US in IMF will further push Pakistan towards China for a bailout.

Way Forward 

  • It is time to define the nature and scope of our conflict with Pakistan.
  • As the dominant power in South Asia and one of the world’s leading democracies, India must find a proper answer to what could otherwise become a serious existential crisis 
  • Imposing economic and political sanctions on Pakistan and asking the world to follow suit 
  • Creating International pressure on Pakistan to curb state sponsored terror. 
  • India need to establish a national security doctrine in order to deal with all security issues
  • There is a strong need for India to change its approach from Responsive to Proactive

 

Topic– Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

2) Outright ban of drugs is not the solution to the health issues of the country. Comment, in the light of the recent  restrictions on the sale and manufacture of oxytocin. (250 words)

The Hindu

The hindu

Why this question

The government  has recently put a ban on the retail sale and private manufacture of oxytocin due to the misuse of the drug. However, oxytocin is an common and a useful drug. It is important to analyze the effect of this move and discuss its desirability.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to discuss in detail about the recent ban on oxytocin drug and form an opinion on why outright ban of drugs is not the solution to the health issues of the country.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – write a few lines about the recent restrictions on the manufacture of Oxytocin formulations for domestic use to public sector only and ban on import of oxytocin.

Body-

  • Discuss the reason behind the ban. E.g misuse in dairy industry, agriculture and possible links with cancer and other health related effects on long term use etc.
  • Discuss why the ban is not a right move. E.g discuss its use in maternal care and need to improve the same; shortages and price hikes; more incentive for illegal production etc.

Conclusion– Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Background:-

  • Recently the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has restricted the manufacture of Oxytocin formulations for domestic use to public sector only. It has also banned the import of Oxytocin and its formulations.

Reasons behind the ban are:-

  • Misuse in diary industry:-
    • Oxytocin is a naturally-occurring hormone that causes uterine contractions during labour and helps new mothers lactate. However, the drug is misused in the dairy industry where livestock is injected with Oxytocin to make them release milk at a time convenient to farmers.
  • Oxytocin is also used to increase the size of vegetables such as pumpkins, watermelons, eggplants, gourds, and cucumbers.
  • Observation of high court of Himachal Pradesh:-
    • The high court observed that there is large-scale clandestine manufacture and sale of the drug Oxytocin leading to its misuse.
    • The High Court had also observed that the feasibility of restricting the manufacture of Oxytocin only in public sector companies should be considered.
  • Even the Drugs Technical Advisory Board recommended Oxytocin formulations for human use be regulated and restricted to be supplied only to registered hospitals and clinics in public and private sector to prevent its misuse.

However the outright ban will not help :-

  • The drug is very critical in maternal health :-
    • World Health Organization recommends it as the drug of choice in postpartum haemorrhage. 45,000 of women die due to causes related to childbirth each year.
  • Right approach would have been to strengthen regulation, and crack down on illegal production
  • Ill effects on cattle are not known clearly:-
    • A 2014 study by researchers at the National Institute of Nutrition concluded that oxytocin content in buffalo milk did not alter with injections.
  • Hike in drug prices:-
    • If only a single public sector unit manufactures the drug, as the government plans, this could lead to drug shortages and price hikes. Monopolising production will remove the low-price options from the market.
  • Outright ban provides more incentive for illegal production.
    • India halted retail sales of the prescription-only drug in 2014, but regulators have struggled to curb illegal sales, and the volume of imports is unclear.
  • Rural areas will be affected the most:-
    • Ban on retail sale of the drug could affect its availability in hospitals and clinics in rural areas, where more women were likely to bleed to death post-partum in labour rooms.
  • International studies:-
    • No international study has so far definitively demonstrated the harmful effects of oxytocin on humans when consumed through vegetables or milk.
    • Oxytocin has uses as a drug, and regulators elsewhere have not felt it necessary to put restrictions on its production by private firms or sale by private chemists.
  • Distribution difficult:-
    • KAPL will have just 17 distribution centres across the country for oxytocin, and none at all in 19 states and UTs, including all of the Northeast, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal, Haryana, Punjab, and Goa. A nodal centre in the vicinity will distribute oxytocin formulations to these states,

Conclusion:-

  • The government need to consider multiple aspects especially maternal mortality and observe if its better to track the system and prevent the abuse of the drug rather than considering outright ban.

Topic – Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3) Examine the impact that CLOUD Act may have on law enforcement in India? Analyze whether the provisions of localisation of data in draft Data Protection Bill will solve the problems faced by law enforcement agencies in accessing relevant data?(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article brings up a seldom discussed issue, nonetheless critical, of access to data, principles governing the same, the inadequacy of legal cooperation agreements and the impact of legislations such as CLOUD Act on Indian law enforcement agencies. Considering that Srikrishna committee recommendations talks in detail about aforementioned issues, the question is important for mains.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain how legislations like CLOUD Act can turn out to be of huge help to the law enforcement agencies around the world including India. Discuss the inadequacy which has been resolved with the passage of this Act. thereafter, we need to discuss the provisions related to storage of data domestically from the draft Bill. Analyze why it is right in intent, buy falls woefully short on details.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention what do you mean by data localisation, why is it of concern and emphasize on the fact that in digital age, data is the new oil.

Body

  • Explain what CLOUD Act is. Explain the problem that the Act resolves. Discuss how it can positively impact the working of Indian law enforcement agencies.
  • Discuss the provision of draft Bill with respect to localization of data. Examine why is it a good thing. Thereafter, bring out what procedural safeguards, if any, are built in the draft Bill. Discuss the challenges highlighted by the Committee itself in its report.

Conclusion – Give your view on the effectiveness of the provisions in draft Data Protection Bill related to data access and how can it be improved.

Background :-

  • India in the first half of 2017 requested data from Facebook 9,853 times, of which only 54.3% were met. Over the years, requests from Indian law enforcement to American service providers have been on a steady rise. In this light there is a need to analyse the data protection bill on data localization and also see the repurcussions of CLOUD act.

Cloud act :-

  • The Clarifying Lawful Overseas Use of Data (CLOUD) Act, passed by the U.S. Congress earlier this year, seeks to de-monopolise control over data from U.S. authorities. The law will for the first time allow tech companies to share data directly with certain foreign governments. This, however, requires an executive agreement between the U.S. and the foreign country certifying that the state has robust privacy protections, and respect for due process and the rule of law.
  • Before this Cloud Act, an Indian officer investigating would have to raise a request for data to the U.S. government where it is stored.

How CLOUD act impacts law enforcement in India :-

  • Timely access to electronic data for police is required to prevent, mitigate or prosecute even a routine crime. With the enactment of the CLOUD Act, an Indian officer for the purposes of an investigation will no longer have to make a request to the U.S. government but can approach the company directly.
  • Cross-border crimes such as cases of online radicalisation would require agents to access data that are stored abroad. The act helps enforcement agencies to solve the crime fast.
  • It reflects a growing consensus in favour of protecting Internet users around the world and provides a logical solution for governing cross-border access to data.
  • Introduction of this bipartisan legislation is an important step toward enhancing and protecting individual privacy rights, reducing international conflicts of law and keeping us all safer.
  • The CLOUD Act creates a potential mechanism through with countries such as India can request data not just for crimes committed within their borders but also for transnational crimes involving their state interests. Access to data would be determined by where the user is located and the reasonableness of claim that a country has in seeking her data.

However India falls short of the requirements:-

  • Among many commitments, to qualify for an executive agreement, India will need to ensure that its authorities collect, retain, use and share data as per an established procedure.
  • In addition, Indian laws must provide for electronic data requests to be reviewed by a court or other independent authority. As of now, India falls short of these requirements.
  • Concerns are raised that this will erode privacy protections around the globe.

Provisions of localisation of data in draft data protection bill :-

  • The draft data protection bill looks to change the following scenarios:-
    • The Justice Srikrishna Committee in its report accompanying the draft Personal Data Protection Bill notes that eight of the top 10 most accessed websites in India are owned by U.S. entities. This reality has often hindered Indian law enforcement agencies when investigating routine crimes or crimes with a cyber element.
    • Police officials are forced to rely on a long and arduous bilateral process with the U.S. government to obtain electronic evidence from U.S. communication providers.
  • The Bill calls for a copy of user data to be mandatorily localised in India, believing that it will boost law enforcement efforts to access data necessary for investigation and prosecution of crimes.
  • The Srikrishna committee is of the view that when questions of data access are determined, their storage here will give rise to a strong Indian claim. 
  • The draft Bill was an opportunity to update India’s data protection regime to qualify for the CLOUD Act.
  • The Bill recognises principles of legality, “necessity and proportionality” for data processing in the interest of national security and investigation of crimes
  • The draft Bill was an opportunity to update India’s data protection regime to qualify for the CLOUD Act. The Bill, while recognising principles of legality, “necessity and proportionality” for data processing in the interest of national security and investigation of crimes

Constraints :-

  • The reason that Indian law enforcement relies on an outdated Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty (MLAT) process to obtain data stored by U.S. companies is because the U.S. law effectively bars these companies from disclosing user data to foreign law enforcement authorities. Technology companies are allowed to share data such as content of an email or message only upon receiving a federal warrant from U.S. authorities. This scenario will not change even after technology companies relocate Indian data to India.
  • Even if Indian authorities force compliance from U.S. companies, it will only solve a part of the problem. The draft bill mandates local storage of data relating to Indian citizens only.
  • Localisation can provide data only for crimes that have been committed in India, where both the perpetrator and victim are situated in India.
    • Prevalent concerns around transnational terrorism, cyber crimes and money laundering often involve individuals and accounts that are not Indian, and therefore will not be stored in India.
    • For investigations into such crimes, Indian law enforcement will have to continue relying on cooperative models like the MLAT process.
  • In the procedural questions of law enforcement access, the draft Bill falls very short.
  • Even if it were to be passed, legacy provisions such as Section 91 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (empowering police to access any “document or thing”) will continue to apply bereft of review or oversight by a judicial or independent authority.
  • Requirements such as a time limit for which data can be stored by law enforcement are missing from the Bill.

Conclusion:-

  • The Committee, while imposing data localisation, should have also necessarily tackled how this data will be obtained by police authorities whether within its mandate or not.

General Studies – 3


Topic-  Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.

4) The draft e-commerce policy is a welcome step, but has too many echoes from the licence-raj era.  Analyze.(250 words)

Economic times

The hindu

Why this question

E-commerce has grown at a very rapid rate in recent years and events like takeover of flipkart by Walmart, have raised the need of an official policy on the sector. The draft e-commerce policy is a welcome step in this direction but it also raises several issues.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to look into the draft e-commerce policy and write in detail as to why it is a welcome step. It then wants us to write in detail as to how it imposes the license-raj like restrictions.

Directive word

Analyze- Here we have to dig deep into the issue and identify and discuss about all the related and important aspects and correlate them to satisfy the key demand of the question.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – write a few lines about the rapid growth of e-commerce in the country although it still forms less than 5% of retail market etc.

Body

  • Discuss the salient provisions of the draft policy and bring out its positive points. E.g brought out at an opportune time given the estimated growth of the sector and growing foreign presence; deep discounts countered to provide a level playing field ; DATA LOCALISATION MEASURES; India First measures; measures to support MSMEs.
  • Discuss the limitations/ pitfalls of the draft policy. E.g an overarching single regulator looking into diverse aspects; restrictive measures like  sunset clause on discounts; could drive away those planning online retail forays and the opportunity to create jobs and benefit consumers would be lost etc.

Conclusion– Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Background:-

  • In the last couple of years, e-commerce transactions have risen substantially in India and abroad. The size of the digital economyin India will be $1 trillion by 2022 and it will account for close to 50% of the entire economy by 2030.
  • This necessitates better policy response and coordination among various wings of the government. A national e-commerce policy will be an attempt at creating a one-stop shop for the norms and regulations under which online retailers will be covered.

Draft e-commerce policy:-

  • Discounts:-
    • Draft e-commerce policy proposes that all discounts offered by large e-commerce firms be phased out within two years to ensure fair competition with brick-and-mortar stores.
  • Consumer data:-
    • It mandates e-commerce firms to store consumer data in India. The firms will be given two years to comply.
  • An independent regulator will address compliance with FDI caps in e-commerce.
  • Data localization:-
    • The draft India e-commerce policy proposes tax sops to encourage data localization and grant infra status to data centres.
  • FDI:-
    • The draft policy proposes 49% FDI under the inventory model for firms to sell locally-produced goods on their online platforms. The control of such firms will remain with Indians.
  • Bulk purchases of branded goods “by related party sellers which lead to price distortions in a marketplace” will be prohibited.
  • To provide a forum for consumers, the task force has suggested the setting up of a Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA).
  • Foreign e-commerce websites should be brought on a level playing field with their Indian counterparts by making them follow the same rules for payment systems
  • Greater regulatory scrutiny has been recommended for mergers and acquisitions that may “distort competition’. The Competition Commission of India has been asked to undertake such exercises. This assumes significance in the light of the recent acquisition of Flipkart by US retail major Walmart.
  • Marketplace model :-
    • For online marketplaces, restrictions would be imposed on group companies of such platforms.
  • Redressal :-
    • The draft suggests a separate wing to be set up in the Enforcement Directorate. This will handle grievances related to guidelines for foreign investment in ecommerce.
  • Payment :-
    • Currently, a large number of payments for online purchases is made through the cash-on-delivery option.
    • To make online payments safer, the task force has suggested creating a fraud intelligence mechanism. This would use artificial intelligence-based authentication systems, for early detection of frauds.

  

Impact :-

  • Positives:-
    • The draft policy makes a strong case for championing Indian online enterprise and creates a level playing field for homegrown companies.
    • Having a regulator, e-consumer courts may better address complaints about online financial frauds
    • In the long run, it helps the country and Make in India.
    • Millions of micro, medium and small enterprises (MSMEs) have a better chance to go online.
    • It will also help large companies build a viable business rather than just depend on discounts.
    • National e-commerce policy will also enable better negotiations on multilateral issues with the World Trade Organization.
  • Negatives:-
    • It may have major implications for foreign-owned ecommerce majors operating in India.
    • Heavy discounts offered by shopping portals may soon become a thing of the past.
    • Existing brick and mortar retailers, for instance, are saying that FDI into e-commerce players has been given a back-door entry. The way to set this right is by allowing 100% FDI in multi-brand retail. Instead, the policy seems to be looking to tighten controls over the e-commerce space under the guise of accelerating the pace of the digital economy “by providing a facilitative eco-system for spurring digital innovation”.
    • The top concerns raised by e-commerce firms include a recommendation that will restrict sellers to buy in bulk, a sunset clause that restricts discounting on e-commerce platforms.
    • E-commerce firms may have to share their stored data with the government. This is becoming to these e commerce companies.
    • Experts are expressing concerns over provisions relating to data protection and localisation.                                     

Way forward:-

  • The policy need to look into the following issues:-
    • Modern companies face the challenge of collaborating between different departments, some geographically isolated and present in different time zones. Marketers, merchandisers and e-Commerce managers need to learn to strategically operate through one integrated channel. 
    • Managing a repository of customer data is a challenge in itself, added to that e-Commerce companies have to understand how to use that data. Delivering customized content in the form of advertisements, special offers etc. are some of the methods which can be employed. 
    • The vast rural-urban divide, the incompetent and inefficient delivery infrastructure in many backward areas, the inadequate power supply, inaccessibility of the internet, are some major issues that India needs to tackle in order to successfully craft an e-commerce policy that will add to the economic welfare and development of the country. 
    • Focus on ease of doing business so that the sector can thrive locally too.
    • All the major segments of an e-commerce platform should be taken care of be it logistics, employees or the back-end. The policy should ensure that all employees are provided with minimum wages, medical expenses, among other benefits.
    • Managing logistics, seller registration, and inventory accounting present bigger challenges for the e-commerce companies

Topic–  Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life

5) Discuss the principles behind the data protection framework in India as proposed by the The Committee of Experts on a Data Protection Framework for India. Also discuss why it is important to define personal data.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

Data protection is essential to protect the growing number of netizens’ privacy, their right to life. In this direction a committee was formed in 2017 which has presented a report with important findings.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the principles behind the data protection framework as proposed by the given committee. It also wants us to discuss why it is important to define personal data in this connection.

Directive word

Discuss- This s an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – write a few lines about the growing privacy concerns, their scale and extent, growing no. of netizens which warrant a comprehensive data protection framework in the country.

Body-

  • Briefly introduce the committee- Chair: Justice B. N. Srikrishna; and Discuss the principles as proposed by the committee. E.g (i) law should be flexible to take into account changing technologies, (ii) law must apply to both government and private sector entities, (iii) consent should be genuine, informed, and meaningful, (iv) processing of data should be minimal and only for the purpose for which it is sought, (v) entities controlling the data should be accountable for any data processing, (vi) enforcement of the data protection framework should be by a high-powered statutory authority, and (vii) penalties should be adequate to discourage any wrongful acts.
  • Discuss why it is important to define personal data. Use the help of the information given by the report to form your answer.

Conclusion– sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion.

Background:-

  • The Committee of Experts on a Data Protection Framework for India was constituted in August 2017 to examine issues related to data protection, recommend methods to address them, and draft a data protection law. 
  • The objective was to ensure growth of the digital economy while keeping personal data of citizens secure and protected. 

Principles behind the data protection framework in India ;-

  • The Committee suggested that a framework to protect data in the country should be based on seven principles:
    • Law should be flexible to take into account changing technologies
    • Law must apply to both government and private sector entities
    • Consent should be genuine, informed, and meaningful
    • Processing of data should be minimal and only for the purpose for which it is sought
    • Entities controlling the data should be accountable for any data processing
    • Enforcement of the data protection framework should be by a high-powered statutory authority
    • Penalties should be adequate to discourage any wrongful acts

Why it’s important to define personal data:-

  • GDPR defines personal data as any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person. This covers any information that could lead to the direct or indirect identification of a living individual.
  • The Committee noted that it is important to define what constitutes personal information.  This is critical to determine the extent to which privacy of information will be guaranteed under a data protection law. 
  • It sought comments on some questions which relate to: (i) what kind of information qualifies as personal data, (ii) should the definition focus on whether a person can be identified based on the data, and (iii) treatment of sensitive personal data.  Sensitive data is related to intimate matters where there is a higher expectation of privacy (e.g., caste, religion, and sexual orientation).
  • The draft data protection Bill defines personal data under Section 3(29) to include data about or relating to a natural person, who is directly / indirectly identifiable. The data may be with regard to any characteristic, trait, attribute, or other feature of the identity of a person. It may further involve a combination of these features or a combination of features with other information.
  • This definition is broad enough to include a wide range of data, including typical personal data like names, images and phone numbers.
    • Data related to cookies, IP addresses and other online identifiers will also be included as data amounting to personal data in combination with other information.
    • The definition further, makes no difference between whether the data is true or incorrect, and instead broadly includes ‘data relating to a natural person’. Thus, even opinion, such as assessments made or a credit score, which are not fact, would be included.

 


General Studies – 4


Topic–  Lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators.

6) Attitude is a little thing that makes a big difference. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to bring out the meaning of the quotation as understood. It wants us to write in detail about the meaning and role of attitude in our life,  and why it is important

Directive word

Discuss- Discuss- This s an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– define attitude. E.g attitude refers to an individual’s mental state, which is based on his/her beliefs or value system, emotions, and the tendency to act in a certain way. One’s attitude reflects how one thinks, feels, and behaves in a given situation.

Body-

  • Discuss the meaning and role of attitude in detail in order to bring out its importance for us and our life. E.g our response to people, places, things, or events; determines the choices that we make; so virtually covers the whole gamut of our personality, our worth and our life etc.
  • Briefly discuss the three components of attitude and give a real life example which illustrates the role of attitude.

Conclusion– Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 

Attitude is a relatively enduring organization of beliefs, feelings, and behavioral tendencies towards socially significant objects, groups, events or symbols. It is a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favour or disfavour.

 

Attitude can be defined as our response to people, places, things, or events in life. It can be referred to as a person’s viewpoint, mindset, beliefs, etc. Our attitude towards people, places, things, or situations determines the choices that we make.

Attitude is composed of three components, which include cognitive component, affective/emotional component, and behavioral component. Basically, the cognitive component is based on the information or knowledge, whereas affective component is based on the feelings. The behavioral component reflects how the attitude affects the way we act or behave.

For instance, in case of a person who is scared of an injection or a needle, the cognitive component might be the fact that an injection would hurt. On the other hand, the affective component would be the feeling that he/she is scared of injection. The behavioral component would be that the person would completely avoid getting an injection or scream at the sight of one. So, an attitude is essentially like an evaluative statement that is either positive or negative depending on the degree of like or dislike for the matter in question.

Individuals who have a positive attitude will pay attention to the good, rather than bad in people, situations, events, etc. They will not consider a mistake or failure as a hurdle, but as an opportunity. 

People with a negative attitude ignore the good, and pay attention to the bad in people, situations, events, etc. Also, they are likely to complain about changes, rather than adapting to the changing environment. 

Attitude may change with different situations and experiences in life. So, attitudes are learned and acquired.

Functions of attitude:-

  • Knowledge
    • Attitudes provide meaning (knowledge) for life.  The knowledge function refers to our need for a world which is consistent and relatively stable. This allows us to predict what is likely to happen, and so gives us a sense of control. Attitudes can help us organize and structure our experience. 
    • Knowing a person’s attitude helps us predict their behavior. For example, knowing that a person is religious we can predict they will go to Church
  • Self / Ego-expressive
    • The attitudes people express help communicate who they are and may make them feel good because they have asserted their identity.  Self-expression of attitudes can be non-verbal too.
    • Therefore, our attitudes are part of our identity, and help us to be aware through the expression of our feelings, beliefs and values.
  • Adaptive
    • If a person holds and/or expresses socially acceptable attitudes, other people will reward them with approval and social acceptance
    • Attitudes then, are to do with being apart of a social group and the adaptive functions helps us fit in with a social group. People seek out others who share their attitudes, and develop similar attitudes to those they like.
  • Ego-defensive
    • The ego-defensive function refers to holding attitudes that protectself-esteem or that justify actions that make people feel guilty.  For example, children might defend themselves against the feelings of humiliation they have experienced adopt a defensive attitude
    • Positive attitudes towards ourselves, for example, have a protective function (i.e. an ego-defensive role) in helping us reserve our self-image.